former eastern bloc

anonymous asked:

How many Jewish people live in Germany?

Today Germany, especially Berlin, is one of the few European countries with a Jewish community that is growing - it’s the fastest-growing worldwide. About 90,000 Jews from the former Eastern Bloc (mostly ex-Soviet Union) settled in Germany since the fall of the Wall. This is mainly due to a government policy which effectively grants immigration to anyone from the CIS & Baltic states with Jewish heritage, and the fact that today’s Germans are seen as significantly more accepting of Jews than many people in the ex-Soviet realm. Some of the ~60,000 long-time resident German Jews have expressed mixed feelings about this immigration that they perceive as making them a minority not only in their own country but also in their own community. Prior to WW2, about 600,000 Jews lived in Germany, with communities going back to the 4th century. >>

Total officially declared Jewish population: ~100,000 (0.1%). The religious status is unclear for a further 90,000 persons from Eastern Europe that have no official “membership” to a Jewish community in Germany. Union of Progressive Jews in Germany: 5,000. Central Council of Jews: 23 national associations of 108 communities comprising ~100,500 members in 2014. The government does not count people by religion so all numbers are estimates.

So with an estimated 100,000-200,000 people, Germany has the 3rd-largest Jewish population in Western Europe after France (600,000) and UK (300,000), and the fastest-growing Jewish population in Europe in recent decades. SourceAlso read this.


Jacques Littlefield Collection Part 6

Last photo by me, all others by Bernard Zee

1 & 2) Marder 1A2. West German IFV developed in the 1970s. Still in service in the 1A4 and A5 variant, but being phased out in favor of the Puma, one of the world’s best protected IFVs. does include a few unique features, such as the fully remote machine gun on the rear deck, it is overall a simple and conventional machine with rear exit hatch and side gun ports for mounted infantry to fire through. Acquired after the fall of the Soviet Union and the reduction of the German military.

3 & 4) GAZ-46 MAV. Russian amphibious car based off the Ford GPA amphibious vehicle. Developed in the 1950s and has been in use by various former Eastern Bloc countries ever since. Most notable for appearing in “Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull.”

5 & 6) BTR-70. Russian wheeled APC. The BTR-70 succeeded the flawed BTR-60, and while improving on the BTR-60, kept the terrible dual-engine configuration. The BTR-70 added heavier armor and new side doors below the belt line. However, since Soviet forces were taught to exit the vehicle while it was moving, there was significant hazard of being pulled under the wheels. Still in service with some 21 countries in various forms.

7 & 8) Pzkpfw IV. Nazi medium tank used extensively in WWII. The Panzer IV saw service in all combat theaters involving Germany and was the only German tank to remain in continuous production throughout the war. Some 8,500 were produced. This vehicle earns the distinction of being one of two vehicles in the entire collection that could not run. It was acquired from Israel, which had captured it from the Syrians during the Six-Day War.

9) Looking down the front row of Building One. Visible is a M5 Stuart, T-34, T-34-85, M26 Pershing, the barrel of the Swiss Pz. 61, the front bit of the M551 Sheridan and a M113 APC.

10) Daimler Ferret. The Ferret armoured car, also commonly called the Ferret Scout car, is a British armoured fighting vehicle designed and built for reconnaissance purposes. The Ferret was produced between 1952 and 1971 by the UK company Daimler. It was widely adopted by regiments in the British Army, as well as the RAF Regiment and Commonwealth countries throughout the period. It’s still in service with 10 countries, with Pakistan being the largest operator, holding some 90 Ferrets and then Nepal, with 85.

Submitted by @cavalier-renegade 

First female physician by country?

Updated June 2015

If you can add to the list, please use the answer function to write the woman’s name and country.  Missing countries include most of Africa, most of Central America, most of the Middle East, much of the former Eastern Bloc, Pakistan, Iceland, Cambodia, Greece, etc.

Linked names = Past Cool Chicks from History Posts

Argentina: Cecilia Grierson

Australia: Emma Constance Stone

Austria: Gabriele Possanner

Bangladesh:  Zohra Begum Kazi

Brazil: Rita Lobato

Canada: Jennie Trout/Emily Stowe

Chile: Eloísa Díaz Insunza

China: Chau Lee-Sun (周理信)

Colombia: Anna Galvis Hotz

Croatia:  Milica Šviglin Čavov, but she studied in Switzerland and practiced in Bulgaria.   Karola Maier-Milobar was the first female physician to practice in Croatia.  Kornelija Sertić was the first female physician to graduate medical school in Croatia.  

Cuba: Laura Martinez de Carvajal

Czech Republic: Anna Honzáková

Denmark: Nielsine Nielsen

Dominican Republic: Evangelina Rodriguez Perozo

Ecuador: Matilde Hidalgo de Procel

El Salvador:  Estela Gavidia (Concepción Mendoza enrolled as a medical student nearly 60 years earlier but never graduated)

Estonia: Selma Feldbach

Germany: Dorothea Erxleben

Haiti: Yvonne Sylvain

Hungary: Vilma Hugonnai

Finland: Rosina Heikel

France: Madeleine Brès, but pre-modern women such as Magistra Hersend also practiced medicine.

Ireland: Eleanora Fleury

Italy: Unknown, women qualified as physicians in the Middle Ages 1, 2

India: Anandi Gopal Joshi, followed closely by Kadambini Ganguly

Indonesia: Marie Thomas

Japan: Ogino Ginko

Korea: Jang Geum

Mexico: Matilde Montoya

Netherlands: Aletta Jacobs

New Zealand:  Emily Siedeberg/Margaret Cruickshank (Plus Rina Moore was the first Maori female physician)

Nicaragua: Concepción Palacios Herrera

Nigeria: Elizabeth Abimbola Awoliyi

Norway: Marie Spångberg Holth

Peru: Laura Rodriguez Dulanto

Philippines: Honoria Acosta-Sison

Poland: Anna Tomaszewicz-Dobrska

Portugal: Amélia dos Santos Costa Cardia

Puerto Rico: María Elisa Rivera Díaz and Ana Janer

Romania: Maria Cuțarida-Crătunescu

Russia: Nadezhda Suslova

Singapore: Lee Choo Neo

Spain: Dolors Aleu Riera

Surinam: Sophie Redmond

South Africa: Petronella van Heerden (white) followed by Mary Malahele-Xakana (black)

Sweden: Lovisa Årberg

Switzerland: Marie Heim-Vögtlin

Taiwan: Cai A-xin (or Tsai A-Sin, depending on transliteration)

Thailand: Pierra Vejjabul

Turkey: Safiye Ali

UK: Elizabeth Garrett Anderson

Uruguay: Paulina Luisi

USA: Elizabeth Blackwell

Venezuela: Lya Imber (European born) followed by Sara Bendahan (Venezuelan born)