1. A Sami man and child in Finnmark, Norway, circa 1890 - 1900
2. A Sami family, Norway, c. 1900.
3. Photo of Anne Jonsdatter, by Prince Roland Bonaparte, 1884 (printed ca. 1886).
4. Photo of Aslak Piersen, by Prince Roland Bonaparte, 1884 (printed ca. 1886).
5. Photo of Ullia Eliowna, by Prince Roland Bonaparte, 1884 (printed ca. 1886).
6. Photo of Berit Larsdatter Siri by Prince Roland Bonaparte, 1884 (printed ca. 1886)
The Sami people (also Sámi or Saami, traditionally known in English as Lapps or Laplanders) are an indigenous Finno-Ugric people inhabiting the Arctic area of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of far northern Norway, Sweden, Finland, and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. The Sami are the only officially recognized indigenous people of Scandinavia, protected under the international conventions of indigenous peoples, and are hence the northernmost indigenous people of Europe. Their traditional languages are the Sami languages and are classified as a branch of the Uralic language family. Traditionally, the Sami have pursued a variety of livelihoods, including coastal fishing, fur trapping, and sheep herding. Their best-known means of livelihood is semi-nomadic reindeer herding. (wiki)
My bad, I had to explain it before for my foreign followers! (sadly, Wikipedia entry about
is in stub and full of errors)
Udmurt people are
ethnic group in Russia. We live mostly in
Udmurt Republic (me, for example, live in Izhevsk, main city of Udmurtia), but small groups live in the neighboring areas: Kirov Oblast and Perm Krai of Russia, Bashkortostan, Tatarstan, and Mari El.
The Udmurt people are known for their red hair (probably the most red haired ethnisity in the world). The Udmurt people have also been known as Votyaks, Chud Otyatskaya,
Otyaks. We have a
number of our own traditions including dress. Udmurt dresses are very complex and varative.
The religion of the Udmurts is traditionally pagan. It is based
around folklore and mythology similar to that of the Finno-Ugric people.
Remnants of these religious practices are still strongly present but
the people have been significantly influenced by Russian Orthodoxy.
Our lands have been ruled by many nations through history
including the Golden Horde, but has been part of Russia since 1489. The
Udmurts along with other local tribes staged numerous uprising against
the Russian empire for the next couple of centuries.
The Udmurt people speak the Udmurt language, although Russian is
certainly the most predominate language in the republic. Both languages
are official languages of the Udmurt Republic. Russian is mostly used
in cities and schools however Udmurt is in common use within Udmurt
rural communities. The language is of Finno-Ugric origin so fits into the
same language groups as Finish and Hungarian. However the Udmurt has
borrowed quite a number of loan words from the neighbouring languages of
Russian and Tartar.
More info about Udmurt history could be found here:
1: Hungarians are Asian descendents, so Europe does just belong to Europeans. 2: so you're "American first", at the same time making a " #saveeurope". Make up your mind mate. Lol
Thanks to Pál Lipták’s researches it has been known for almost half a century that only 16.7 percent of 10th-century human bones belong to the Euro-Mongoloid and Mongoloid types. The European characteristics in the biological composition of the recent Hungarian population and the lack of Asian markers are not solely due to the thousand years of blending. Biologically, the population around 1000 AD in Hungary was made up almost exclusively of Europeans.
Neparaczki argues, based on new archaeogenetic results, that the Conqueror Hungarians were mostly a mixture of Hunnic, Slavic, and German tribes and this composite person evolved in the steppes of Eastern Europe between 400 and 1000 AD. This research group also established that “genetic continuity can be detected between ancient and modern Hungarians”.
Another study on Y-Chromosome markers concluded that “modern Hungarian and Szekler populations are genetically closely related”, and that they “share similar components described for other Europeans, except for the presence of the haplogroup P*(xM173) in Szekler samples, which may reflect a Central Asian connection, and high frequency of haplogroup J in both Szeklers and Hungarians”.
According to Dreisziger, there were not genetic anthropological and linguistic connections between the conquerors of 895 and modern Hungarian population and Hungarian language.
According to a 2008 study, the mitochondrial lines of the Hungarians are indistinct from that of neighboring Western Slavs, they are distinct from that of the ancient Hungarians (Magyars). Four 10th century skeletons from well-documented cemeteries in Hungary of ancient Magyar individuals were sampled.
Two of the four males belonged to Y-DNA Haplogroup N confirming their Uralic origin. None out of 100 sampled modern Hungarians carried the haplogroup, and just one of about 94 Székelyscarried it. The study also stated that it was possible that the more numerous pre-existing populations or substantial later migrations, mostly Avars and Slavs, accepted the Uralic language of the elite.
An autosomal analysis, studying non-European admixture in Europeans, found 4.4% of an admixture of non-European and non-Middle Eastern origin among Hungarians, which was the strongest among sampled populations. It was found at 3.6% in Belarusians, 2.5% in Romanians, 2.3% in Bulgarians and Lithuanians, 1.9% in Poles and 0% in Greeks. The authors stated, “This signal might correspond to a small genetic legacy from invasions of peoples from the Asian steppes (e.g., the Huns, Magyars, and Bulgars) during the first millennium CE.”.
Compared to the European nations, Andrea Vágó-Zalán’s study determined that the Bulgarians were genetically the closest and the Estonians and Finns were among the furthest from the recent Hungarian population.
According to Pamjav Horolma’s study, which is based on 230 samples and expected to include 6-8% Gypsy peoples, the small Hungarian haplogroup distribution study from Hungary is as follows: 26% R1a, 20% I2a, 19% R1b, 7% I, 6% J2, 5% H, 5% G2a, 5% E1b1b1a1, 3% J1, <1% N, <1% R2. According to another study by Pamjav, the area of Bodrogköz suggested to be a population isolate found an elevated frequency of Haplogroup N: R1a-M458 (20.4%), I2a1-P37 (19%), R1a-Z280 (14.3%), and E1b-M78 (10.2%). Various R1b-M343 subgroups accounted for 15% of the Bodrogköz population. Haplogroup N1c-Tat covered 6.2% of the lineages, but most of it belonged to the N1c-VL29 subgroup, which is more frequent among Balto-Slavic speaking than Finno-Ugric speaking peoples. Other haplogroups had frequencies of less than 5%.
Among 100 Hungarian men, 90 of whom from the Great Hungarian Plain, the following haplogroups and frequencies are obtained: 30% R1a, 15% R1b, 13% I2a1, 13% J2, 9% E1b1b1a, 8% I1, 3% G2, 3% J1, 3% I*, 1% E*, 1% F*, 1% K*. The 97 Székelys belong to the following haplogroups: 20% R1b, 19% R1a, 17% I1, 11% J2, 10% J1, 8% E1b1b1a, 5% I2a1, 5% G2, 3% P*, 1% E*, 1% N. It can be inferred that Szekelys have more significant German admixture. A study sampling 45 Palóc from Budapest and northern Hungary, found 60% R1a, 13% R1b, 11% I, 9% E, 2% G, 2% J2.
A study estimating possible Inner Asian admixture among nearly 500 Hungarians based on paternal lineages only, estimated it at 5.1% in Hungary, at 7.4 in Székelys and at 6.3% at Csangos.
It has boldly been noted that this is an upper limit by deep SNPs and that the main haplogroups responsible for that contribution are J2-M172 (negative M47, M67, L24, M12), J2-L24, R1a-Z93, Q-M242 and E-M78, the latter of which is typically European, while N is still negligible (1.7%). In an attempt to divide N into subgroups L1034 and L708, some Hungarian, Sekler, and Uzbek samples were found to be L1034 SNP positive, while all Mongolians, Buryats, Khanty, Finnish, and Roma samples showed a negative result for this marker. The 2500 years old SNP L1034 was found typical for Mansi and Hungarians, the closest linguistic relatives.
Anthropologically, the type of Magyars of the conquest phase shows similarity to that of the Andronovo people, in particular of the Sarmatian groups around the southern Urals. The Turanid (South-Siberian) and the Uralid types from the Europo-Mongoloids were dominant among the conquering Hungarians.Excavations of several Sarmatians showed that they belong to Haplogroup G2a, J1, J2 and R1a-Z93.
The following information is inferred from 433 Hungarian samples from the Hungarian Magyar Y-DNA Project in Family Tree (29 May 2017):