first half of the 14th century

Medieval villagers mutilated the dead to stop them rising, study finds

A study by archaeologists has revealed certain people in medieval Yorkshire were so afraid of the dead they chopped, smashed and burned their skeletons to make sure they stayed in their graves.

The research published by Historic England and the University of Southampton may represent the first scientific evidence in England of attempts to prevent the dead from walking and harming the living – still common in folklore in many parts of the world.

The archaeologists who studied a collection of human bones – including the remains of adults, teenagers and children excavated more than half a century ago, and dated back to the period between the 11th and 14th century – rejected gruesome possibilities including cannibalism in times of famine, or the massacre of outsiders. The cut marks were in the wrong place for butchery, and isotope analysis of the teeth showed that the people came from the same area as the villagers of Wharram Percy in North Yorkshire – a once flourishing village which had been completely deserted by the early 16th century. Read more.

Krashovani or Kraševski Hrvati in Romania

The Krashovani (Romanian: Carașoveni, Croatian: Krašovani) are a South Slavic community inhabiting Carașova and Lupac in the Caraș-Severin County within Romanian Banat. They are regarded as and predominantly self-identify as Croats. They are Roman Catholic by faith and speak the Torlakian dialect Their dialect is regarded a sub-dialect of the Torlak dialect,a  transitional dialect spoken in southeastern Serbia, westernmost Bulgaria and northeastern Macedonia.

Their ancestors first settled Carașova in the 13th and 14th centuries from northwestern Bosnia. They formed a community in the northern plateau of the Caraș river, in seven villages, the oldest, Carașova, being mentioned in the 13th and 14th centuries while the rest are first mentioned in the 17th century.S erbian ethnographer Jovan Cvijić concluded that the community was “very old settlers with origin in Crna Reka who were Catholicised”; Stanko Žuljić claims that their origin is in Turopolje, in Croatia. The Carașoveni were considered Bulgarians by some Bulgarian scientists in the first half of the 20th century (such as G. Cibrus, M. Mladenov, K. Telbizov, and T. Balkanski), partially based on their view that Torlakian-speakers are ethnically Bulgarians.According to the Austrian population census there were over 10,000 Carașoveni in Banat. In the 1847 census over 10,000 people declared as Carașoveni. In 1896 the Austro-Hungarian census around 7,500 Carașoveni were listed. The same was stated by the authorities of the Kingdom of Romania in 1940. Their number dropped to 2,775 in 1992. Ever since the Romanian Revolution, the government of Romania has awarded special minority status and privileges to its ethnic Serb citizens. The Democratic Union of Serbs and Krashovani of Romania (Uniunea Democratică a Sârbilor si Carașovenilor din România) was founded in 1992.


Silk caftan dating to the first half of the 14th century. It’s amazing to me that it’s survived this long in such fantastic condition. Arabic with possible Chinese influences. Part of the David Collection, a museum of fine arts in Copenhagen.

While the typical Arab caftan was closed in the front, the Mongol was closed on the side with a row of tapes, which in this caftan are attached to a reinforced piece around the waist. The pattern demonstrates a mixture of Eastern and Western influences. The drop-shaped elements with stylized lions and surrounding swastika shapes point to China, while the stylized border with Kufi pseudo-calligraphy on the shoulders is an Islamic feature that has its origins in Arab tiraz textiles.

These textiles worked with gold were costly, and although a number of smaller parts of the same pattern were used to complete the caftan, an extra piece of another type nonetheless had to be used as well. Most of the gold has been lost, and the areas that were once golden are now brown.


1)Battle shields, European, medieval 11th-14th century, almond-shaped battle shield with curved topline, extremely heavily weathered and worm-eaten, wood chemically strengthened and preserved. L 125 cm W 40 cm.

2)Hungarian-style Shield, ca. 1500–1550 Eastern European
Wing-shaped shields, with the distinctive upward-sweeping back edge, were the characteristic light-cavalry shields of Hungary. During the sixteenth century, the style was adopted across much of eastern Europe by both Christian and Islamic horsemen. The shield’s elongated upper edge was designed to defend the back of the head and neck against cuts from the saber, the preferred cavalry weapon in that region.
This shield is painted on its exterior with the double-bladed sword of the Prophet Muhammad and on its interior with the Crucifix and instruments of the Passion. This unusual mix of Islamic and Christian symbols suggests that the shield was used in a tournament by a Christian warrior dressed in oriental fashion. In these “Hungarian-style” tournaments, the participants wore Hungarian and Turkish costumes and used sabers to strike off feathers attached to their opponents’ helmets and to the apex of their painted shields. Even at a time when Turkish armies were a constant threat to eastern Europe, their costumes and tactics were imitated by their Christian foes.

3)The sword and shield found at the tomb of Henry V. I admire the hollow-ground blade. Oakshott type XIII.

4)A Fine and Rare Large Bohemian Pavise, circa 1400. Height: 85 ½ in; Width: 30 ½ in. Pavises are fitted at their lower ends with a pair of projecting iron spikes that could be driven into the ground so as to better resist the onslaught of the enemy. A particular tactic of the Bohemians was to form a solid wall of pavises.

The pavise–referred to in Italian and German documents as early as the first half of the 13th century–is thought to have taken its name from the North Italian city of Pavia. According to an anonymous chronicle of about 1330, ‘The military renown of the Pavians is proclaimed all over Italy. After it are called large shields, rectangular at top and bottom, known as Papienses. It was perhaps through the influence of Italian mercenaries that the use of the pavise spread to other parts of Europe, most notably Bohemia where it was employed to impressive effect by the Hussite revolutionary armies of the late 14th and early 15th centuries. The bold heraldic design of the present example can be seen as a 'differenced’ version of the arms of Bohemia, namely gules, a lion rampant or, occurring on a pavise of almost identical design that passed through the art market in 1994.

5)A pavise from Bavaria, dated to the late Middle Ages and painted with the arms of Shongau
Source: Andreas Praefcke (Own work (own photograph)) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.

6)Archer’s Shield (Pavise), probably Bohemian (Chomutov), ca 1440 – “This example is painted in the center with a crown surmounted by three ostrich feathers, a badge of the kings of Bohemia. Below this is the letter Y on a radiant cloud, possibly the monogram for Yhesus (Jesus). At the top is the coat of arms of the Saxon city of Zwickau (a red shield with three white swans), which was added to the shield at a later date.”

7)Pavise. Bohemian, mid-15th century. Bears arms of Zwickau and Saxony in Germany.

8)Pavese, wahrscheinlich Deutschland, 15. Jahr. (Veste Coburg - Inv. Nr. I.D.23).

9)Setztartsche (Pavese), Wien (?), um 1440 (Wiener Burgerlische Zeughaus - Inv. Nr. 126.112).

10)Austrian Pavise, ca 1480 (Overall height: 49 ¼ in; Overall width: 21 ½ in) – It is painted with the arms of the Austrian Bindenschild .

'I cannot vote, but I can be voted for’ — The women who ran for office before Hillary, a history:

Victoria Woodhull, 1872 

Photo: Bettmann/Bettmann Archive

She ran under the banner of the Equal Rights party nearly half a century before women even had the right to vote. She was also the first woman to testify before Congress, arguing that the 14th and 15th amendments to the constitution – the ones granting equal protection under the law and giving black men the vote – also enfranchised women.

Shirley Chisholm, 1972

Photo: Don Hogan Charles/Getty Images

She was the first African American to run for the presidential nomination. She earned 152 delegates and used them at the Democratic convention as bargaining chips to have the rights of women, African Americans and the poor included in the party platform.

Lenora Fulani, 1988 and 1992

Photo: Eric Risberg/AP

She was the presidential nominee for the New Alliance party, which no longer exists. During her 1988 run, Fulani was the first woman to appear on the ballot in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. At the time, she received 225,000 votes.

On June 7th, history was made again. 

I have this headcanon where Jess and Ruby are the same person.

Jess was killed the same way as Mary: burned on the ceiling. Only, Mary was killed because she violated her deal with Azazel. It’s entirely possible that Jess did the same thing. She made a deal and somehow violated it (I like to think that she was under orders to keep Sam away from his family until Azazel gave the okay. Sam leaving with Dean that weekend in the Pilot threw Azazel’s plans out of whack). Only, unlike Mary, Jess actually made the deal with her own soul.

So, with Jess dying and not staying behind as a ghost like Mary did, off to hell she goes. Fast forward to Ruby’s arrival. That episode is 25 months after the Pilot. Translated into Hell Time, that is 250 years.

That is 250 years for Jess’ entire identity to be changed. 250 years for Jess, the gentle civilian, to turn into Ruby, the “14th Century witch”. 250 years for any lingering memory of her humanity to be removed and replaced with whatever memories Hell wanted to give her. But Ruby says she remembered being human, so something must have remained. One possible thing that could be is the reason for her deal in the first place: Sam.

Jess entered Hell thinking “I love Sam Winchester” and would have escaped as Ruby thinking the exact same thing. Only, her two and a half centuries in Hell would have removed any real meaning behind those four words. Two and a half centuries would have tortured any real meaning behind those words out of her. She wouldn’t remember who Sam was. She wouldn’t remember why she loved him. All she would know is that she loves Sam Winchester and would have been more than happy to help Lilith upon finding out that Lilith’s plans meant she could see Sam Winchester.

Ruby is comparatively gentle with Sam. She does what he asks. She doesn’t force him away from Dean in her manipulations (she allows that to happen on its own). She even goes out of her way to please him by finding a brain-dead Jane Doe to inhabit. Even as Sam becomes more and more addicted to Demon’s Blood, she enables him in a way that caters to his conscience. Ruby could have done a lot worse than all that and still maintain her status as Lilith’s Double Agent.

However, she did not and appeared quite pleased with herself when it looked like she and Sam were both about to be rewarded by Lucifer. She did her job, was the best at it, and was about to get both herself and the love of her life rewarded in the best way possible. Because Ruby had love in her eyes as she looked at Sam those moments before Dean killed her. Because that is the only thing she remembered from her time as a human.

I love Sam Winchester.”

Ruby loved Sam Winchester because Jessica Moore loved Sam Winchester. Because they’re the same person.