FUR BEARING TROUT

The FUR BEARING TROUT is probably the rarest of all known fish. Found only in the high country where small lakes and streams above timberline contain ice and slush the year around. They feed on high flying insects frozen in the ice ages ago. Fishing for these trout try the greatest skills of the most persistant [sic] fishermen. They have been found in most of the high mountains of the world.

Lawnmowers of the sea

Grazing on algae is a full-time job for a highly specialized group of coral reef fish.

In a new study, a Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California San Diego-led research team examined the unique grazing roles of algae-eating herbivores on coral reefs to learn more about how they help keep corals from being overgrown by seaweeds.

To find out, Scripps marine ecologist Emily Kelly and her research team recorded the feeding behaviors of 15 of the most common species of algae-eating fish, such as parrotfish and surgeonfish on a coral reef in Maui, Hawaii. The study, conducted over a four-year period, compared these observations to the stomach contents of several of the fish species as well as the habitat in which different fish were grazing.

Kelly’s team discovered that despite large-scale similarities across all species in the consumption of “turf algae,” a group of algae comprised of a number of different species, a finer scale analysis revealed that individual species are actually selectively grazing on different types of algae and in different ways.

“These ‘lawnmowers’ on the reef are selective in the types of algae they consume and the impact of each bite,” said Kelly, lead author of the study and a postdoctoral scholar in the Scripps Coral Reef Ecology Lab. “These fish are in fact each a different type of gardening tool with a slightly different function in grazing.”

  

Schools of herbivorous fish are shown at Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area in Hawaii.Credit: Credit: Emily Kelly/Scripps

Hear that? Sound is a crucial part of marine ecosystems and can help organisms communicate and identify the whereabouts of mates, offspring, predators and prey. 

Groupers, like this marbled grouper in Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary, are known to produce low-frequency “booms” that are loud enough for passing scuba divers to hear. A grouper makes this sound by contracting its sonic muscle, which in turn causes its swim bladder to contract and expand. These booms are usually made during courtship and spawning events. 

(Photo: G.P. Schmahl/NOAA)

Many spells, especially those that request healing or protection for animals, or those to locate lost animals, suggest consecrating the animal to a spirit. Although there are also may others, the following have earned a reputation as renowned animal-protectors. Incorporate them to your spells as needed.

  • Spirits that Protect Cats: Artemis, Bastet, Freya, Hecate, Lilith
  • Spirits that Protect Big Cats (Tigers, Lions, Leopards, Etc.): Dionysus, Durga, Hathor, Kybele, Sekhmet
  • Spirits that Protect Dogs: Artemis, Hecate, Ogun, Saint Roch
  • Spirits that Protect Horses: Anat, Demeter, Epona, Poseidon, Rhiannon, Rla-mgrin (Hayagriva)
  • Spirits that Protect Toads: Agwe, Heket
  • Spirits that Protect Snakes: Athena, Ezili, Freda Dahomey, Lilith, Mami Waters, Simbi, Lady Asherah
  • Spirits that Protect Cows: Brigid, Hathor, Hermes, Isis, Lakshmi, Maeve, Shiva
  • Spirits that Protect Fish: Atargatis, La Baleine, La Sirene, Yemaya
  • Spirits that Protect Pigs: Demeter, Seth
  • Spirits that Protect Animals in General: Aphrodite, Artemis, Baba Yaga, Faunus, Hathor, Lilith, Saint Anthony (Saint Anthony is the spiritual detective: request his assistance when anything or anyone is missing)

(from The Element Encyclopedia of 5,000 Spells by Judika Illes)