fossil footprint

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Just like seeing the fine lines of a palm in mud or wet cement, ancient animals left skin impressions in their prints as well! A hadrosaur (duck billed dinosaur) left this positive relief track on a sunny Cretaceous beach, and if you look closely you can see the stucco-like outline of scaly skin here and there along the heel and toes. ▪▪▪ #Fossils #Paleontology #Science #TraceFossils #Tracks #Footprints #Dinosaurs

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I love everything about this photo.

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resashresash Amazing dinosaur footprints at the BGS! Chirotherium ‘hand-beast’ 240 Ma Old Red Sandstone found near Warrington.

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Uptilted wall of dinosaur footprints, Bolivia

Arthur Recap Season 7 Episode 7 Part 2 Buster’s Amish Mismatch

AKA The One Where Buster Tries to Be Amish and Everyone is A Douche To Him

Arthur tells us that on every field trip, Buster always somehow manages to bring back a souvenir. Sometimes said souvenirs are illegal, like the time Buster took that fossil footprint from the state park (I’m glad that episode was referenced btw) or the time the class visited a police station and Buster accidentally took an officer’s badge.  And other times, Buster’s souvenirs are not so great. For example, one time the class visited a fudge factory and Buster got indigestion from eating too many free samples.

Still worth it. 

Anyway, anyone ever notice how Arthur’s class gets to go on all these cool field trips? I’ve only been to the local museums and once to an IMAX movie on my school field trips. Where is this magical fudge factory that allows class trips and hands out free samples? TELL ME.

Arthur wonders what Buster is going to bring back from this field trip. Well, it’s sure going to be interesting, i can tell you that.

The kids are going on a field trip to the country. As they drive past the wheat fields, Buster imagines driving the tractor and making crop circles…to summon aliens and play tag with them. 

This is literally Buster’s fantasy. I worry about Buster’s marijuana usage a lot.

Before their arrival, Mr. Ratburn explains to the kids that they are going to visit the Amish. The kids are amazed that there is a group of people that has willingly given up modern technology and wonder why the Amish live this way. Brain takes over and explains that the Amish just believe in living simply without technology.

I wonder if Ratburn ever gets annoyed that Brain takes over his class discussions. I mean, Mr. Haney could slip Brain some money under the table and just fire Ratburn and class would carry on like normal.

The kids visit the Amish settlement and let me tell you, even as a kid, I never understood why Buster gets so enamored of the Amish lifestyle. The Amish woman there explains that that the Amish don’t believe in playing musical instruments and think buttons are too fancy.

Like, Jesus. It’s like living in the tiny town in Footloose, but Kevin Bacon will never arrive to save you with his sweet 80s tunes.

Anyway, Buster befriends Daniel, an Amish kid. Buster becomes fascinated about the Amish lifestyle and convinces Mr. Ratburn to let the class stay to help with the barn raising. “I’ve never made anything with my own hands before,” Buster tells Daniel. “Boy, you guys really know how to live!”

Daniel tells Buster that he doesn’t have to be Amish to live like an Amish person. He even gives Buster his hat to help Buster get in the mindset! 

Aw, that’s really nice of Daniel to do for a kid he’ll never see again. Why couldn’t Daniel be a recurring character instead of Ladonna?

On the bus ride home, Buster declares that he live the Amish way, but no one believes he’ll be able to do it. Brain warns Buster that it’s impossible to live like the Amish in the modern world but Buster is confident that he’ll be able to.

So far, he’s on the right track. Buster walks home instead of riding in his mom’s car, insists on eating by candle light, and suggests starting a garden to make their own ingredients. Bitzi likes the candlelit dinners but is not interested in joining Buster’s plans, pointing out that she has too much work to carry out all of his ideas. She tells Buster that he can be Amish…in his room.

“I bet Amish families stick together,” grumbles Buster.

Bitzi gives Buster a manual powered flashlight before he goes to bed and tries to convince him one more time to just be “a little Amish” instead. Buster is stubborn and insists on going all in, even though it’s much more difficult than he anticipated.

Very few of his clothes don’t have buttons or zippers, Brain points out (rather condescendingly I might add) that the food cooked in the cafeteria was probably made with electric ovens so Buster can’t eat anything decent, and he has to walk home in the rain because he still refuses to ride in the car.

Bitzi checks in on Buster in his room and goes ballistic when he shows her that he was trying to make butter in his room. “Well, I was trying to make butter but I think I made mayonnaise,” says Buster. “YOU ARE NOT MAKING MAYONNAISE IN YOUR ROOM!” shouts Bitzi.

For some reason, that lines makes me laugh so hard. To be fair, I would get furious if I found out my child was making non-FDA approved butter/mayo. She puts an end to his Amish plans and declares that he will start sleeping with the heat and wear buttons and dance like everyone is watching.

Somewhere in Amish country, Daniel’s heart hurts a little and he doesn’t know why.

At school the next day, Buster is miserable trying to live the Amish way. Mrs. McGrady sits down with him at lunch and reveals to him that he isn’t living the Amish way. She tells him that Amish people can ride in cars and do whatever they want. Huh. So much for the “rejecting modern technology” bit.

Mrs. McGrady explains that the Amish are able to live like the way they do because they are a community. Well, that and the fact that they tend to live in rural, isolated areas and have struck a deal with a government to have very little interference in the lives. But sure, just stick with the “they are a community!” explanation.

Buster realizes that he can’t be Amish alone and decides to give up his Amish ways. However, he still insists on doing one Amish thing: building a dog house for Pal with his friends! Bitzi even makes homemade pizza to celebrate their semi-Amish activity and Buster saves a slice so he’ll always remember the day. Buster no longer has an Amish mismatch.

Grade: B- (First off, this episode was educational. I’m 95% sure this episode was where I first learned about Amish people and their ways. Anyway, people were a lot less douchey to Buster than I remember. Brain is the only one who is condescending, but, you know, that’s Brain. I’m trying to decide if Buster’s failure was the fulfillment of Brain’s warning that it’s impossible to live without modern technology or if he was being semi-sabotaged. Bitzi certainly was no help by telling Buster he could only be Amish in his room and even then, she was regulating what he could or couldn’t do.

I don’t know, there’s not much about this episode that is remarkable besides the premise.)

Rating: 29% intense. Trying to be Amish is intense.

Today’s Throwback Thursday is taking a step back into the past. “Boy seated in dinosaur tracks exhibit” was taken by Robert Elwood Logan and Alex J. Rota in 1959. 

The Glen Rose Trackway is a 107-million-year-old series of fossilized dinosaur footprints. Excavated from the bed of the Paluxy River in Texas, the trackway gives a picture of dinosaurs that in some ways is more striking than that offered by fossils. Learn more about The Glen Rose Trackway.  

AMNH/326554

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Acrocanthosaurus atokensis

Early Cretaceous, North America

Acrocanthosaurus was a large theropod dinosaur, with adults measuring nearly 40 feet long. Some fossil footprints in Texas may be attributable to Acrocanthosaurus or a close relative.

The sky is a photo I took; the dinosaur, foreground and most of the vegetation are digital painting. Done in Photoshop CS6 with a Wacom tablet.


[Please don’t copy or use without permission, and thanks for viewing!] 

The Leatoli Footprints and Early Human Ancestors

In 1978 a team led by British paleoanthropologist Mary Leakey found trace fossils of animal footprints left in ash several million years old.  Searching further, Leakey’s team found the oldest trace fossils of early hominids in Leatoli, about 30 miles south of the famed Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania.  The footprints are though to come from three individuals from the australopithecus afarensis family.  Like the pithecanthropus (see recent post here), the australopithecus was named under the assumption that it represented a missing link between humans and primates.  The name australopithecus comes from the Latin word australis meaning south and the Ancient Greek word pithekos meaning ape.  The name was given that same year by Donald Wilson and Tim White, who found fragments two thousand miles north of the Leatoli site in the Afar region of Ethiopia, hence afarensis.

Happy Birthday, Mary Leakey, born on this day, February 6, 1913.

Shout out to my little man, Rowan, another Ethiopian treasure!

Photo via J. Paul Getty Trust, copyright 1995.

This series of fossilized footprints of multiple dinosaurs was left some 107 million years ago at the edge of a lagoon. In 1938, it was excavated for the Museum from the Paluxy River, near the town of Glen Rose in eastern Texas. 

The smaller, three-toed impressions are from a theropod—a meat-eating dinosaur—that walked on its two hind feet. The larger prints were most likely left by a plant-eater such as an Apatosaurus, whose colossal hind feet were 3 feet (1 m) long and a yard and half (1.4 m) wide. 

These footprints were originally made in soft mud, then covered by silt that had been filtered through quiet water. Inland seas that covered parts of Texas over millions of years later left sediments that buried the prints still deeper. Within the last few thousand years, the Paluxy River eroded those sediments away, exposing the ancient mud flats and these perfectly preserved prints. 

The excavated track was divided into three sections, one of which is on display at the Museum. The others are at the University of Texas and the Smithsonian Institution.

See more from the Hall of Saurischian Dinosaurs.

skarchomp  asked:

Honestly the discovery that Spinosaurus was aquatic is really cool because I never really thought about just how much dinosaurs could have filled various environmental niches

So here’s a crash course on the history of Spinosaurus (one of my favorite dinosaurs).

It was initially discovered in 1912 by German paleontologist Ernst Stromer, and described from a specimen that consisted of the back spines and the lower jaw.  The original specimen was destroyed when the Allies bombed the museum it was housed in during World War II, and no further remains were found for a long time.  Based on the relative lack of information about it, Spinosaurus was reconstructed in paleoart as “Tyrannosaurus but with a back sail”, and was fairly obscure for a long time.

More fossils of Spinosaurus were finally discovered in the late 90s and early 2000s, leading to a more complete picture of the animal.  One such discovery included an upper jaw, which revealed that Spinosaurus had a very crocodile-like skull.  A few years later, a more accurately reconstructed Spinosaurus makes an appearance in Jurassic Park 3, in which it kicks the shit out of a T. rex, establishing itself as the new king of the theropods.  After all, the biggest meat-eating dinosaur is obviously the most crazy badass and bloodthirsty one, right?

Well, not quite.  Based on the skeleton of a sub-adult Spinosaurus discovered in 2014, Spinosaurus was not a rip-roaring fightasaurus capable of beating up a T. rex in a stand-up fight.  It actually had very stumpy back legs, and probably carried itself in a very low-slung, near-quadrupedal posture (think pangolins).  In addition, based on the fossilized footprints of one of its close relatives, it likely had webbed feet and was adapted for swimming.  Spinosaurus probably used its long crocodile-skull to snatch up fish, not tear into larger, land-dwelling prey.

(The purpose of the “sail” is still uncertain, and some paleontologists question whether it was really a “sail” at all, claiming that the bones are more similar to those that support the humps of bison than those of truly sail-backed animals like Dimetrodon.)

The storied history of Spinosaurus illuminates one of my least favorite tropes about paleontology, which constantly comes up every time something new is learned about a dinosaur: The constant refusal to see dinosaurs as real animals.  When Spinosaurus became popular, it wasn’t because it was a bizarre and interesting creature that occupied an ecological niche unlike anything alive today; it’s because it was a big, badass carnivore.  When that perception changed, people reacted quite negatively.  Even other paleontologists tried to discredit Nizar Ibrahim, the 2014 discoverer, for claiming that a large theropod was anything but a big, bad superpredator.  Pop culture has responded somewhat similarly; you’ll notice that Spinosaurus didn’t make a reappearance in Jurassic World, for instance.  If it wasn’t a movie monster, people had no interest in it.

But, as you said, the real interesting thing about Spinosaurus is how much it makes us think.  We initially pigeonholed Spinosaurus into the niche of “Big Carnivore”; then we discovered it was actually a giant fish-eater, unlike anything we have on Earth today.  Who knows what other discoveries might be waiting to surprise us?

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Footprint Simulation Reveals Details Of Dinosaur Step

by Michael Keller

Move over, Jurassic Park. Understanding the stride of dinosaurs just got real. 

Researchers looking to reveal the details of how birds and their dinosaur forebears move have created an advanced simulation using a guineafowl as their model.

They put the chicken-like bird through its paces, recording it as it walked through dry poppy seeds with two X-ray video cameras. The cameras allowed the scientists from the UK’s Royal Veterinary College and Brown University to construct 3-D models of the bird’s moving bones. 

Moving bone models were then dropped into a discrete element method computer simulation that recreated how the bird’s stride disturbed the soft surface as the animal moved across it. The information the researchers gathered from models is giving them new insights into dinosaur locomotion.

Keep reading

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Museum scientists working to create a cast of layer with dinosaur footprints

skarchomp  asked:

tell me about Dilophosaurus, one of my favorite of the "weird" theropods

Dilophosaurus is very much a “weird theropod” - so weird, in fact, that it literally defies classification.

Dilophosaurus was native to the southwestern United States during the Early Jurassic period - about 193 million years ago - and was the largest known carnivore of its native time and place.  It’s primarily known for the twin crests on its head, the purposes of which have long been debated.  They may have been used to display to mates, intimidate rivals, or simply for the recognition of individuals within the species.

As far as we know, Dilophosaurus did not actually have an extensible neck frill or the ability to spit poison.

When it was initially discovered in 1954, Dilophosaurus was described as a new species of Megalosaurus, as happens to most theropods who can’t be safely classified elsewhere.  Later, more careful examinations of Dilophosaurus fossils led paleontologists to believe that it was a large relative of Coelophysis.  Even later, it was classified in its own family, “Dilophosauridae”, belonging to a more advanced clade of theropods.  It was grouped with Cryolophosaurus; then the two dinosaurs were moved into separate families.  Then it was placed back into a family with Coelophysis!

The problem with Dilophosaurus is that it’s too transitional.  Its anatomy resembles both Coelophysis and more advanced theropods, and it’s difficult to say with certainty to which group it was more closely related.

Despite our lack of taxonomic certainty in regards to Dilophosaurus, we do know a great deal else about it.  The sandy terrain of Early Jurassic Arizona has preserved a large number of fossilized Dilophosaurus footprints, including a fossilized “sitting imprint” that revealed Dilophosaurus to have a bird-like resting posture.

In addition, a new specimen of Dilophosaurus, discovered and described just this year, has broken the record for most injuries in a single dinosaur specimen, with multiple partially healed forelimb breakages; a hand that healed improperly and became deformed; and a genetic bone growth abnormality that was known in modern birds, but not previously in dinosaurs.  Its injuries were likely incurred in an accident - a nasty fall, perhaps - and the extent to which they had healed reveals that the animal survived for months, if not years, after incurring them.

From an individual footprint, scientists can estimate the height of the dinosaur that made it. A rough estimate of leg length is obtained by multiplying the print length by four.

A footprint can also provide clues about the kind of dinosaur that made it. A three-toed, sharp-clawed print means the footprint-maker was likely a theropod—usually a carnivore. A three-toed print with rounded toes probably belonged to an ornithopod dinosaur—an herbivore. And pairs of unequal-sized prints were most likely the work of the four-legged, long-necked, long-tailed dinosaurs called sauropods, another group of herbivores.

Learn more on the Museum’s dinosaur website. 

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Dear Future Generations: Sorry

anonymous asked:

How do you think dinosaurs fit in the bible?

The topic of dinosaurs in the Bible is part of a larger ongoing debate within the Christian community over the age of the earth, the proper interpretation of Genesis, and how to interpret the physical evidences we find all around us. Those who believe in an older age for the earth tend to agree that the Bible does not mention dinosaurs, because, according to their paradigm, dinosaurs died out millions of years before the first man ever walked the earth. The men who wrote the Bible could not have seen living dinosaurs.

Those who believe in a younger age for the earth tend to agree that the Bible does mention dinosaurs, though it never actually uses the word “dinosaur.” Instead, it uses the Hebrew word tanniyn, which is translated a few different ways in our English Bibles. Sometimes it’s “sea monster,” and sometimes it’s “serpent.” It is most commonly translated “dragon.” The tanniyn appear to have been some sort of giant reptile. These creatures are mentioned nearly thirty times in the Old Testament and were found both on land and in the water.

In addition to mentioning these giant reptiles, the Bible describes a couple of creatures in such a way that some scholars believe the writers may have been describing dinosaurs. The behemoth is said to be the mightiest of all God’s creatures, a giant whose tail is likened to a cedar tree (Job 40:15). Some scholars have tried to identify the behemoth as either an elephant or a hippopotamus. Others point out that elephants and hippopotamuses have very thin tails, nothing comparable to a cedar tree. Dinosaurs like the brachiosaurus and the diplodocus, on the other hand, had huge tails which could easily be compared to a cedar tree.

Nearly every ancient civilization has some sort of art depicting giant reptilian creatures. Petroglyphs, artifacts, and even little clay figurines found in North America resemble modern depictions of dinosaurs. Rock carvings in South America depict men riding diplodocus-like creatures and, amazingly, bear the familiar images of triceratops-like, pterodactyl-like, and tyrannosaurus rex-like creatures. Roman mosaics, Mayan pottery, and Babylonian city walls all testify to man’s trans-cultural, geographically unbounded fascination with these creatures. Sober accounts like those of Marco Polo’s Il Milione mingle with fantastic tales of treasure-hoarding beasts. In addition to the substantial amount of anthropic and historical evidences for the coexistence of dinosaurs and man, there are physical evidences, like the fossilized footprints of humans and dinosaurs found together at places in North America and West-Central Asia.

So, are there dinosaurs in the Bible? The matter is far from settled. It depends on how you interpret the available evidences and how you view the world around you. If the Bible is interpreted literally, a young earth interpretation will result, and the idea that dinosaurs and man coexisted can be accepted. If dinosaurs and human beings coexisted, what happened to the dinosaurs? While the Bible does not discuss the issue, dinosaurs likely died out sometime after the flood due to a combination of dramatic environmental shifts and the fact that they were relentlessly hunted to extinction by man.

The Leatoli Footprints and Early Human Ancestors

In 1978 a team led by British paleoanthropologist Mary Leakey found trace fossils of animal footprints left in ash several million years old.  Searching further, Leakey’s team found the oldest trace fossils of early hominids in Leatoli, about 30 miles south of the famed Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania.  The footprints are though to come from three individuals from the australopithecus afarensis family.  Like the pithecanthropus (see recent post here), the australopithecus was named under the assumption that it represented a missing link between humans and primates.  The name australopithecus comes from the Latin word australis meaning south and the Ancient Greek word pithekos meaning ape.  The name was given that same year by Donald Wilson and Tim White, who found fragments two thousand miles north of the Leatoli site in the Afar region of Ethiopia, hence afarensis

Happy Birthday, Mary Leakey, born on this day, February 6, 1913.

Shout out to my little man, Rowan, another Ethiopian treasure! 

Photo via J. Paul Getty Trust, copyright 1995.

anonymous asked:

Question for a friend - if God created people during the seven days, then how were dinosaurs around for a long time before people came?

The topic of dinosaurs in the Bible is part of a larger ongoing debate within the Christian community over the age of the earth, the proper interpretation of Genesis, and how to interpret the physical evidences we find all around us. Those who believe in an older age for the earth tend to agree that the Bible does not mention dinosaurs, because, according to their paradigm, dinosaurs died out millions of years before the first man ever walked the earth. The men who wrote the Bible could not have seen living dinosaurs.

Those who believe in a younger age for the earth tend to agree that the Bible does mention dinosaurs, though it never actually uses the word “dinosaur.” Instead, it uses the Hebrew word tanniyn, which is translated a few different ways in our English Bibles. Sometimes it’s “sea monster,” and sometimes it’s “serpent.” It is most commonly translated “dragon.” The tanniyn appear to have been some sort of giant reptile. These creatures are mentioned nearly thirty times in the Old Testament and were found both on land and in the water.

In addition to mentioning these giant reptiles, the Bible describes a couple of creatures in such a way that some scholars believe the writers may have been describing dinosaurs. The behemoth is said to be the mightiest of all God’s creatures, a giant whose tail is likened to a cedar tree (Job 40:15). Some scholars have tried to identify the behemoth as either an elephant or a hippopotamus. Others point out that elephants and hippopotamuses have very thin tails, nothing comparable to a cedar tree. Dinosaurs like the brachiosaurus and the diplodocus, on the other hand, had huge tails which could easily be compared to a cedar tree.

Nearly every ancient civilization has some sort of art depicting giant reptilian creatures. Petroglyphs, artifacts, and even little clay figurines found in North America resemble modern depictions of dinosaurs. Rock carvings in South America depict men riding diplodocus-like creatures and, amazingly, bear the familiar images of triceratops-like, pterodactyl-like, and tyrannosaurus rex-like creatures. Roman mosaics, Mayan pottery, and Babylonian city walls all testify to man’s trans-cultural, geographically unbounded fascination with these creatures. Sober accounts like those of Marco Polo’s Il Milione mingle with fantastic tales of treasure-hoarding beasts. In addition to the substantial amount of anthropic and historical evidences for the coexistence of dinosaurs and man, there are physical evidences, like the fossilized footprints of humans and dinosaurs found together at places in North America and West-Central Asia.

So, are there dinosaurs in the Bible? The matter is far from settled. It depends on how you interpret the available evidences and how you view the world around you. If the Bible is interpreted literally, a young earth interpretation will result, and the idea that dinosaurs and man coexisted can be accepted. If dinosaurs and human beings coexisted, what happened to the dinosaurs? While the Bible does not discuss the issue, dinosaurs likely died out sometime after the flood due to a combination of dramatic environmental shifts and the fact that they were relentlessly hunted to extinction by man.
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