flight dynamics


When you are in the combat zone, agility of a fighter jet is of utmost importance. But as an engineer, if you have already fiddled around with the wing structure your next option would be to fiddle around with the direction of the thrust.

Thrust Vectoring

Thrust vectoring is primarily used for directional control in rockets and jets. And one achieves this by manipulating the direction of thrust .

This generates the necessary moments (and forces) that enable the directional control of the aircraft. 

An aircraft traditionally has three “degrees of freedom” in aerodynamic maneuverability; pitch, yaw and roll. **

The number of “dimensions” of thrust vectoring relates directly to how many degrees of freedom can be manipulated using only the vectored engine thrust.

Therefore, 2D vectoring allows control over two degrees of freedom (typically pitch plus either roll or yaw) while 3D controls all three.

Lockheed Martin F35B

The F-35B short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) variant is the world’s first supersonic STOVL stealth aircraft.

It achieves STOVL by swiveling its engine 90 degrees and directing its thrust downward during take off/lvertical landing mode.

In the following gif you can witness the transition from a 90 degree tilted engine towards a forward thrust engine during flying.

Unlike other variants of the Lockheed Martin F-35 the F-35B has no landing hook. And as a result, witnessing its landing is rather pretty special.

But nevertheless, this is one of those posts which addresses a topic that has been a gold mine for research. If this sort of thing fascinated you, there have been a lot of research conducted by NASA do check them out.

Have a great day!

*Rockets - How to turn during flight ?

** Aviation 101 : Pitch Roll and Yaw

Book Lovers Day - Free Aeronautics e-Books from NASA

Quieting the Boom

The Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstrator and the Quest for Quiet Supersonic Flight.

Download it HERE

Elegance in Flight

A comprehensive History of the F-16XL Experimental Prototype and its Role in our Flight Research. 

Download it HERE

Probing the Sky

Selected National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Research Airplanes and Their Contributions to Flight.

Download it HERE

Cave of the Winds

The huge Langley Full-Scale Tunnel building dominated the skyline of Langley Air Force Base for 81 years (1930–2011). Explore how the results of critical tests conducted within its massive test section contributed to many of the Nation’s most important aeronautics and space programs.

Download it HERE

A New Twist in Flight Research

A New Twist in Flight Research describes the origins and design development of aeroelastic wing technology, its application to research aircraft, the flight-test program, and follow-on research and future applications.

Download it HERE

Sweeping Forward

Developing & Flight Testing the Grumman X-29A Forward Swept Wing Research Aircraft.

Download it HERE

Thinking Obliquely

Robert T. Jones, the Oblique Wing, our AD-1 Demonstrator, and its Legacy.

Download it HERE

The Apollo of Aeronautics

The fuel crisis of the 1970s threatened not only the airline industry but also the future of American prosperity itself. It also served as the genesis of technological ingenuity and innovation from a group of scientists and engineers at NASA, who initiated planning exercises to explore new fuel-saving technologies.

Download it HERE

X-15: Extending the Frontiers of Flight

X-15: Extending the Frontiers of Flight describes the genesis of the program, the design and construction of the aircraft, years of research flights and the experiments that flew aboard them.

Download it HERE


Delve into the story of the Ikhana, a remotely piloted vehicle used by NASA researchers to conduct Earth science research, which became an unexpected flying and imaging helper to emergency workers battling California wildfires.

Download it HERE

NASA’s Contributions to Aeronautics, Volume 1

This first volume in a two-volume set includes case studies and essays on NACA-NASA research for contributions such as high-speed wing design, the area rule, rotary-wing aerodynamics research, sonic boom mitigation, hypersonic design, computational fluid dynamics, electronic flight control and environmentally friendly aircraft technology.

Download it HERE

NASA’s Contributions to Aeronautics, Volume 2

Continue your journey into the world  of NASA’s Contributions to Aeronautics with case studies and essays on NACA-NASA research for contributions including wind shear and lightning research, flight operations, human factors, wind tunnels, composite structures, general aviation aircraft safety, supersonic cruise aircraft research and atmospheric icing.

Download it HERE

Interested in other free e-books on topics from space, science, research and more? Discover the other e-books HERE.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com

Announcement - Batman Beyond Slash Serial

Heya, folks! I hope that you guys are all doing well. I know for some that you all endured a last minute snowstorm surprise courtesy of Elsa, Jack Frost, Iceman, Sub Zero and Mr. Freeze. So I hope you guys are staying warm.

Anyway, I have a very special announcement to make. While I’m sure most of you remember this, I want to ask this just to be sure. Does anyone remember the old 2000 era DC animated series Batman Beyond? You know, one of the shows that used to come on the old KidsWB channel that you would actually wake up at seven AM/eight AM central on a freaking Saturday just to see and enjoy with your Pop Tarts and milk or a bowl of CoaCoa Puffs?

Originally posted by thewillywills

Remember now? Great. Now onto my point of this announcement…

I’m going to rewrite the Batman Beyond series in my vision, like I’m doing now with Scooby Doo Mystery Incorporated on Fanfiction. Net. And just as I have done with that series fanfiction remake I will be featuring slash in this take of mine. But it will have three special themes to it; 

1. Alpha/Beta/Omega Dynamics.

2. Terry is the son of Clark Kent(Alpha) and Bruce Wayne(Omega).

3. Since the DC Company couldn’t budget for it, I will make the fourth season we never got.

In my take I will feature various forms of DC lore throughout the comics, movies, games and TV shows of the franchise. This idea has been in development for at least two and a half years so be assured that I’m not cutting corners. It may seem confusing at the beginning of the series, but as Dirk Gently said it’s all connected. Everything will come full circle throughout my takes on the original three seasons of Batman Beyond and my vision of what I think season four would be. Granted DC may not use slash of Alpha/Beta/Omega Dynamics like I am…but you get the idea!

I will be posting the story like an episodic series would appear on TV, starting sometime in April at 9:30PM/10:30PM central with encore showing at 11:30PM/12:30AM central every Sunday. Some episodes from the original show will be combined, allowing certain characters to appear earlier than usual, and to fill the void I will include episodes I made up. I’ll be posting on Fanfiction. Net, deviantArt and Archive of Our Own. Then after the episodic chapter has aired I’ll hold a Q&A session here on Tumblr, and you guys can ask any and all questions you have about the current episode. As the series fanfic progress you’ll see familiar faces, new faces and learn things you may or may not have known about DC lore. Also, while I will be featuring as much DC lore as I possibly can, this series will center mostly around the events of the Batman Arkham game line. Don’t worry though - the reason of how everyone forgot that Batman is Bruce Wayne will be explained later on. To differentiate between the seasons each one will be a story of it’s own with a side title that comes after “Batman Beyond”.

That’s about it, folks. I hope that you enjoyed my announcement! Oh, and be on the watch with my Fanfiction. Net, deviantArt and AO3 profiles. I’ll be posting some chapter updates soon enough. And just to wet your appetites, here is a summary sneak preview of what to expect for season one.


Terrance Wayne-Kent, or Terry, is many things. A loving son, a loyal friend and a light that brings a shine to dismal Neo-Gotham. He is also an Omega, taking after his Omega parent Bruce. And like his second father Terry isn’t the usual Omega who preens and expects to be waited on. In fact you might say he waits on the city of Neo-Gotham, and does so in the same way as Bruce did so long ago. For the past two years Terry has been more to the city than just it’s New Favorite Son. He has been protecting Gotham as their new Batman, the Knight of Tomorrow. Because of his heroic persona Terry usually guards his heart whenever he deals with Alphas. But that all changes when he has a fateful encounter with the handsome Alpha half-blood son of Green Lantern and Hawkgirl, Rex Stewart aka Warhawk. Watch as two successors of lofty hero legacies battle together, taking on the worst of the worst one night at a time, and slowly but surely fall for each other.

Coming to your computer in April 2017, it’s “Batman Beyond: The Heir”.

@scumashslanderson @sumi-ink-ninja @superbatheadcanons @supervampirebat @onimi18 @bbb35 @katsuyacrimson @lucy-dont-give-a-fuck @nanihoosartblog @bramblerose4

13 Things I Want from The Magic School Bus Rides Again

(Because I need to get my expectations unrealistically high)

  1. A character arc for Fiona Frizzle. Something like her learning to be an elementary school teacher after being a scientist/adventurer her whole life and needing to fill her big sister’s shoes (Like she’s used to a lonely life of adventure or hard-core research, not used to looking after 8 youngins with endless questions? And she’s just like: “wow all these small adults are looking to me for knowledge and reassurance while we’re rafting inside of an active volcano…cool.).
  2. Maybe Fiona could be a bad driver initially? Like she has to adjust to the new vehicle or the bus has to bond with her first? (So she can be pressing buttons without a clue and suddenly her class is turning into birds and she’s like: “uhhh…totally meant to do that! Let’s study flight!”)
  3. A diverse, dynamic class of kids with their own arcs and personalities (Like how Arnold was a budding young geologist? And Phoebe always wanted to save the animals? And Carlos had a genius little brother?) Bonus points for including aspects of their depicted races/cultures without making it their whole character (i.e. Wanda is more than just “the Asian one”, etc.)
  4. Backstory on the Frizzle sisters (Like where the hell has Fiona been? What were they like as kids?! Just how much older is Valerie than Fiona? And why are Fiona’s initials F3?)
  5. Backstory on the freakin’ bus! (Just what the f is that thing if it isn’t a TARDIS? And why does it feel like a Frizzle family heirloom? How did the Frizzle clan come to be its keeper?)
  6. PROFESSOR Frizzle traversing the galaxy like the queen that she is and chasing her own mysteries as B plots/spinoff.
  7. Puns. So many goddamned puns. (The original was infamous for puns and I kind of loved it.)
  8. Occasional English lessons (OK, I know the show is about science/technology but couldn’t we slip in a grammar/vocabulary lesson or two?)
  9. History! (The books had the class travel back in time to see historical events/cultures. Let’s see Ms. Frizzle punch Hitler! Ok, maybe not that part of history…maybe Valerie is just wandering through time, exploring the past?)
  10. An episode on the greenhouse effect (It’s “controversial” but relevant to science ED today. It is a real phenomenon and a very important concept for kids to get right. Adults too!)
  11. Another of those Q&A segments after episodes with a “producer”. Heck, have it be a real scientist! (Bonus points for real-life scientists guest starring!!)
  12. Fiona playing guitar because that is Kate’s instrument and it would be adorable (Bonus points for her singing!!)
  13. Meeting one of Fiona’s old female friends/colleagues that she calls “partner” and it’s exactly what we think it is (Maybe she’s an awesome scientist too? #ScienceGalPals)

In summary, I can’t wait for this. And whether I like it or not, it will provide STEM education and adventure for children and isn’t that what really matters?

spyderinej  asked:

*pounds fists on table* give us fun facts about early manned space flight!!

YOUR WISH IS MY COMMAND TBH strap yourselves in this is gonna get long bcs!! astronauts!! are!! so!! cool!!

- during the first american spacewalk, or extravehicular activity for all you nerds, ed white was So Floored by the beauty of space that he almost forgot to come back into the spacecraft. he had to get back in due to Reasons, but he tried to use tacking more pictures as an excuse to stay out longer until his flight partner managed to and i quote “coax” him back in. all white said? “It’s the saddest moment of my life.” (still less terrifying then the first russian spacewalk tbh) 

- the first song played in space was jingle bells on an 8 note harmonica during gemini 6 by wally shirra, one of the orginal 7 nasa astronauts. immediatly before that they reported an “unknown object”. they reported santa’s sleigh. because of course they did. 

- hey you know that feeling when you’re on top of a 111m/363ft tall rocket that could cause one of the largest non-nuclear man made explosions if it failed? and your heart rate never gets above 70? yeah me neither but john w. young does. (for comparison: usually it spikes up to around 130-150. neil armstrong who?)

- speaking of john young, that man is a Beast. flew gemini, apollo AND the first shuttle flight. he also smuggled a corned beef sandwhich into gemini 3 that almost fucked up their electricity. because the space food they got was terrible, which i mean frankly i understand.

- during the assembly of the lunar landing modules, people weren’t allowed to bring screw drivers into them because if they’d fall, they’d break the floor. those things were FLIMSY. when they pressurized, the window would bend towards the outside. 

- yuri gagarin was a Delight for multiple reasons not limited to: introducing himself as the “world’s first spaceman” to some very confused soviet children and village people who probably thought he was a spy when he landed after his flight, sitting on a cushion as a pilot because he was too small to see and couldn’t stick his landings right since he couldn’t see the runway, shouting “off we go!” while being shot into space. nice dude. 

- apollo 12 was hit by lightning pretty much immediatly after take off. their entire console basically went “whoop de doo you’re fucked” and decided to give them a giant light show of warning lights. the only reason they didn’t had to do a super risky abort was because john aaron, flight controller extraordinair who’d later play a big role in apollo 13, remembered some obscure as fuck switch that could fix the electrical system and alan bean, astronaut who now PAINTS WITH LITERAL MOON DUST, remembered said obscure switch from a training exercise. the entire crew broke out into what one author described as “nervous giggles” after that. my favourite bit is how they relay the information from flight controller to flight director to capcom to pilot and EVERY SINGLE ONE says “the what switch now?”

- speaking of the apollo 12 crew: besides being an absolute Gem in general, they were music enthusiasts. pete conrad brought along a bunch of country and western music that the other two didn’t like, but alan bean was into top 40 which led them to sing and “dance” to Sugar, Honey, Honey on their way too the moon. holding hands and gently floating around. IN SPACE. what dorks.

- other reasons why apollo 12 is the best: they had matching custom painted cars that they drove around houston. ask me for more if you’re into lovely flight crew dynamics for all your au and hope in humanity needs.

- so the americans used to land their crews in the ocean bcs u know you have it why not use it it’s convenient. the soviets/russians don’t really have any suitable ocean around so they had to settle for land landings. which not only brought about the already mentioned gagarin incident, but in general led to some… fun incidents (iirc one crew got stuck in the tundra for like two days and met some polar bears). on the second ever soviet space flight, cosmonaut gherman titov (who also was the first person to sleep in space and get space sickness so u know), was seen ejecting himself from his spacecraft (they used to do that bcs they were #hardcore) and almost landed himself on some rail tracks before landing backwards, rolling over 3 times and getting a face full of nice dirt. some very lovely lady saw this and in her rush to be a Helpful Human drove SO FAST over the bumpy terrain that she banged her head on the steering wheel and “jumped out with a bloody forehead”. so his first task post! landing from the then longest space flight in human history? as the then youngest person in space ever?? giving first aid from his Spacecraft Medical Kit to a local lady. 

HERE YA GO your daily dose of Fun Space Facts. and this is just!! the tip of the iceberg!! there’s so much more!! female astronauts!! john glenne setting his house on fire to impress gherman titov!!! grammatical errors on lunar plaques!! mORE MUSIC IN SPACE!! PRANKS!! HUMANITY BEING COOL!!

*listens to backstabbing girl drama*

Yeah, wow, no. I’m way too distracted by Star Trek, Harry Potter, the string theory, the dynamics of flight, high-frequency trading, pop music trends, and alternate history fiction to even consider acting that way. It wouldn’t even occur to me.


Been a while since the F-111 has been on the site! With that said, enjoy this clip of the final “dump and burn” ever at the 2010 Williamtown Airshow.


Hummingbirds are incredible flyers, especially when it comes to hovering. To hover stationary and stable enough to feed, the hummingbird’s flapping pattern not only has to generate enough lift, or vertical force, to counteract their weight, but the bird must balance any forward or backward forces generated during flapping. As you can see in the animations above, when hovering the hummingbird’s wings move forward and back rather than up and down. When slowed down even further, the figure-8 motion of the wings becomes apparent. This careful motion is key to the hover; it allows the bird to generate about 70% of its lift on the downstroke when the wings move forward and creates the remainder of the lift needed on the upstroke. For much more high-speed footage of hummingbirds, check out the full BBC Earth Unplugged video, but be warned: you may experience a cuteness overdose! (Image credit: BBC Earth Unplugged, source)

“If we do our job, you’ll tell us in 6 months. Probably on a forum somewhere.”

The Panel

  • Andrew Farrell, Senior Artist
  • Dean Roskell, Senior Level Designer
  • Jason Barlow, Development Manager
  • Leah Shinkewski, Associate Producer (DA Keep)
  • Mike Laidlaw, Creative Director
  • David Hulegaard, Community Manager (and panel’s Moderator)

“[Bioware] spent a long time in pre-production,” as Frostbite originally was used for first-person shooters like Battlefield 4. Everything was hacked by the level designers to prepare for dialogue, communication, and other Dragon Age elements. 


The Frostbite engine allows Dragon Age: Inquisition to implement and use big spaces. Players will travel through multiple regions, similarly to Origins of a fast-travel across the nation. The developers have kept three goals in mind:

  1. Area Variety. Keep the environments fresh and organic for the player to explore.
  2. Make the areas significant. “Why is the Inquisitor here?” Each place has purpose.
  3. Re-discover discovery. Allowing players to traverse the world in any direction they want to go.

The Inquisitor will experience and shape the world through directly influencing the world. With the antagonist hidden and an environment clouded in conspiracy, soldiers are uprooting evildoers at your command and the Inquisition is gaining prestige and power. Your party is the “vanguard” that heads change. By sending troops to fix towers and gain extra areas, your power rises. You, as the Inquisitor, have very unique abilities, involved with closing the rifts, that no other man or woman can do. It’s up to you how to handle the chaos in the world.

Because of multiple regions, every level offers its own challenge. Enemies are unique to the ecosystem, while environmental elements like desert ruins or the coastline with steep hills offer different conflict. 


A snowy area where “something goes wrong” and may force conflict with the Red Templars (templars influenced by red, raw lyrium). The location is not simply a small camp - it’s a territory strongly owned and enforced by the Red Templars. The Inquisition’s job, if the player chooses to engage this area at all, is to keep the front moving into this entrenched area by slowly pushing up the mountain.

The main base of operations is protected in the back. War camps protect the front. Red crystals scatter across the snowy fields.  It’s impossible to freely roam this area, as the soldiers litter across the war camps, until the Inquisitor and armies complete certain tasks to alleviate the Red Templar command. 

Highlands is a Tier-2 encounter, scripted like a puzzle. They are not simple highwaymen walking down some path; it’s an army. The Red Templar faction is a full force, dabbling in powerful lyrium and gaining new powers. However, it’s hard to leave them alone, as their base is a big supply position and its continued presence will only help the Red Templars thrive.

Beyond the Red Templars, the Behemoth will be a challenging opponent. A great creature of raw, red power that influences the environment around it. As it will stand firm, with the help of other templars to distract, it’s up to the Inquisitor’s judgement how to handle such a strong opponent. 

The quest line is a terrible risk, but the prize… “You may have gone somewhere else entirely. Like not going to this area at all, but still progressing in this part of the game.” You can drive the story without needing to stop to help at every turn, though it may help the Inquisition for better purposes. Gold is the most immediate treasure, but influence and a new location of a good supply position will help. Your choice.

(Small note: A character from The Masked Empire will appear in the Highlands. It apparently makes sense that they are present.)

Hunting and Gathering

If you want to go dragon hunting, you can. If you want to pick herbs, you can. If you want to hunt deer or nugs (HOW DARE YOU), you can. 

Keep in mind that ecosystems deplete over time, if you hastily wipe out an area. Sometimes you will have to wait for certain areas to repopulate. The developers are not encouraging grinding/farming in these systems, but to make sure that the ecosystem is organic to how an area would naturally feel. 

Kill a few wolves. Let them live. Come back a few times every now and then, and you get a new coat. Maybe down the line, you’ll make a pair of shoes. 

But, kill them all at the same time and you might wait be out of luck the next time you need fancy armor.

Short Things

  • Elfroot is rare
  • Specific kills against a creature faction will benefit combat against that faction in the future
  • “Big *** creepy spiders” are in caves. And possibly in crates. Do not open. (You’ve been warned)
  • Time to crate, a term to describe “how long does your game manage until you have to break a crate”

A Moment for Combat

Traps, stealth, and abilities were improved to help preemptively plan for battle. Walls of ice (edit: magically made ice walls) and blockades will force archers to move into line of sight. 


Dragons are designed to rip your head off. Good luck getting in direct contact enough to swing a blade, as they are terrifyingly difficult encounters. In most cases, you will target the limbs enough to attack the head. Dragons have dynamic flight patterns, where it adjusts to certain details: your health, your in-combat/out-of-combat status, and your location. However, dragons are not simply generating out of the sky; each dragon is an individually scripted encounter. It exists for its environment.

Preparing to kill a dragon is your first step. Gearing and preparing your party is second. Dragon hunting alone is giving yourself quests, as many prerequisites exist to not get utterly torched by one.


Ah, well. Not really. Just a tip that dragons can scorch the earth and its fire can damage an Inquisitor’s pretty feet.

DA Keep

The free, web-based experience Keep will “allow you to shape and share your experiences”. The best part of Keep is its ability to help discover and illustrate new areas that the player may have not seen before. Developers are happy with using Keep, as it builds confidence in making sure it’s not detrimental whether the player has or has not played Origins or 2. Going into the future, the Keep will be an effective tool in helping players import worlds and share stories with others. 

Quick Answers

Happenings outside the DA games franchise (i.e books, movies) will relate in the timeline of all events. - Mike Laidlaw, said right before The Masked Empire being referenced in Inquisition

Day and Night cycles? No, as it is driven by story. Not on a dynamic system, as a stylistic choice. This way, different environments can have very strong atmosphere and mood in sync with the crafted music and script. On a long term basis, however, it is something the developers may look into.

Weather changes? Yes, as demonstrated by the rain in the Dragon Age: World of Thedas environmental trailer.

Overworld travel map is currently instant-fast travel between nations. Random encounters experienced in between fast-travel, like Origin’s system, is still being investigated and nailed down by the developers. The issue is that entering an area involves scripted encounters for your base. The context of the game has changed so much that it feels unnecessary, but is still being evaluated for Inquisition.

Elements from the novel Asunder will, at the very least, be explored. At least one character from Asunder will appear.

No MMO planned, as of now. While they do have gameplay fundamentals mirroring MMO-mechanics, they want to concentrate on building story. Experience is for “one player coordinating actions of the party”.

Scouts are sent out to show possible places to overtake, like old keeps or outposts. They will tell you the initial storyline and purpose/advantage for the Inquisitor to venture out. These bases captured will be safe harbors for that regional area, once claimed.

Formation flight Sunday. “A four ship F-16 Fighting Falcon formation flies through the sky on a mission in northern Minnesota on Nov. 17, 2007. The F-16’s, from the 148th Fighter Wing of the Minnesota Air National Guard in Duluth, were practicing mid-air refueling from a KC-135 Stratotanker in order to fulfill training requirements. (U.S. Air Force photo by Tech. Sgt. Brett R. Ewald)”