financing war
Violence warned over US dropping conflict minerals rule
By ABC News

Increased violence and corruption in central Africa could be the result of the recent decision by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission not to enforce a rule requiring American companies to report their use of conflict minerals, warn Congolese civic groups, rights groups and U.S. senators.

“The conflict minerals rule has played a critical role in reducing violence in mining areas in the Democratic Republic of the Congo,” said U.S. Sen. Chris Coons, D-Delaware, who recently signed a letter with five other Democratic senators urging the SEC to uphold the rule.

The conflict minerals reporting rule, part of the Dodd-Frank financial regulations law, has largely been successful in ensuring that minerals worth trillions of dollars don’t benefit armed rebel groups blamed for human rights abuses, a coalition of groups from Congo and southern Africa told the SEC in a series of public comments earlier this year. In an opposing view, some business groups in the U.S. dismissed the regulation as ineffective and an unnecessary burden.

In April, acting SEC chairman Michael Piwowar said his organization will no longer enforce the 2012 rule that requires companies to verify their products do not use tantalum, tin, gold or tungsten that have been mined or trafficked by armed groups in Congo and other central African countries. Although the SEC is independent from the Trump administration, Piwowar was designated as acting chairman by Trump, and the SEC’s action appears to be in line with the president’s view that the government should reduce regulations of company operations.

In addition to the SEC action, Republican legislation to roll back the Dodd-Frank law, expected to pass the House in coming weeks, would repeal the conflict minerals rule. The bill’s prospects in the Senate are unclear.

Armed rebels and criminal gangs have been funded for decades by the illicit trade in Congo’s minerals, estimated to be worth $24 trillion, according to the U.N. The minerals are essential ingredients in smart phones, laptops, tablets and other high-tech products.

Dropping the conflict minerals rule implicitly supports conflict in the Great Lakes region, Leonard Birere, president of the Coalition of Anti-Slavery Civil Society Organizations in Goma, Congo, told The Associated Press in an email.

“The activity of the armed groups in the mining sites had decreased substantially as well as their capacity for violence” due to the conflict minerals regulation, Birere said.

Some leading American companies also support the conflict minerals regulations. “Apple believes there is little doubt that there is a need to enhance gold trading due diligence,” the company wrote in its 2016 conflict minerals report to the SEC…

Congolese groups have a nuanced understanding of the conflict minerals rule. When the regulation was introduced in 2012, many U.S. companies pulled out of Congo.

“All sectors of our economy were suffocated or very nearly ground to a halt,” wrote a group of 31 civic organizations in eastern Congo to the SEC. But eventually the rule helped to cut off funds for armed groups and reduce child labor in mines, according to the coalition, the Thematic Working Group on Mining and Natural Resources.

The crackdown on illicit mining succeeded in reducing opportunities for armed groups to exploit the illegal trading of minerals, according to a report last year by the U.N. panel of experts monitoring sanctions on Congo.

Eastern Congo has experienced insecurity for decades from a myriad of rebel groups. More than 16,000 U.N. peacekeepers are based in the Congo with one of the world’s most aggressive mandates to defeat militia groups.

The conflict minerals rule “undoubtedly contributes to reducing the rate of crime and human rights violations, including rape of women and exploitation of children in mining areas,” 41 Congo-based non-profit organizations related to natural resources wrote to the SEC . “All these efforts and progress will be destroyed if the U.S. government decides to contradict itself.”

The Rothschilds… they and their banking cartel have also funded all sides in virtually every war since about 1800 - wars that their agents in government, the military and intelligence agencies have manipulated into being. This has cost the lives of at least hundreds of millions (75 million in the two world wars alone) and allowed governments and people to be controlled through debt payments on the loans. When the wars have devastated countries, the Rothschild banking cartel lends more money to rebuild them - plus interest, of course. They also own the armament companies that supply the weapons at staggering profits, secured by direct sales and still more loans to governments to buy them. As Gutle Schnaper, Mayer Amschel Rothschild’s wife, said shortly before she died in 1849: ‘If my sons did not want wars, there would be none.’
—  David Icke - Human Race Get Off Your Kness
Potential Reasons Obi-Wan Finally Cut His Mullet Off

-His shampoo and conditioner budget was drastically slashed in order to finance the war effort

-Mace made it an “official requirement” for joining the Jedi Council *cough*jealous*cough*

-He lost a bet with Anakin

-He didn’t have time/resources to groom his luxurious mane as well as he would like on the battlefield so he had to give it up

-Anakin kept braiding it to pass the time in between battles

- He lost a bet with Cody 

-Force Ghost Qui-Gon secretly manipulated him into cutting it off because Obi-Wan was pulling off the long hair look better than he ever did

-Once Anakin grew his hair out, he kept pestering Obi-Wan to wear a ponytail with him so they’d be twinsies

-He lost a bet a to Grievous (IT WAS A NEGOTIATION TACTIC)

First US War Loan to Britain

William McAdoo (1863-1941), US Treasury Secretary 1913-1918. He married Wilson’s daughter Eleanor in 1914.

April 25 1917, Washington–Although the United States, across the Atlantic and without a large army, could do little to directly help the Allies in Europe at the moment, there were contributions that could be made immediately.  Several destroyers were already on their way across the Atlantic to fight the U-boat threat.  The United States was also prepared to help financially, having not had to pay for the previous three years of the war.  On April 25, Treasury Secretary McAdoo met with Lord Cunliffe, the Governor of the Bank of England (who had accompanied UK Foreign Minister Balfour to the United States), and handed him a check for $200 million (around $4 billion in 2017 currency).  This was, at the time, the largest single check written by the US Treasury.

The bulk of the money was to remain in the United States, to be used to purchase armaments from American manufacturers.  The check was not a gift, of course, but a loan, albeit one with a much more generous interest rate (by 150-200 basis points) than the United Kingdom was able to obtain elsewhere.  This was the first of many US loans to the UK during the First World War.  The United Kingdom never fully repaid these loans, ultimately ceasing payments during the Great Depression with over $4 billion in outstanding debt.

Today in 1916: Germany Calls off U-Boat Campaign
Today in 1915: Allied Landings at Gallipoli

Who could challenge the contention that the world is an asylum when you observe the place for even a few minutes? – We have bankers lending us money that doesn’t exist (‘credit’) and charging interest on it – We have doctors supposedly healing the sick when the biggest killer in the United States is the treatment – We respond to cancer by killing the patient with chemotherapy and radiation which destroys the immune system and opens the door to even more cancer and much else – We have vaccines allegedly boosting the immune system when they are actually destroying it – We have scientists telling us how everything works, when they have not a clue about the true nature of reality and thus not a clue about how everything works – We have teachers telling children and young people whatever an insane and ignorant system dictates, no matter how flawed and mendacious it may be – We have men in frocks telling their congregations that all they need to know is between the covers of a single book, the Bible, Koran, Talmud, whatever; even crazier than that, we have billions believing them – We have political parties competing for office when behind the scenes all are controlled by the same force, which is why the same agenda unfolds no matter who is officially in government – We eat and drink chemical poisons in food and water and most people appear to think that this is perfectly okay – We have genetically-modified food that is genetically modifying us and yet most people never even consider the possibility or the implications – We have a media with no idea what is going on in the world telling us what is going on in the world – We have our freedoms constantly deleted to protect our freedoms – And we have civilians pepper-bombed from the sky to protect them from violence.
—  David Icke - The Perception Deception

anonymous asked:

One thing I find very strange is that Cersei is well aware that the throne is owing a lot of money to the bank and that her house is no longer rich. However, out of nowhere they still manage to keep the army well, finance the war, crown as queen, and still have time to change the weave, and all this needs money.

The Iron Throne is bankrupt, but House Lannister in the books is still stacked. The Crown owes them money.

“You know as well as I do that the treasury has been empty for years. I shall have to borrow the money. No doubt the Lannisters will be accommodating. We owe Lord Tywin some three million dragons at present, what matter another hundred thousand?”

- Littlefinger, in Eddard IV, AGoT

Three million dragons, just loaned to the crown like a fiver. They have plenty. And their goldmines produce more.

If you’re referring to the show, however, then yes that’s absolutely a plot hole.

anonymous asked:

Do you think Snily could have ever worked? As much as I don't like James, I think James and Lily were good together. And according to Rowling, they were soulmates due to their complementary patronuses. They were like that one power couple in high school, the ones who were pretty, popular, smart and who looked good together. When you add Snape to the equation, you know there is so much work involved the you don't know if it's worth it in the end.

Hmm, this is a difficult question to answer.  I don’t think we know enough about Lily, or Jily, or Lily’s friendship with Severus to draw any real conclusions.  

You can argue from one extreme:  Jily was perfect, the patronuses were a symbolic match, James was willing to die for Lily/Harry etc - to another:  they were pregnant at a young age, married due to societal pressures, merely stuck with each due to the war etc.  Importantly, I am not saying either of those readings are correct - but both readings (and all of the readings between those two extremes) are possible.

The same is true of Lily’s friendship with Severus; it is possible to see them as the best of friends who loved each other deeply and each was devastated to lose the other - or as kids who weren’t really compatible, hung out with each other because there was no-one else magical around and there was a degree of ‘tolerating’ going on.  Again, both of these readings are equally plausible, as are all of those between.

Personally, I think Severus manages to become a man who Lily would’ve been quite content to socialise with - a man who rejects Death Eater ideology, fights for the cause she believes in, saves others, and who became someone relatively impressive in his own right (teacher, Housemaster, Headmaster).  However, crucially, he only becomes this man due Lily being threatened/murdered.  

So that brings us back around to the question - Snily has to be an AU, and if it’s an AU then all bets are off.  There’s no particular reason why Jily has to occur in the AU, or if it does occur, there’s no particular reason why it has to last.  Presumably, Severus would need to change from his canon portrayal as a teenager if he was to have a lasting relationship with Lily - or Lily’s character would have to be clear as to why she would embark on a relationship with Severus as a wannabe/Death Eater (perhaps she doesn’t suspect or know, perhaps she thinks she can save him, perhaps she thinks he can protect her).

Are there other pressures?  Of course - in the Muggle world, Severus is clearly an undesirable, as proven by Petunia’s reaction to him.  In the Magical world, if Severus is still embroiled with the likes of the Death Eaters, then Lily is an undesirable.  Career, class, war, status, finances, social circles etc will all have a major impact.

Oddly enough, Potter as a series really reinforces the idea of one perfect partner.  I find that so curious - you will, over the course of your lifetime, meet several potential partners.  Jily and Snily are not mutually incompatible readings.  Even if both men are fundamentally different, Lily can have the capacity to love both men to the same degree, even if she acts on only one, or neither, or even both.


‘War for the Planet of the Apes’: The Reinvention of a Classic . Do you want more business news? Follow now!

We need to really understand the truth here. First of all, these players, these politicians, are nothing more than puppets - they don’t serve the people. There is no real democracy - they really serve the rich and powerful who run the world, and that would be the bankers who control the money supply. The bankers of course make huge amounts of money, whether they make bad investments or not - wars are great for them - and ultimately they control the politicians - and that is why we see these policies. Obama and Cameron are nothing more than puppets who read the script, and the script is - we need another war. And the reason why we need another war, according to these psychopaths who are running the word, is because more and more people - despite the clueless masses who continue to be entranced by things so ridiculous as X-factor and American Idol - there is larger numbers of people around the world who are realizing the truth and beginning to recapture the capacity to think for themselves. And they can see that these people who have been put into positions of public trust are defying that trust and representing an agenda which they could never speak about openly.
—  Ken O’Keefe -
An Economic History of the Fire Nation

Reading “How the West Came to Rule” and “Imperialism: the Highest Stage of Capitalism,” led me to dream up some pretty detailed fan theories about “Avatar: the Last Airbender.” Since the show doesn’t really explain it I started with the question, “Why are the Fire Nation Such Assholes?” So here’s my theory:

(The Avatar calendar takes its central date from the Air Nomad genocide that marked the beginning of the 100 Year War. The War begins therefore in 0AG, with dates prior to that designated by ‘BG.’)

With the dawning of the era of world history that began with the establishment of the Avatar Cycle, early firebenders settled the volcanic archipelago that would become the Fire Nation. Over centuries, and with some setbacks, the disparate island kingdoms eventually became unified under the Fire Nation Royal Family.

Proximity to the equator, providing long hours of sunlight, and rich volcanic soil made ideal agricultural conditions, and once relative political stability was achieved it was easy for the Fire Nation to accumulate economic surplus. The seismic instability of the region had drawbacks however: regular eruptions and fires prevented the growth of extensive ancient forests. Pockets of volcanic gas, lava, and frequent earthquakes made mining hazardous. Both of these conditions would prove to be important later.

The presence of a surplus and an autocratic political structure led to the development of pronounced class distinctions within Fire Nation society, with the ruling classes becoming increasingly wealthy. With economic surplus and peace the population of the Fire Nation began increasing rapidly. Here, geography presented its central challenge: although the Fire Nation is the second largest nation on Earth it is still quite small, especially compared with its vast neighbour to the East, the Earth Kingdom. With an expanding population and entrenched ruling class atop an economic system that depended primarily on agricultural production, a shortage of land available for cultivation would have been catastrophic. For centuries the ruling classes had relied on expanding their landholdings to keep profits flowing, but as land began running out a massive crisis loomed.

Wealthy landowners had two options: either squeeze the peasantry harder through taxation, or annex the territory of neighbouring landholders. Both presented serious political dangers to the unity of the Fire Nation: sporadic peasant revolt and ruling class infighting emerged as symptoms of growing economic tension. Investment in new intensive farming and industry followed from the ruling classes’ accumulation, and wealth increasingly became capital. But this only compounded the pressure on the peasantry, who now found themselves more likely to be unemployed and more likely to be worked harder and paid less when they could find work. In a nation comprised of islands that could easily become strongholds, rebellion would have been exceptionally difficult to deal with.

To some extent this economic pressure could be relieved by trade with the Earth Kingdom. The city of Taku, on the northwestern Earth Kingdom coast, became a trade hub, acting as a gateway for Fire Nation capital into the region and a platform from which goods could be imported. The Earth Kingdom’s seismic stability and cooler inland climates meant that it was in places heavily forested: wood from Earth Kingdom trees became a luxury item, furnishing upper class Fire Nation homes with coffee tables and decorative panelling. The combustibility of wood, and therefore its relative fragility in a nation populated by firebenders, only added to its value. In addition, earthbending meant that the Earth Kingdom could mine much more efficiently than its Western neighbour: ore and metals were exported from Taku in great quantities.

(Here it is worth noting some things about the economy of the Earth Kingdom that would be crucial in the final months of the 100 Years War. Unlike the Fire Nation’s feudal/protocapitalist structure, the Earth Kingdom economy was organised around tribute, where regional authorities would pay tribute up the ladder of the kingdom eventually reaching the royal treasury in Ba Sing Se. In exchange the receivers of this tribute kept the peace and protected the peasantry, allowing them a great deal of local autonomy. (The erosion of this protection by Fire Nation invasion is what allowed pirates to thrive during the war, like those encountered by Avatar Aang on his journey to the North Pole.) Unlike the Fire Nation, the Earth Kingdom did not require nearly as much constant expansion to fuel its economy, and what expansion was required was made simpler by greater availability of land.)

This was the economic context in which Sozin became Fire Lord in 58BG: looming economic and political collapse kept at bay mainly by expansion into the Earth Kingdom. It was Sozin who was to solve both the economic and political problems of the Fire Nation in one fell swoop. During his reign the Fire Nation peacefully established colonies like Yu Dao in the northwest of the Earth Kingdom, which served not only as opportunities for economic expansion but also a place to send undesirable surplus population - criminals, the unemployed, and potentially rebellious sections of the peasantry. This led to Sozin’s famous confrontation with Avatar Roku, who viewed Fire Nation expansion as a threat to the balance it was his role to uphold.

When Roku died in 12BG Sozin turned from colonisation to preparing for full-scale invasion. Knowing that the reincarnated Avatar would threaten his plans, in 0AG he used the power of Sozin’s Comet to commit genocide against the Air Nomads in an attempt to break the Cycle of Reincarnation, beginning the 100 Year War. In the same year Sozin’s son, Azulon, was born. The attempt on the Avatar ultimately proved unsuccessful, though at roughly the same time Avatar Aang became frozen, effectively removing him from the equation anyway. As the Fire Nation expanded into the Earth Kingdom profits flowed back to the capital, which could be reinvested in new war machines to continue the campaign, and so on. In order to finance the war Sozin borrowed heavily from wealthy ruling class families only too happy to convert war into an industry, whose political influence subsequently increased. The nature of warfare therefore changed under Sozin: whereas in previous epochs of Fire Nation history it was a tool for achieving dominance over scarce resources, with the outbreak of the 100 Year War militarism, aggression, and even genocide became successful and sensible business strategies.

Although annexation enabled the Fire Nation economy to keep growing, this was only half the problem. To solve the issue of political instability Sozin established a cult of personality and reorganised Fire Nation society around veneration of the Fire Lord. The Dragonbone Catacombs containing the nation’s history were sealed and compulsory education for children was introduced for the first time to aid in the teaching of the most politically useful version of history. The economic motives for the war were bolstered by nationalist justifications about Fire Nation superiority and the prominence of fire among the four elements. The absolute centrality of the Fire Lord also kept the growing influence of Sozin’s creditors in check.

Azulon assumed the title of Fire Lord in 20AG following Sozin’s death, and continued the war, conquering and colonising the Hu Xin Provinces. Under Azulon’s reign antagonism against the Southern Water Tribe, begun under Sozin, was escalated: the geographical layout of the Fire Nation Archipelago and the necessity of naval transportation to and from the colonies and front lines made the Southern Tribe a greater threat to Fire Nation control than the Northern, whose territory remained relatively unmolested until near the end of the war.

But it was Ozai, Azulon’s son, who was the change the nature of warfare again. Born in 53AG, unlike his father Ozai’s formative years were spent in a Fire Nation already steeped in nationalism and veneration of Fire Lords. Perhaps this saturation in jingoism explains why he ultimately made the horrific decision he did. However here the economic differences between the Earth Kingdom and Fire Nation came to play a critical role. With the capture of Ba Sing Se in 100AG the Fire Nation only succeeded in removing the top layer of the Earth Kingdom’s tributary economy. The layers below, right down to the largely autonomous peasantry, could keep functioning as normal without paying tribute to the regional or national capitals. This made the capture of Ba Sing Se largely useless from an economic standpoint. The city was already dependent on its surrounding regions for food and material imports: without control of those regions Ba Sing Se would have become an enormous drain on Fire Nation resources before long, even with the Royal treasury confiscated. Ozai had mistakenly attempted to conquer the Earth Kingdom from the top down, rather than the ground up.

With the Fire Nation’s economic ambitions in the Earth Kingdom stalled, and Ozai’s own apparent sincere belief in his supremacy as Fire Lord, a terrifying new tactic was adopted. Until this point the Fire Nation had sought economic control, but, abdicating the throne to his daughter Azula, Ozai crowned himself ‘The Phoenix King’ and attempted to use the power of Sozin’s Comet to burn the Earth Kingdom to the ground. This cannot have gone over well with the wealthy families who had lent money to the Fire Nation to finance the war: with the Earth Kingdom destroyed the original motives for the conflict would have been lost, and only the ideological justifications that had grown up around them would have remained. The fact that Fire Lord Zuko had enough resources to contribute to the building of Republic City after the war suggests that these creditors never managed to collect, which in turn suggests that they did not survive the hours during which Azula assumed control of the Fire Nation.

This, then, is the brief economic history of the Fire Nation: an economy dependent on expansion over limited land forced to turn to military aggression to protect profits, justifying that aggression with a nationalist ideology that ultimately outgrew and took over the war itself.


                                         HOUSE STARK META POST

PART 1 // PART 2 // PART 3

                                                                HOUSE STARK

  1. Bran Stark and Bran the Builder
  2. Arya as a Pack Leader
  3. Bran Stark: Wed to Winterfell, Wolf, and Weirwood
  4. Sansa as a Narrative Mirror
  5. Bran and his Destiny
  6. An Analysis of Winterfell: As Camelot, Avalon, and Sacred Tree
  7. A Time for Beasts: Bran, Arya, and the Long Night
  8. The Stark in Winterfell: Bran Stark and the Fisher King
  9. Sansa and the Royces
  10. Bran and the Caves of Gendel and Gorne
  1. Arya and Bran: 1 | 2
  2. Sansa and Bran
  3. Catelyn and Arya
  4. Ned and Arya: 1 | 2
  5. Arya and Robb
  6. Jon and Sansa: 1 | 2
  7. Arya and Sansa

                                                               EDDARD STARK

  1. Who Truly Killed Eddard Stark
  2. In Defense of Ned Stark’s Talent for Power
  3. In Defense Of  Ned Stark
  4. Who is Ned Stark?
  5. Ned Starks Motivation for Everything
  6. Character Discussion: Eddard Stark
  7. Why Ned Stark and Ashara Dayne were not an Item
  8. If Ned had Lived he would have Fought Against a Targaryen Restoration
  9. Would Ned have executed Theon if Balon Rebelled: Yes | No
  10. On Why Ned Allowed Jon to take the Black
  11. Why People Took Ned’s Word for it that Jon was his Son
  12. For the First Time in Years: Eddard Stark and Rhaegar Targaryen
  13. The Importance of Being a Quiet Wolf
  14. Why Ned Remained Loyal to Robert

                                                              CATELYN STARK

  1. In Defense of Catelyn Stark
  2. The Curse of Harrenhal is Real and its Greatest Victim is Catelyn Tully
  3. Why Catelyn Stark is a Good Person
  4. Catelyn Stark on Trial
  5. Character Discussion: Catelyn Stark
  6. Why I Like Catelyn Stark by Me
  7. Catelyn and Lady Stoneheart
  8. Catelyn and Vengeance
  9. Does Catelyn Stark Really Love all her Children?
  10. Book 1 vs Season 1: Catelyn on the Sidelines
  11. On My Honour as a Tully, On My Honour as a Stark
  12. The Silencing of Catelyn Stark
  13. Catelyn was a Good Political Adviser to Robb
  14. Catelyn Stark is Not Defined by her Interactions with Jon Snow
  15. Re: Catelyn Reacted Better to Ned’s Bastard than Ned
  16. Is Catelyn all bad?

                                                                 ROBB STARK

  1. Military Commander: Part 1 | 2 | 3 
  2. The Men Who Would Be King: Robb Stark
  3. On Robb and whether he warged into Grey Wind
  4. On Robb and Jon and Ruling
  5. Why Robb had to die
  6. A Message from the South: The Location of Robb’s Letter
  7. The Location of Robb Stark’s Will
  8. On the Existence of Robb’s Will
  9. In Response to Robb Hate
  10. Robb, Theon, Jeyne & Jeyne
  11. Thoughts on Robb Stark
  12. What Robb Symbolised to his Siblings
  13. On Whether Robb Earned the Title of The King Who Lost the North
  14. War of the Roses Parallels
  15. How Robb was able to Finance his War
  16. Robb’s Blind Spots, Privelege and Empathy (or Lack Thereof)
  17. Theon and Robb’s Dynamic
  18. “Robb Deserved to Die” Or, A History Lesson in Hindsight
  19. A Few Thoughts on Robb and Grey Wind
  20. Robb did not Bring the Red Wedding on Himself
  21. Robb and What Being a King in a Feudal System Means

                                                                   JON SNOW

  1. Other Wars: Part 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6
  2. Jon Snow in ADWD: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7
  3. On Jon’s Likely Reaction to Finding out his Parentage 1 | 2
  4. Jon, Rhaegar, and the Big Picture
  5. Jon Joining the Night’s Watch as a Case of False Agency
  6. Why I Respect Jon Snow and How You Can Too
  7. Jon Snow and the Laaaadies
  8. Jon Snow is not a Feminist
  9. What Resurrected Jon Might be Like
  10. The Relationship between Jon and Ghost
  11. On Whether Jon Might take the Northern Throne
  12. Parallels between Jon and Dany
  13. Jon and Dragon References 
  14. Jon Snow will return as an Other
  15. Lightbringer is not a sword. It’s a child: Jon Snow
  16. Character Discussion: Jon Snow
  17. Why did Jon got stabbed
  18. Jon will not think Himself Heir to the Iron Throne, He Already has a King
  19. Jon Snow and Ygritte
  20. Parallels Between Jon and Theon
  21. On Jon’s Judgement of Selyse
  22. What if Jon had been raised at Starfall?
  23. Jon Snow and Making Dad Proud
  24. Jon Broke his vows for Ramsay
  25. Jon Broke his vows for Arya
  26. Playing with Robb and Historical Heroes
  27. On Jon Snow’s Life Pre Asoiaf
  28. Jon the Rebuilder
  29. Jon and identity
  30. Jon Went Overboard in Allying with the Wildlings
  31. Jon and Bloodraven
  32. On Jon and Ghost and the Wall Interfering with the Direwolf Connection
  33. Daenerys Targaryen and Jon Snow Parallels
  34. On Whether Jon is a Bastard
  35. Jon’s leadership of the Night’s Watch
  36. On Whether Jon Might Have Avoided the Night’s Watch Mutiny
  37. The Romance of Jon and Ygritte
  38. Fetch Me a Block: Jon Snow’s Leadership
  39. Some Ramblings About Jon Snow
  40. On Tyrion and Jon
  41. On Jon Snow and Knowing Nothing
  42. Jon’s Constant References to Ygritte in ADWD
  43. Jon and his Bastard Status 
  44. The Ingenuity of Jon Snow
  45. How to Win Friends and Influence People
  46. The Night’s Watch Takes No Part…

                                                                SANSA STARK

  1. Sansa and Sandor: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4
  2. Sansa as the Sixth Major Character: 1 | 2 | 3
  3. Sansa and Petyr: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6
  4. Sansa has a Tendency to Romanticize 1 | 2 | 3
  5. Sansa as the Good Girl
  6. Why Sansa Represses and Alters her Memories 
  7. Sansa and Sandor and the Unkiss
  8. Sansa and the Game
  9. Sansa’s Growth: Handling Robert Arryn
  10. Sansa and Arya
  11. Sansa and Bravery
  12. Sansa is a Fighter
  13. Parallels Between Sansa and Lysa
  14. Sansa and Stark Identity
  15. ASOIAF Clothing Sansa Stark
  16. Sansa and the Likelihood of Warging/Skinchanging
  17. What Lady’s Death means for Sansa
  18. From Pawn to Player: Rethinking Sansa
  19. Kneeling at her wedding
  20. Re-thinking Sansa Stark
  21. Myranda Royce & Alayne Stone
  22. Sansa Stark, Prophecy, and Elizabeth of York
  23. An overlooked explanation for Sansa’s mistakes in AGOT
  24. Snow Winterfell
  25. Character Discussion: Sansa Stark
  26. Sansa, Ned & Cat
  27. Sansa’s Neglect and Grooming
  28. Sansa & Suicide
  29. Following Joffrey’s Death
  30. Sansa Stark not Alayne
  31. Reactions to Alayne I in TWOW
  32. Sansa & Poison
  33. Why Harrenhal may be the Castle built from Snow
  34. Sansa as an ISFJ
  35. Please Understand that Sansa Stark is not Passive
  36. Medusa Imagery
  37. Alayne and Harry the Heir
  38. She Got Better
  39. Sansa’s Coping Mechanism

                                                                 ARYA STARK

  1. Why Arya is with the Faceless Men 1 | 2 | 3 | 4
  2. Arya and Femininity 1 | 2
  3. Arya and Lady Stoneheart 1 | 2
  4. Why Arya is a Badass
  5. Why Arya will Survive
  6. Arya and the Trauma of Killing
  7. Arya on Justice, Survival and Killing
  8. Arya and Value of Death/Desire to Kill
  9. Arya is Traumatised, Not Detached
  10. Arya’s List: A Cry for Revenge or a Cry for Control
  11. Why Arya Chose the People on her list
  12. The Significance of Nymeria for Arya’s Storyline
  13. Arya is not Losing her Identity
  14. Arya and Compassion
  15. Arya is not a Sociopath or Psychopath
  16. Arya and Kindness and Compassion
  17. Arya and Self Esteem
  18. Things people forget about Arya Stark
  19. Arya and making friends
  20. Don’t Forget Valar Dohaeris
  21. Arya was Bullied by Sansa
  22. Arya and Bullying
  23. Arya and Loneliness
  24. Parallels Between Arya and Dany
  25. Parallels Between Arya and Daenerys
  26. A Response to the Claim that People Should not Root for Arya
  27. Reasons to Love Arya
  28. The Importance of Lady Smallwood
  29. Arya has Intelligence and Cunning
  30. Arya’s Mental Strength and Wits
  31. Arya has the Skills to Handle Politics
  32. Arya does not Represent the Stranger
  33. Arya and Signs of Depression
  34. Arya is not Anti-Women/Arya is a Feminist
  35. Arya and the Old Gods
  36. Arya the Outcast
  37. Arya and her Northern Roots and Starkness
  38. On Arya and Marriage and Children
  39. Arya is an Extrovert
  40. Why Arya Treasures Needle
  41. Arya and “Needlework”
  42. Dragon References in Arya’s Narrative
  43. Arya is Going to the Wall Foreshadowing
  44. Arya is Batman
  45. In Defense of Arya Stark
  46. Arya on Beauty, Romance and all Those Things we don’t Focus on
  47. Character Discussion: Arya Stark
  48. Arya Was Playing Shae in “Mercy”
  49. The Evolution of Arya: Comparing Arya in the Proposal Letter to Arya in ASOIAF
  50. The way Arya refers to Sandor Reflects her Feelings about him
  51. Arya is Relatable
  52. Arya is Important for Feminism and not because she has a Sword
  53. Arya’s Ideals and Code of Justice will Never line up with the Faceless Men

                                                                 BRAN STARK

  1. Bran and Winterfell 1 | 2
  2. Bran and Skinchanging into Hodor 1 | 2
  3. Bran and Bravery and Fear
  4. Bran and Harry Potter Parallels
  5. Bran the Underdog
  6. Will Bran Skinchange a Dragon?
  7. Abomination in Training: The Indoctrination of a Greenseer
  8. Bran, Skinchanging Hodor, and the Deconstruction of Destiny in ASOIAF
  9. On Bran and Hodor
  10. One Does Not Simply Warg Into Hodor
  11. Bran as Lord of Winterfell
  12. Why Bran will end up ruling Winterfell
  13. The Significance of Bran’s Name
  14. Reasons to Love Bran Stark
  15. Why Bran is not the Villain of ASOIAF
  16. Bran Stark and the Mythological Figure Bran the Blessed
  17. Bran Stark: Born to Lead, Born to Rule
  18. The Crown of the King in the North Manifested within Bran’s Story
  19. Bran’s First Three-Eyed Crow Dream
  20. Hodor, Bran, and the Land of Always Winter
  21. Character Discussion: Bran Stark
  22. Bran as a God of Winterfell
  23. Why Bran May Never Return to Wintefell
  24. Why Bran is not going to Die
  25. Bran and Hodor have a Genuine Friendship
  26. Bran Stark: Interesting Character
  27. Reasons why Bran Stark Matters
  28. The Jojenpaste Theory is not True
  29. King Bran Summary and Masterpost
  30. Bran Stark: INFP
  31. My Favourite Thing about Bran
  32. Bran Will not Stay in the Cave until he Dies
  33. Similarities Between Bran and Dany’s Last Chapters

                                                               RICKON STARK

  1. Rickon Post Skagos will not be a Savage/Cannibal
  2. Rickon and the Skagosi
  3. Re-interpreting Rickon

                                                               BENJEN STARK

  1. Benjen Stark is too much of a Chekhov’s Gun to be Coldhands
  2. The Mysterious Benjen Stark
  3. Benjen Stark is in Skagos
  4. Why Benjen Joined the Night’s Watch, the Secret He Should Have Shared
  5. On Whether Benjen Knew About Jon’s Parentage

                                                               LYANNA STARK

  1. Parralels Between Lyanna and Helen of Troy 1 | 2
  2. On Lyanna Stark
  3. Lyanna the Grey
  4. The Implausability of Rhaegar’s and Lyanna’s Love
  5. How Rhaegar May Have Seen Lyanna
  6. Love Is Sweet, Dearest Ned, But It Cannot Change a Man’s Nature
  7. Rhaegar, Lyanna, and Consent Issues
  8. On the Romanticised Attitude to Rhaegar and Lyanna
  9. The Dragon’s Ladies Part 3: The Rose of Winterfell
  10. The Disappearance of Rhaegar and Lyanna in TWOIAF
  11. Lyanna Stark is the Knight of the Laughing Tree


  1. The Winds of Winter: Mercy Preview Chapter
  2. History: House Stark
  3. Plots: House Stark
  4. Book Discussion: Jon Snow
  5. Catelyn - A Mother’s Madness
  6. Jon Snow - Only the Cold
  7. A Dragon, a Wolf and a Rose
  8. Sansa - A Song of Innocence
  9. Arya - A Gift of Mercy
  10. Sansa and the Hound
  11. Grand Northern Conspiracy 1 | 2
  12. Princes of Winterfell
  13. EPIC HISTORY: House Stark
  14. North/Stark History
  15. The Knight of the Laughing Tree: Story & Theory
  16. Why did Rhaegar take Lyanna?
  17. Epic Starks: King Theon Stark
  18. Bran the Builder: Legendary Founder of House Stark
  19. Bran the Builder Theory: Legendary Hero?
  20. The Winds of Winter: Sansa I
  21. The Winds of Winter: Arya I
  22. FeastDance: Jon Snow
  23. FeastDance: Arya Stark
  24. FeastDance: Brandon Stark
  25. FeastDance: Sansa Stark
  26. “No one”: how will Arya Stark’s story end?
  27. Will Jon Snow return?
  28. R+L=J: who are Jon Snow’s parents?

We don’t have anything to do with your fucking debt. What are you talking about? You did such a horrible job constructing your infrastructure and financing wars that you spent thirteen trillion dollars that no one has? And you expect people to be responsible for that?

What percentage of the people make those choices? Is it even one one hundredth of one percent? We should feed them to hyenas, all of them. You want to talk about a miss? ‘Oh, we’re just trying to manage the economy…’ You missed it by THIRTEEN TRILLION.

—  Joe Rogan

The history of the distribution of wealth has always been deeply political, and it cannot be reduced to [how free markets “naturally work on their own”].

In particular, the reduction of inequality that took place in … developed countries between 1910 and 1950 was … a consequence of war and of policies adopted to cope with the shocks of war. Similarly, the resurgence of inequality after 1980 is due … to the political shifts of the past several decades, especially in regard to taxation & finance.

The history of inequality is shaped by [how people] view what is just and what is not, as well as by [their] relative power ….…


Capital in the 21st Century by Thomas Piketty (Arthur Goldhammer, trans.)

(highlights, [], and … are mine)