ROMAN TRIUMPHAL ARCHES
1. Arch of Constantine, AD 313, Roman Forum
2. Arch of Hadrian, c. AD 81, Jerash (Jordan)
3. Arch of Septimus Severus, c. AD 193, Lepcis Magna (Tunisia)
4. Arch of Trajan, c. AD 100, Benevento
5. Arch of Tiberius, c. AD 30, Orange
6. Arch of Septimus Severus, c. AD 200, Roman Forum
7. Arch of Titus, c. AD 71, Roman Forum
8. Arch of Trajan, c. AD 100, Timgad Batna (Algeria)
9. Arch of Trajan, c. AD 100, Ancona
10. Arch of Caracalla, AD 211, Volubilis (Morocco)
The triumphal arch is 1) a portal, a functional structure through which an honored person passed as part of a ritual taking place on a specific occasion; 2) a building, with staircases leading to rooms in the attic story; and 3) a symbolic monument that perpetuates the memory of a significant event.
Like the victory column, the triumphal arch transposes a basic architectural member from a structural context into a sculptural context, using it as a free-standing scaffold for images and inscriptions. This creative repurposing of elements of architecture is profoundly un-Greek and, as such, constitutes one of the major innovations of Roman art.
By the year 400 AD, over 50 triumphal arches had been erected in the city of Rome alone.