four engines

Because space is vast and full of mysteries, NASA is developing a new rocket, a new spacecraft for astronauts and new facilities to launch them from. Our Space Launch System will be unlike any other rocket when it takes flight. It will be bigger, bolder and take astronauts and cargo farther than humankind has ever been – to deep space destinations like the moon, a deep space gateway or even Mars. 

The Gravity-Slayer

When you plan to get to space, you use ice and fire. NASA’s Space Launch System uses four rocket engines in the center of the rocket and a pair of solid rocket boosters on opposite sides. All this power will propel the Space Launch System to gravity-slaying speeds of more than 17,000 miles per hour! These are the things we do for space exploration, the greatest adventure that ever was or will be.

It is Known

It is known that according to Newton’s third law, for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. That’s how rocket propulsion works. Fuel burned in combustion chambers causes hot gases to shoot out the bottom of the engine nozzles. This propels the rocket upward. 

Steammaker

It is also known that when you combine hydrogen and oxygen you get: water. To help SLS get to space, the rocket’s four RS-25 engines shoot hydrogen and oxygen together at high speeds, making billowing clouds of steaming hot water vapor. The steam, funneled through the engine nozzles, expands with tremendous force and helps lift the rocket from the launchpad. 

RS-25: Ice King

It takes a lot of fuel (hydrogen) and a lot of oxygen to make a chemical reaction powerful enough to propel a rocket the size of a skyscraper off the launch pad. To fit more hydrogen and oxygen into the tanks in the center of the rocket where they’re stored, the hydrogen and oxygen are chilled to as low as -400 degrees Fahrenheit. At those temperatures, the gases become icy liquids. 

The Fire that Burns Against the Cold

The hydrogen-oxygen reaction inside the nozzles can reach temperatures up to 6,000 degrees Fahrenheit (alas, only Valyrian steel could withstand those temperatures)! To protect the nozzle from this heat, the icy hydrogen is pumped through more than a thousand small pipes on the outside of the nozzle to cool it. After the icy liquid protects the metal nozzles, it becomes fuel for the engines. 

Where is my FIRE?

The Space Launch System solid rocket boosters are the fire and the breakers of gravity’s chains. The solid rocket boosters’ fiery flight lasts for two minutes. They burn solid fuel that’s a potent mixture of chemicals the consistency of a rubber eraser. When the boosters light, hot gases and fire are unleashed at speeds up to three times the speed of sound, propelling the vehicle to gravity-slaying speed in seconds. 

Testing is Here

To make sure everything works on a rocket this big, it takes a lot of testing before the first flight. Rocket hardware is rolling off production lines all over the United States and being shipped to testing locations nationwide. Some of that test hardware includes replicas of the giant tanks that will hold the icy hydrogen and oxygen.

As Rare as Dragonglass

Other tests include firing the motor for the solid rocket boosters. The five-segment motor is the largest ever made for spaceflight and the part that contains the propellant that burns for two fiery, spectacular minutes. It’s common during ground test firings for the fiery exhaust to turn the sand in the Utah desert to glass.

Hold the Door

When all the hardware, software and avionics for SLS are ready, they will be shipped to Kennedy Space Center where the parts will be assembled to make the biggest rocket since the Saturn V. Then, technicians will stack Orion, NASA’s new spacecraft for taking astronauts to deep space, on top of SLS. All this work to assemble America’s new heavy-lift rocket and spacecraft will be done in the Vehicle Assembly Building – one of the largest buildings in the world. Hold the door to the Vehicle Assembly Building open, because SLS and Orion are coming!

Learn more about our Journey to Mars here: https://www.nasa.gov/topics/journeytomars/index.html

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com

Today we successfully tested one of our RS-25 engines, four of which will help power our Space Launch System (SLS) to deep space destinations, like Mars! This 500-second engine test concludes a summer of successful hot fire testing for flight controllers at our Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, Mississippi.

The controller serves as the “brain” of the engine, communicating with SLS flight computers to ensure engines are performing at needed levels. The test marked another step toward the nation’s return to human deep-space exploration missions.

We launched a series of summer tests with a second flight controller unit hot fire at the end of May, then followed up with three additional tests. The flight controller tests are critical preparation for upcoming SLS flights to deep space– the uncrewed Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1), which will serve as the first flight for the new rocket carrying an uncrewed Orion spacecraft, and EM-2, which will transport a crew of astronauts aboard the Orion spacecraft. 

Each SLS rocket is powered at launch by four RS-25 engines firing simultaneously and working in conjunction with a pair of solid rocket boosters. The engines generate a combined 2 million pounds of thrust at liftoff. With the boosters, total thrust at liftoff will exceed 8 million pounds!

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.

BBC Merlin Kingsman AU where it’s Arthur explaining to Merlin that he is Percival, Lancelot is Galahad, Leon is Lancelot, Percival is Leon, Gwaine is just Gawaine and Gwen is Merlin but Merlin is Merlin too, but not that kind of Merlin, not a bird - he meant, not the Merlin he’s trying to say is Merlin.

Violence

Thank you very much to @isexuallyidentifyasanah-64 for messaging me and giving me this idea that I simply had to write! Feel free to reblog and add something if you’d like, or message me with a prompt or thought! Please let me know if there are any grammatical errors.

Enjoy!

-

The word ‘hurt’ wasn’t even in their vocabulary.

The Remolian people were impossibly peaceful, to the point where most humans thought they were a myth.

“Legends say that the Remolians have never had bloodshed…never bred a person with the idea to kill…some say they don’t even have weapons! They don’t even know about wars or conflict!”

They lived on a planet the natives called Pik'loen (Pick-low-en). The planet itself seemed to never have been damaged. No dying atomosphere, no poisoned resources - not one species they’ve discovered has gone extinct!

“Come on, dude, that’s not possible. There’s always at least one guy in a group that wants to hurt others. It’s just…”

“Human nature?”

Now, of course, to people from Earth, this was an otherworldly concept. There was murder and chaos and fights hundreds of times every-single-day on Earth. Children’s games were mostly about slaughtering enemies and causing pain. Gore, death, man-slaughter, mass genocide - there was even a game devoted to commiting crimes and killing everyone in sight!

Truly, when the humans were faced with the idea of no violence, they were shocked. To say the very least.

“But how do they enforce the law?”

“Remolians don’t need to enforce anything. Their people follow every rule. Every-single-rule.”

“What about war? Maybe they went through a bad war to make them this way,”

“Nope. They’ve never heard of war.”

“Have they ever seen blood?!”

“Well duh. Everyone bleeds when they fall down.”

When the Remolians and the humans met, well…that was its own tale.

First, it was Captain Jeut-Bau that encountered a human ship.

“What lovely craftsmanship!” The Captain praised as Captain Chris gave her a tour. “Your technicians must be wondrous!”

Captain Chris chuckled. “Yeah, human mechanics know their stuff. Even if they do argue all the time.”

Captain Jeut-Bau paused and removed her hand from the metal wall. “What is…argue? Is that a form of mating?”

“Oh, no,” The human put a hand to her chin. “Well, sometimes. But for the most part, it’s when two people have a disagreement over something, and they become upset with each other. It can get kind of hostile with them always spewin’.”

“Hos…tile?” Captain Jeut-Bau shook her head and put a hand on her own shoulder. “My people do not have these words. I do not know what you mean when you say people argue.”

“Well, it’s like…It’s sort of…” Captain Chris sighed. She waved the Remolian to follow her. “Come with me, I’ll show ya.”

They walked down to the ‘machine room’, as Captain Chris called it. She said it was where the technicians worked and tinkered with the ship’s mechanics.

When the door opened, Captain Jeut-Bau became the first Remolian to witness a fight. They had just walked in on one human male looking upset and raising its voice at another human male, who was doing the same, but making wild movements with its limbs.

“I told you, Oliver,” the first male hissed, holding a screwdriver, “The washer goes on the shaft, then the nylock, and then the damn gear! The washer shouldn’t go after the gear, because that’s just a waste of the shaft collar we’d have to put on top of it! What aren’t you getting here?!”

The second male, called Oliver, raised his foot and put it back on the ground quick and with force. It reminded Jeut-Bau of when her crewmates would stumble and attempt to keep their balance. “What aren’t you getting, you arse?! What is the bloody point of putting a washer where it isn’t needed?! If you insist on having one on engine four, at least try to make sense of it!” Oliver made a noise like a large exhale, but it sounded rude and not tired like Jeut-Bau was used to.

“You Americans don’t ever do anything right!”

“Woah woah woah,” the first male strengthened his hold on his tool and raised it. “Don’t you dare say anything about my country when yours throws a fit everytime a colony rebels against it!”

“Okay blokes! Don’t knock something!” Captain Chris hurried forward and stepped in between the two, cutting off the conversation.

Or was that an…argue? Maybe it was a hostile? Jeut-Bau thought. I have never seen anything like that before.

“Let’s not start the Revolutionary War again on this ship.” The Captain crossed her arms and looked at the mechanics in a way that made Jeut-Bau feel guilty. “Oliver, drink some tea and play chess. Rick, shoot some fireworks and have a slab, eh? Dismissed.”

The two gave each other one last glance - a stronger version of the guilt-inducing look Captain Chris had given - before turning and walking out of different doors.

Captain Chris sighed as she came back to Jeut-Bau. “I’m sorry about that mate, those two are always hot under the collar. Day 'n night, I tell ya.”

“What is…war?” Jeut-Bau almost didn’t want to ask the question. It sounded bad.

Captain Chris blinked and stared at the Remolian. “You aren’t pulling my leg, are you?”

Jeut-Bau was confused. “I am not touching you.”

“No, uh, I mean-” She shook her head. “You don’t know what war is?”

Jeut-Bau was tempted to make her denying gesture from her planet, but decided it would only confuse the human. “No. Could you tell me?”

“Er, well, yeah, just - don’t you know about fights? Battles? Does your planet have weapons?”

“Weapons?” Jeut-Bau suddenly lit up and smiled. “Ah! You must mean the werple creatures we co-exist with!”

“No. I don’t even know what a werple is.” Jeut-Bau watched Captain Chris’ face become upset. “Have you - Haven’t you ever been hurt?”

“Hurt?”

Silence hung thick in the air.

Jeut-Bau didn’t understand what had upset Captain Chris. The pleasant and almost happy body language she displayed when Jeut-Bau came aboard had left her entirely. It was replaced with what could have been many things - all of which, Jeut-Bau unfortunately didn’t know how to interpret.

“I-” Jeut-Bau felt strange when she broke the silence. “I know what upset means. When our young cannot get what they want, the ones who haven’t yet learned how to be paitient begin to do what we call Eecnajk - it is when a liquid-”

“-comes out of their eyes and their face gets all red?” Captain Chris finished quietly. “And there’s a look in their eyes you don’t understand as they make loud noises and cause you to feel upset too?”

“Yes!” Jeut-Bau all but yelled. “Does your planet have this too?”

“Yeah, we call it crying. All humans do it, regardless of age. When you’re young it’s just because like you said; they don’t get their way. When you’re older, you cry because someone made you feel sad. Do you know what sadness is?” Captain Chris was looking at Jeut-Bau in a new way. Jeut-Bau wasn’t sure if she like it.

“I do not…” Jeut-Bau answered slowly. “Is this like an argue?”

“No. When you argue, you’re mad. When you cry, you’re sad. Do you know what anger is? It’s the same as being mad.”

“I do not.” Jeut-Bau felt somewhat alone, as she did not know what these seemingly common human things were.

Captain Chris stared incredulously. “This is ridiculous. You - You mean to tell me that your people have never been angry? Don’t you guys get into fights? Or have small spats?”

“Fights? Spats? No, my people don’t do these things.”

“Battles? Maybe you’ve caused someone pain before?”

“I do not know what a battle is. However sometimes we fall to the ground and experience pain on our bodies! It fades quickly.”

“What about killers?”

“Killers? Are those another race? Or a creature?”

“No!” Captain Chris snapped. Jeut-Bau flinched - it was an automatic response, but she’d never done it before. What was it for?

She felt anxious. Wait, no, anxious isn’t the right word…but it’s the best she can think of. She’s never felt like this - her chest is emmiting somewhat painful and rapid beats, her transportation limbs feel the need to quickly leave, and a part of her wanted to cease conversation with the human captain completely. What was this odd feeling?

Captain Chris immediately took a step back. Her eyes held what looked like vague anxiety or guilt, but with all of these new things humans seem to feel Jeut-Bau wasn’t sure.

“I-I’m sorry, Captain Jeut-Bau.” She apologized. Her hands seemed to trying to curl in on themselves tightly. “I didn’t mean to scare you. It’s just, you know, hurt is-”

“Scare?” Jeut-Bau realized with a out-of-synchronization beat her voice did not sound like normal. It held a quiver and sounded more nervous than curious, like she meant.

“Uh, yeah.” Captain Chris shifted on her feet. “It’s when you get really nervous and anxious, and your mind is overrun with panicked thoughts. And your body reacts as if preparing to run. But besides that…

“It’s just - that’s crazy, to me, you know?” She sighed and ran a hand through her head-fur. “Humans get hurt all the time, and to think there’s a species that’s never had it before? Hurt is a bad thing, mate! Pain sucks!”

“Wait…so hurt is perhaps when you fall down?” Jeut-Bau had relaxed now, but was still feeling anxious. “Because then I would understand.”

“No - well, actually, yes, but that’s called physical pain.” Captain Chris crossed her arms. “We have this thing called emotional pain, in which our hearts hurt and we feel bad. Like, really bad. Normally it’s only triggered by arguments and…deaths, really.”

“Oh! Death!” Jeut-Bau smiled. “We have this on our planet! It is when an older Remolian that has lived for a long time leaves us and does not return.”

Captain Chris made a soft growling sound. “Mm-hm. The dead don’t come back.”

Jeut-Bau noticed that Captain Chris’ eyes gained a layer of the liquid that came from youngs’ eyes when they Eecnajk. She suddenly felt compelled to move on.

“Perhaps we can carry on with this subject another day!” Jeut-Bau clasped her hands in front of her stomach in a hopeful gesture. “As for this moment, I would love if you would come onto my ship and allow me to give you a presentation!”

Captain Chris looked up. She paused, then smiled and relaxed her posture. “Sure thing, mate, let’s go to your pod.”

Happily, Jeut-Bau began walking alongside the captain back to the pod she used to board the humans’ ship.

“Oh, may I ask a question?”

“Shoot.”

Jeut-Bau decided that meant yes. “Do your young also experience 'hurt’ and 'argue’?”

“Oh yeah, our kids play games that are beyond violent. Like, really messed up stuff, mate.”

“What do you mean, 'violent’?”

“Well, to be violent usually means to kill someone…as in, make them die. On purpose.”

“What?!”

“So that’s the one thing you understand?”

“You allow these activites to influence and entertain your young?”

“Yeah, they enjoy it, so it’s no harm lettin’ 'em have a little fun. Wouldn’t you agree?”

And although Captain Jeut-Bau was the first to encounter a human ship and learn about human life, many Remolians agreed she should also be the last.

Flying With Fuel From Plants: The Eco-friendly Way to Go

We eat them. We make medicines out of them. Now we’re learning how to use plants as airplane fuel that helps the environment.

Using biofuels to help power jet engines reduces particle emissions in their exhaust by as much as 50 to 70 percent, according to a new study that bodes well for airline economics and Earth’s atmosphere.

All of the aircraft, researchers and flight operations people who made ACCESS II happen. Credits: NASA/Tom Tschida

The findings are the result of a cooperative international research program led by NASA and involving agencies from Germany and Canada, and are detailed in a study published in the journal Nature.

The view from inside NASA’s HU-25C Guardian sampling aircraft from very close behind the DC-8. Credits: NASA/SSAI Edward Winstead

Our flight tests collected information about the effects of alternative fuels on engine performance, emissions and aircraft-generated contrails – essentially, human-made clouds - at altitudes flown by commercial airliners. 

The DC-8’s four engines burned either JP-8 jet fuel or a 50-50 blend of JP-8 and renewable alternative fuel of hydro processed esters and fatty acids produced from camelina plant oil. Credits: NASA/SSAI Edward Winstead

Contrails are produced by hot aircraft engine exhaust mixing with the cold air that is typical at cruise altitudes several miles above Earth’s surface, and are composed primarily of water in the form of ice crystals.

Matt Berry (left), a flight operations engineer at our Armstrong Flight Research Center, reviews the flight plan with Principal Investigator Bruce Anderson. Credits: NASA/Tom Tschida

Researchers are interested in contrails because they create clouds that would not normally form in the atmosphere, and are believed to influence Earth’s environment. 

The alternative fuels tested reduced those emissions. That’s important because contrails have a larger impact on Earth’s atmosphere than all the aviation-related carbon dioxide emissions since the first powered flight by the Wright Brothers.

This photo, taken May 14, 2014, is from the CT-133 aircraft of research partner National Research Council of Canada. It shows the NASA HU-25C Guardian aircraft flying 250 meters behind NASA’s DC-8 aircraft before it descends into the DC-8’s exhaust plumes to sample ice particles and engine emissions. Credit: National Research Council of Canada

Researchers plan on continuing these studies to understand the benefits of replacing current fuels in aircraft with biofuels. 

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com

I stared at this GIF explaining how a four-stroke piston engine works for far longer than I care to admit.

One day you’ll have to explain to your kids that this is how we powered our cars. I imagine they’ll be all: “Whaaaa? You used the combustion of aerosolized dinosaur extractions to drive your car? The old days were weird, mom/dad.” (they will text you that of course, from their Google Glass).

talk to me about how good-ending jack is a deeply traumatized four-year-old genetically engineered assassin who manages to raise five also-traumatized daughters (who are chronologically older than him) into well-adjusted adults

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Immaculate 1970 GTO currently loved by and owned by a former GM engineer. This car is cloaked in Sierra Yellow and has a Sandalwood interior. He neglected to say which of the four available engine options is in the car tho. There were three flavors of the 400 at 350-370 horsepower and one 455 at 360 horsepower. But she does have a TH-400 automatic and a 3:23 rearend. The interior looks like the car is still on the showroom floor.

I should already be asleep by now, but before I go:

“Fitz?”

She stumbles into the room, so panicked that she has to make herself take deep breaths just so she can see straight. When she scans the room, she finds them. 

She finds him.

She’ll get to the others, but she has to get to him first. It’s not a choice as much as a need, not a need so much as an inevitability. His lips are chapped and he looks half-starved, but he’s here. She cradles his head in her hands and places her forehead against his, just for a second, just to draw strength and prove to herself that it’s real. She relishes her moment and swallows when she has to let go. She only does it long enough to free him, because when he falls out of his restraints, she’s there. He’s half-starved, but he’s still heavy, and she has to guide him down to sit on the floor. He groans in discomfort, and she runs her hand through his hair, soothing him as best she can with half-formed words.

“Jemma,” he croaks, blinking up at her. “Jemma, wha—”

“Yes,” she says. Her heart stops when he frowns at her, furrowing his brow.

“Yes?”

Her hand moves to his cheek, and he leans into her touch. She fought a war to win him back, and this one gesture makes it worth it.

“Yes, I’ll marry you,” she clarifies.

 He’s adorably groggy, and she can’t help but smile at his confusion.

“Did I ask you to marry me?’

“No,” she answers, her smile widening, “but if you ever did, that’d be my answer.”

He stares at her for a moment, like he doesn’t quite get what she’s saying, and Jemma wouldn’t be surprised if he didn’t. They’ve both been through a lot, and he has a right to be a little disoriented. Maybe that’s the only reason she has the courage to say it. Maybe not. Maybe it was the desperate fear that she’d never get a chance.

“Okay,” he says as his head bobs to the other side, then back, “good to know.”

She wants to laugh, or to sweep him up in her arms, or to kiss him all over. She can’t do any of that now, with a half-asleep engineer and four other people to save. She settles for one kiss, short and meaningful, that makes Fitz smile with closed eyes.

“Mmm,” he says, “also good.”

She nudges his playfully with her shoulder as she stands up.

“Well,” she says, “after all I went through to get you back, I would hope so.”

Lieutenant Masoni of the 379th Bomb Group with Barbara Deane after crash landing his B-17 Flying Fortress in Deans’ garden, 4 July 1944… . Printed caption on reverse: ‘Independence Day Incident: American Bomber Lands In Garden In Southern England. With two engines out of commission and several of the crew wounded by flak, an American four-engined bomber returning from an early morning raid on targets in Normandy made a belly landing in a garden in Southern England on Independence Day. Photo Shows:- After the emergency landing Barbara Deane meets one of the airmen in front of the bomber. He is the navgator, Lt. Masoni, of New York City. Lal July 5 1944 PN.

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Doctor Who episodes | Story: 088 | season 14 [3/6]
↳ The Deadly Assassin

“Through the millennia, the Time Lords of Gallifrey led a life of peace and ordered calm, protected from all threats from lesser civilisations by their great power. But this was to change. Suddenly and terribly, the Time Lords faced the most dangerous crisis in their long history…”

Stray Word

AKA that SLAV FUCKS UP FIC WOOT WOOT

So this took me AGES (i took this prompt like a week ago oops) but I FINALLY DID IT!!!! I hope you like it. Contains a lot of team-as-family feels. Came out fluffier than intended, but I doubt anyone’ll complain ;)

Enjoy!

Keep reading

This month on FYPhysics!

Simple mobile phone detector using headphone jack   (Hack)

On the transpose of a matrix (Math - Linear Algebra)

Fibonacci sequence in the hiding (Math-Number Theory)

An introduction to Chaldni plates (Vibrations and waves)

Spider silk is stronger than Kevlar! ( Biophysics/engineering)

How does a spider spin its web ( Biophysics/engineering)

Iris mechanism on a camera (Fun Engineering)

Vibration and Washing Machines (Fun engineering)

Four dots at the end of the newspaper (Fun engineering)

How big is a A380 tail ? (Fun engineering)

Food Physics - Vortices in Ramen (Fluid Dynamics DIY)

Controlled wing tip vortices in F1 car (Fluid Dynamics)

The hand of god (Space)

The war of the storms (Space)

How to read a research paper   (Resource)

* This is a new segment on the blog which is intended to make navigating through the posts a bit easier.

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—— 1953 Cunningham Type C-5R ——–

—- 1953 Cunningham C-5R - Chrysler eight-cylinder, hemi-head vee engine, four Zenith downdraft carburetors 331.1 cubic inches,310 hp at 5200 rpm. —