Scientists Find Brain Hormone that Triggers Fat Burning
Biologists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have identified a
brain hormone that appears to trigger fat burning in the gut. Their
findings in animal models could have implications for future
“This was basic science that unlocked an interesting mystery,” said
TSRI Assistant Professor Supriya Srinivasan, senior author of the new
study, published in the journal Nature Communications.
Previous studies had shown that the neurotransmitter serotonin can
drive fat loss. Yet no one was sure exactly how. To answer that
question, Srinivasan and her colleagues experimented with roundworms
called C. elegans, which are often used as model organisms in
biology. These worms have simpler metabolic systems than humans, but
their brains produce many of the same signaling molecules, leading many
researchers to believe that findings in C. elegans may be relevant for humans.
The researchers deleted genes in C. elegans to see if they
could interrupt the path between brain serotonin and fat burning. By
testing one gene after another, they hoped to find the gene without
which fat burning wouldn’t occur. This process of elimination led them
to a gene that codes for a neuropeptide hormone they named FLP-7
(pronounced “flip 7”).
Interestingly, they found that the mammalian version of FLP-7 (called
Tachykinin) had been identified 80 years ago as a peptide that
triggered muscle contractions when dribbled on pig intestines.
Scientists back then believed this was a hormone that connected the
brain to the gut, but no one had linked the neuropeptide to fat
metabolism in the time since.
The next step in the new study was to determine if FLP-7 was directly
linked to serotonin levels in the brain. Study first author Lavinia
Palamiuc, a TSRI research associate, spearheaded this effort by tagging
FLP-7 with a fluorescent red protein so that it could be visualized in
living animals, possible because the roundworm body is transparent. Her
work revealed that FLP-7 was indeed secreted from neurons in the brain
in response to elevated serotonin levels. FLP-7 then traveled through
the circulatory system to start the fat burning process in the gut.
“That was a big moment for us,” said Srinivasan. For the first time,
researchers had found a brain hormone that specifically and selectively
stimulates fat metabolism, without any effect on food intake.
Altogether, the newly discovered fat-burning pathway works like this:
a neural circuit in the brain produces serotonin in response to sensory
cues, such as food availability. This signals another set of neurons to
begin producing FLP-7. FLP-7 then activates a receptor in intestinal
cells, and the intestines begin turning fat into energy.
Next, the researchers investigated the consequences of manipulating
FLP-7 levels. While increasing serotonin itself can have a broad impact
on an animal’s food intake, movement and reproductive behavior, the
researchers found that increasing FLP-7 levels farther downstream didn’t
come with any obvious side effects. The worms continued to function
normally while simply burning more fat.
Srinivasan said this finding could encourage future studies into how
FLP-7 levels could be regulated without causing the side effects often
experienced when manipulating overall serotonin levels.
é quem recebe carinho mas prefere ficar sozinho.
É você mesmo, idiota.
Colheu todo o amor que cultivou mas o estragou com mentiras.
Você é a erva daninha que estragou não só o meu jardim, mas vários outros. Todos que te regaram verdadeiramente e viram o amor se transformar em adubo.
Confuso é você continuar por aí, fingindo que nada aconteceu. Sabendo que estragou vidas. Dormindo tranquilo.
How is it that you say I don’t care, but yet I’m over here trying my hardest to maintain our friendship. I miss talking to you every night. Texting you every morning/day. Seeing you whenever I pleased. Everything changed so rapidly. You WERE my best friend. We argue and get over it, that was our thing. But why all of a sudden did things get so out of hand. My eyes cannot help but get watery at the thought of losing you as a friend. We’ve been through so damn much within three years to jus throw everything away. It sucks so bad to know that the person you love and do anything for is willing to throw everything away over something so ignorant. I’m tired of crying. I’m tired of always being the one caring so damn much. I’m tired of this, but no matter what I’m tired of, hate, or dislike I still put up with it because of the fact that I thought our friendship was stronger than anything. I guess I was wrong. If this was what you wanted then I’ll be sure to leave you alone as long as you’re happy. Thanks for all the memories. Hope to cross paths with you one day soon.
I might stream tomorrow in the afternoon, to get some animation commissions done, might also get some tunes done.
But I’ve also been thinking about making a Patreon, and the content I’d put there. Probably nothing more than $1 pledges. Now first and foremost, I don’t wanna put any sort of paywall whatsoever, but I think a lot about what I would put in there.
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But I’d like to hear what suggestions you guys have, totally open to them. I wanna put out good quality worth-a-buck stuff.