forensic reconstruction

Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) is one of several forensic science specialities that can help determine what exactly came to pass on a scene of a violent crime. Technologies for it are evolving constantly, which leads to a higher degree of accuracy than in the past.

Eduard Piotrowski published a paper entitled “on the formation, form, direction, and spreading of blood stains resulting in blunt trauma at the head” in 1895. The various publications that followed did not lead to a systematic analysis the way we know today. Herbert Leon MacDonell advanced the research that eventually culminated in the 1971 publishing of “Flight Characterisics and Stain Patterns of Human Blood”. He went on to present the first formal training course for bloodstain pattern analysis.

Crime scene investigator Sherry Gutierrez put forth some general principles for the analysis of gunshot wounds in particular that roughly indicate what can be deduced from those. These are as follows:

  1. The amount of forward spatter (away from the shooter) is greater than the back spatter (towards the shooter).
  2. The velocity of the forward spatter is greater than the velocity of the back spatter.
  3. Both forward and back spatter have a lower velocity than the bullet. (The relationship of the velocities from high to low can therefore be visualised as bullet –> forward spatter –> back spatter.)
  4. Both forward and back spatter form a “cone” of mist. 
  5. The density of the fluid droplets from an impact to a fluid-containing structure decreases as the distance from the bullet impact increases.
  6. High velocity wounds to bone may cause bone to go both forward and backward alongside the spatter.
  7. The bullet exits in the direction opposite of the shooter.

Forward spatter usually travels farther than the back spatter in the same incident. It also holds a larger volume of blood that expresses as individual stains than the back spatter does. Targets may move with the direction of the projectile upon the moment of impact, so (for example) someone who was shot in the back may move forward. Similarly, if the target is located in a moving vehicle the wind and other circumstances may affect the forward and back spatter to a degree.

Bloodstain pattern analysis can also be made visual by documenting bloodstains at the scene of the crime and measuring the angles of impact that can lead every trajctory back to an ‘origin point’. Nowadays, computer programs are used to visualise these calculations further and create a 3D-model of the circumstances of the crime. An older method is called “stringing” and consists of attaching a coloured string to the point of impact and running it to the termination point (like the wall or floor). The convergences and crossing points of these strings can then be used for crime scene reconstructions.


Forensic experts have reconstructed the face of a man who lived around 9,500 years ago in Jericho, near the Jordan River in the West Bank. The reconstruction was based on a micro-CT scan of his skull, which had been covered in plaster and has clamshells for eyes. Alexandra Fletcher of the British Museum, where the skull is housed, believes it and others like it were created as part of an ancestor cult.

The scan reveals that the skull belonged to a man who died after the age of 40 and had a broken nose that healed during his lifetime. In addition, his skull had been tightly bound from early infancy, changing its shape. “This person lived a very long time ago,” says Fletcher, “but he could go out shopping in London today, and nobody would turn a hair. He’s a modern human, just like you or me.”

this is why i hate the african kang people like this is supposed to be a forensic reconstruction of king tut based on his mummy and umm you’re right thats not a white man but thats not an Ethiopian

Character: Angela Montenegro

From: Bones

Representation: Racial (Biracial, Asian), LGBTQIA+

Their Importance:  Angela is an artist and the forensic facial reconstruction specialist at the Jeffersonian Institution. She is the only person in the lab who does not hold an advanced science degree and she uses her skills as an artist to make the lab’s three-dimensional graphics and computer simulation systems. She created the the computer system that is used in the lab named the “Angelatron”, for which she wins a fellowship.

Angela is free-spirited and known to have had many romantic relationships. She rekindled her relationship with Roxie, an ex-girlfriend from art school in season 4, after she ends her engagement with Hodgins. They break up and eventually she gets back together with Hodgins, and they get married and have a son. Their relationship is very loving and healthy, even after going through many hardships together.

She has actually been described on the show as “the heart of the operation”. Early on she was unsure of her ability to handle the graphic violence she was exposed to regularly at the lab. However, Dr. Goodman, the director of the Jeffersonian, spoke of the vital importance of her work in adding an element of humanity to the victims, returning their identity. She still continues to paint and later on take up photography as to keep the artist part of herself still alive. She even on an occasion refers to her facial reconstructions as “art”.

Thanks to @bisexualhermionepond for the write up!

anonymous asked:

I think the major reason Delta Dawn and Walker County Jane Doe are referred to in terms of looks is because they're unidentified. Like there obviously are issues of the sexualization of female murder victims, but in cases where there's no identity, physical features and forensic reconstructions are basically all law enforcement have to go on

If that’s the case, then law enforcement should just disclose the person’s features. whatever happened to saying “Jane Doe is a blonde female with a tattoo on her left wrist” instead of saying stuff like “The mysterious lady was beautiful, even in death”? WTF

“When I rise from the dead, the world shall tremble.”

“Who ever opens my tomb, shall unleash an invader more terrible than I.”-alleged script from Timur’s tomb and casket

February 18, 1405- After a lifetime of conquest and war, on the march to defeat the one power in the world who could even dare to challenge him, Timur, also known as Tamerlane, dies en route to invade Ming China. Starting out as the leader of a small raiding band, Timur would become the master of an empire spanning from his his capital at Samarkand, down into India, across Afghanistan and all of Iran, to Baghdad, Anatolia, and the Caucasus, though he never took a title for himself higher than Emir. Despite his brutal tactics and nature, the storied pyramids of skulls, Samarkand became a center of culture and art in the Islamic world. He spread Persian learning to Transoxiana and Timurid architecture, itself inspired by a mosque in Damascus, would evolve into the onion domes of Russian churches and the beautiful spires of the Taj Mahal. 

‘Then shall my native city, Samarcanda…
Be famous through the furthest continents,
For there my palace-royal shall be placed,
Whose shining turrets shall dismay the heavens,
And cast the fame of Iion’s tower to hell.’

  -Christopher Marlowe, Tamburlaine the Great                                         

Picture- A forensic facial reconstruction of Timur by M. Gerasimov (1941).

Kids' forensic facial reconstruction kit

The Discovery Channel has released a CSI-branded “facial reconstruction kit” toy so that kids can play forensic scientist, reconstructing notional corpse faces. Man, I wish I’d had one of these as a kid. Link


Neanderthal II - time lapse video of a forensic facial reconstruction by Sculpt Mode on Blender

  • reconstruction by Cícero Moraes

3D scanning of skull: Python Photogrammetry Tools
3D Sculpting: Blender
Screen capture: FFMPG
Video edigint: Kdenlive

Mesmerising timelapse video of a virtual reconstruction of a Neandertal cranium. Virtual anthropology the world!


Reconstructing Homo antecessor

  • by Mauricio Anton

“A video that tries to summarize in just 2 minutes my work of several years on the reconstruction of the face of Homo antecessor.”

(Source: Mauricio Anton)


This is a facial reconstruction of a Homo georgicus male, based on the Dmanisi skull nº D2700. Done in Zbrush, Cinema4D and VrayForc4D" by Phillip Froesch.