frances morris


Alberto Giacometti was one of the great painter-sculptors of the twentieth century, explains Tate Modern Director Frances Morris. Celebrated as a sculptor, painter and draughtsman, Giacometti’s distinctive elongated figures are some of the most instantly recognisable works of modern art.

Today marks the 144th anniversary of the start of the Paris Commune. The great worker-lead 72 day insurrection transformed Parisian society into an autonomous commune according to the principles of cooperation and association. Although its existence was short, ultimately succumbing to the brutal suppression at the hands of the French government after a week-long battle in the streets of Paris, the effects of the Paris Commune rippled across the globe. The Commune profoundly influenced some of the greatest social and political thinkers of the 19th century, particularly Marx, Kropotkin and William Morris, and remains a pivotal influence for contemporary struggles.

ICP celebrates the long and storied life of renowned photo editor John G. Morris, who passed away on July 28, 2017 at the age of 100. John dedicated his life to presenting important photographic stories to the public. Among the many images he helped shepherd to print were Robert Capa’s photographs from D-Day, published in “Life” in the first issue following the invasion on June 6, 1944. These images helped turn public support for the American entrance into World War II.

Though he rarely used a camera himself, he shot 14 rolls of black-and-white film over the four weeks he spent in France accompanying photographers, including Capa, during World War II. His images were displayed at ICP in 2015 in the exhibition “Somewhere in France: John G. Morris and the Summer of 1944.”

Morris received the Légion d’Honneur from the French government in 2009 and we were proud to present him with the Infinity Award for Lifetime Achievement in 2010.

📷 Mudra László [John G. Morris attends the opening of “Capa in Color” at the Robert Capa Contemporary Photography Center in Budapest, Hungary], 2015

anonymous asked:

do you know anything about what paine was like with the monroes when they were in france? i'm assuming his brief friendship with napoleon was largely because of them! and, if possible, could you find out if the monroes being slave owners was a strain on their relationship, if they in fact had a good one?

The Monroes being slaves was not a strain on their relationship what so ever because both parties grew up around slavery and inherited slaves when their fathers died. 

The Monroes and Thomas Paine is a rather cool story, it has nothing to do with Napoleon Bonaparte however because they housed Paine during their first time in France from 1794-1797, they didn’t get into Napoleon’s circle until their second visit in 1803-1808. It was after James Monroe’s arrival in France that he addressed the National Convention, receiving a standing applause for his speech celebrating republicanism. He experienced several early diplomatic successes, including the protection of U.S. trade from French attacks and used his good influence on the French to win the release of Thomas Paine and Adrienne de La Fayette.

Thomas Paine was arrested in 1793 after publishing his antiroyalty book The Rights of Man and for his strict opposition to the death penalty which he vocally spoke about. He also began writing a provocative new book, The Age of Reason, which promoted the notion that God did not influence the actions of people and that science and rationality would prevail over religion and superstition. Autumn of 1793, he was arrested and taken to Luxembourg Prison. In prison, he continued to work on The Age of Reason. There is one such event that befell him while in prison, nearly taking his head:

“A chalk-mark used to be put on the dungeon door of each prisoner who was picked out for execution. The door of Paine’s cell swung open, so that when the marker passed along in the performance of his gruesome task he chalked the back of the door. Shortly after, Paine closed the door, so that the mark was inside and could not be seen. When the headsmen came in search of their victims, they saw no such mark on Paine’s door and so he escaped the guillotine.”

James Monroe began using all of his diplomatic connections to get Paine released in November 1794. Monroe began to clash with the other Minister to France, Gouveneur Morris over Thomas Paine’s release. Morris wanted to prevent Paine from returning to America and Paine was not as abusive of Morris as Morris was of Paine. Of course, Monroe received terrible attention from America because he was given specific instructions not to intervene in these such matters in France. It was on November 6th, that Monroe rescued Paine from Luxembourg prison. Monroe “took him, half dead, to his own abode, then the Maison des Eir angers, Rue de la Roi. This is now (1899) 101 Rue de Richelieu, printing office of Le Temps and publishing office of the Gironde. It is the same building as in Paine’s time, and several rooms retain traces of their former decora- tions. ” By November 30th, Monroe wrote to James Madison:

“Mr. Paine who is of my family desires to be remembered to you. He will be with you in the spring.”

Paine would live in the Monroe residence from November 1794 to the spring of 1796. He borrowed money “Mr. Paine had occasion to borrow two hundred & fifty crowns” (October 23, 1795). When Thomas Paine arrived at the Monroe’s home “he was in extreme ill health, without resource, & (affrs. being unsettled) not without apprehensions of personal danger, & therefore anxious to avail himself as much as possible of such protection as I cod. give him.” He was given a separate room in their house which he accepted, and it was his intention at that time some point in October on 1794 to depart for America in the Spring. 

Monroe “asked permission of the Com[mity] of p[ublic] safety for him to depart” from France back to America, but he was denied with request. His disease being rather terrible, he continued to be in their home until in the words of Monroe, “his death or departure for America, however remote either the one or the other event may be.” James Monroe gave him a strict rule, that “whilst in my house, he would write nothing for the publick, either of Europe or America, upon the subject of our affrs.” Paine apparently did not look upon this in a favorable light but soon faltered after Monroe mentioned the “delicacy of my publick & private character” and for he did not want more to spoil his public character.

It was during this time that Monroe and Paine grew to be rather close and discussed deism and religion and Paine’s savior seemed to enjoy “the pleasure of extending to Mr. Paine”. Paine broke his promise and began communicating with Frederick Muhlenburg in America as well at Thomas Pinckney. Argument “revived” with Paine and Monroe began expressing his “extreme concern” that he pursued a conduct which, under existing circumstances, “gave me so much pain.” 

By July 5th, 1796, Paine began to disobey and overstay his company in the Monroe home. Paine “having resolved to continue in Europe sometime longer” realized that “it was inconvenient for me to keep him longer in my family” he began publishing papers again as well as getting into politics issues which led to Monroe’s recall by President George Washington in 1797. Disregarding Monroe’s request which was that if Paine heard any information pertaining the United States since he was still ambassador, Monroe knew his guest was going to “probably compromit me by publishing some things which he picked up while in my house.” Paine began to harass and turned into more of a burden in the home. Paine did publish something, a pamphlet against George Washington and Washington back in America believing that Monroe was excepting this type of behavior, encouraging it and ultimately recalled him back.

Paine’s character not only was one of the leading reasons he got recalled, it was also what the Federalist began to strike against him when John Adams was elected in 1797. In a letter to James Madison on June 8th, 1798 in response to the May 8th address from the inhabitants of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania where President Adams complained that “the honor done, the publicity and solemnity given to the audience of leave, to a disgraced minister, recalled in displeasure for misconduct, was a studied insult to the government of my country” : 

“The first paragh. is inaccurate, in implying that Paine did write in my house, whereas he did not—and in implying also that I knew of his writing by Mr. Pinckney as also the contents of the letter, wh. I did not, having heard of no such letter till Mr. Pinckney informed me of it after he left Paris as I accompanied him a few miles from the town.”

James Monroe may have saved Thomas Paine from the guillotine and prison but it certainly did him not good in the long run. He got on shiftier terms with the French, was recalled from his Diplomatic position and Federalist during the Adams Administration used his hospitality against him suggestion, charging saying he provoked Paine to write the anti-Washington pamphlets and spearheaded extremely inappropriate behavior.