Fingal’s Cave, located on the uninhabited island of Staffa, Scotland, is formed from basalt columns within a paleocene lava flow, similar to the Giant’s Causeway in Northern Ireland. Due to the large size and arched roof, the cave gives off an extremely creepy sound caused by the echoes of the waves.
Timelapse view of lava moving on the plains near Pu’u O’o, Hawaii. The hill in the distance is called the “Pali”, it is the mark of a large normal fault created by part of the island sliding out towards the sea. Lava cascades over the Pali on its way to the ocean during the eruption. This is substantially sped up from how fast Pahoehoe lava typically flows.
Celebrating 17 Years of NASA’s ‘Little Earth Satellite That Could’
was little— the size of a small refrigerator; it was only supposed to last one
year and constructed and operated on a shoestring budget — yet it persisted.
After 17 years
of operation, more than 1,500 research papers generated and 180,000 images
captured, one of NASA’s pathfinder Earth satellites for testing new satellite
technologies and concepts comes to an end on March 30, 2017. The Earth
Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite will be powered off on that date but will not
enter Earth’s atmosphere until 2056.
Observing-1 satellite is like The Little
Engine That Could,” said Betsy Middleton, project scientist for the
satellite at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.
the mission, we’re highlighting some of EO-1’s notable contributions to scientific research, spaceflight
advancements and society.
Scientists Learn More About
Earth in Fine Detail
This animation shifts
between an image showing flooding that occurred at the Arkansas and Mississippi
rivers on January 12, 2016, captured by ALI and the rivers at normal levels on
February 14, 2015 taken by the Operational Land Imager on Landsat 8. Credit:
NASA’s Earth Observatory
the Advanced Land Imager that improved observations of forest cover, crops,
coastal waters and small particles in the air known as aerosols. These
improvements allowed researchers to identify smaller features on a local scale
such as floods and landslides, which were especially useful for disaster
On the night of Sept. 6, 2014, EO-1’s Hyperion observed the ongoing eruption at Holuhraun, Iceland as shown in the above image. Partially covered by clouds, this scene shows the extent of the lava flows that had been erupting.
other key instrument Hyperion provided an even greater level of detail in
measuring the chemical constituents of Earth’s surface— akin to going from a black and white television
of the 1940s to the high-definition color televisions of today. Hyperion’s level of sophistication
doesn’t just show that plants are present, but can actually differentiate
between corn, sorghum and many other species and ecosystems. Scientists and
forest managers used these data, for instance, to explore remote terrain or to
take stock of smoke and other chemical constituents during volcanic eruptions,
and how they change through time.
Images of Disasters
EO-1 was one of
the first satellites to capture the scene after the World Trade Center attacks (pictured
above) and the flooding in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina. EO-1 also
observed the toxic sludge in western Hungary in October 2010 and a large methane leak in southern
in October 2015. All
of these scenes, which EO-1 provided quick, high-quality satellite imagery of
the event, were covered in major news outlets. All of these scenes were also
captured because of user requests. EO-1 had the capability of being
user-driven, meaning the public could submit a request to the team for where
they wanted the satellite to gather data along its fixed orbits.
shows toxic sludge (red-orange streak) running west from an aluminum oxide
plant in western Hungary after a wall broke allowing the sludge to spill from
the factory on October 4, 2010. This image was taken by EO-1’s Advanced Land
Imager on October 9, 2010. Credit: NASA’s Earth Observatory
Enables More Efficient Satellite Collaboration
This image of volcanic activity
on Antarctica’s Mount Erebus on May 7, 2004 was taken by EO-1’s Advanced Land
Imager after sensing thermal emissions from the volcano. The satellite gave
itself new orders to take another image several hours later. Credit: Earth Observatory
EO-1 was among the
first satellites to be programmed with a form of artificial intelligence
software, allowing the satellite to make decisions based on the data it
collects. For instance, if a scientist
commanded EO-1 to take a picture of an erupting volcano, the software could
decide to automatically take a follow-up image the next time it passed
overhead. The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment software was developed by
NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, and was uploaded to
EO-1 three years after it launched.
This image of
Nassau Bahamas was taken by EO-1’s Advanced Land Imager on Oct 8, 2016, shortly
after Hurricane Matthew hit. European, Japanese, Canadian, and Italian Space
Agency members of the international coalition Committee on Earth Observation
Satellites used their respective satellites to take images over the Caribbean
islands and the U.S. Southeast coastline during Hurricane Matthew. Images were
used to make flood maps in response to requests from disaster management
agencies in Haiti, Dominican Republic, St. Martin, Bahamas, and the U.S.
Federal Emergency Management Agency.
The artificial intelligence software also allows a group of
satellites and ground sensors to communicate and coordinate with one another
with no manual prompting. Called a “sensor web”,
if a satellite viewed an interesting scene, it could alert
other satellites on the network to collect data
during their passes over the same area. Together, they more quickly observe and
downlink data from the scene than waiting for human orders. NASA’s SensorWeb software reduces the wait time for data
from weeks to days or hours, which is especially helpful for emergency
Laying the Foundation for
shows the Rodeo-Chediski fire on July 7, 2002, that were taken one minute apart
by Landsat 7 (burned areas in red) and EO-1 (burned areas in purple). This
precision formation flying allowed EO-1 to directly compare the data and
performance from its land imager and the Landsat 7 ETM+. EO-1’s most important
technology goal was to test ALI for future Landsat satellites, which was
accomplished on Landsat 8. Credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center
EO-1 was a pioneer in precision “formation flying” that kept it orbiting Earth exactly one minute behind the Landsat 7 satellite, already in orbit. Before EO-1, no satellite had flown that close to another satellite in the same orbit. EO-1 used formation flying to do a side-by-side comparison of its onboard ALI with Landsat 7’s operational imager to compare the products from the two imagers. Today, many satellites that measure different characteristics of Earth, including the five satellites in NASA’s A Train, are positioned within seconds to minutes of one another to make observations on the surface near-simultaneously.
Black sand beaches occur where lava flows enter the sea. The sand is quenched lava that is mostly glass. The finely divided glass and crystals weather quickly so the beaches don’t usually last for long periods. They are located in various parts of the world such as Hawaii, Iceland and Alaska.
as mentioned in these previous posts, kilauea, a flat broad shield volcano, has erupted continuously from its pu’u o’o vent since 1983, growing the island by about 42 acres a year as its basaltic lava flow oozes at a speed of fifteen yards an hour into the ocean. photos by tom kuali.
The US National Science Foundation shared this vine showing how scientists actually sample active lava flows on Hawaii - they literally pull the lava away with a hammer then drop it in a bucket of water nearby.