finally a verb

-다가, -아/어다가, -았/었다가, -다가는, -에다가

This has been a much-requested grammar form! -다가 is a really useful grammar point that is used often in speech, so it would be really helpful to learn how to use it well.

I will cover four different “forms” of -다가, each of which has its own meaning(s). The four forms I’ll cover will be -다가, 아/어다가-았/었다가 (-다가 attached to a verb conjugated to past tense), and -다가는. Also, while it’s not the same as the verb endings that use -다가, I’ll explain the particle -에다가 as well.



The -다가 grammar form is used to indicate interruption of an action. In English, we could translate this form roughly as “While doing X…”


-다가 is very simple to use! Just attach it to an action verb root in present tense! You can optionally remove the “가” at the end and just use it as -다 as well. Just make sure that the subject of the preceding and following clauses stays the same Let’s check it out:

Interruption of an action:

요리를 하다가 접시를 떨어트렸어요. (While cooking, I dropped a plate.)

영화를 보다가 잠들었어. (While watching a movie, I fell asleep.)

화랑 씨는 숙제를 하다가 친구들과 전화도 했어요. (While doing his homework, Hwarang  talked with his friends on the phone.)

수하 씨는 오랜만에 못 본 친구랑 통화하다가 울었어요. (While on the phone with a friend she hadn’t been able to see in a long time, Suha cried.)

NOTE: This section originally listed a second meaning for -다가, that being the introduction of the simultaneous occurrence of two actions. After looking into it a bit more, a true feeling of simultaneous occurrence can not be achieved by using -다가 and -(으)면서 must be used, otherwise the sense of interruption persists. You can read a little more by clicking this paragraph. I apologize for any confusion caused.



-아/어다가 is a grammar form indicating sequential actions. The action in the preceding clause is done first, and then the action in the following clause occurs in a different location. The two actions must be related to each other, so that the action in the following clause happens dependent upon the completion of the action in the preceding clause. You can think of it as meaning “First… and then…” in English, though of course you might have to change that a bit for a more natural translation depending on the circumstances.


To use this form, simply attach -아/어다가 to the root of an action verb in the present tense. Remember to change the root as needed depending on whether or not it’s irregular!  You can optionally remove the “가” at the end and just use it as -아/어다 as well.

제 가방 좀 가져다 주세요. (Please get my bag and give it to me.)

아름 씨는 김밥을 만들어다가 친구에게 줬어요. (Areum made kimbap and gave it to her friends. 

언니는 선물을 사다가 어머니께 보냈어요. (My older sister bought a gift and sent it to mom.)



Using -다가 on an action verb conjugated to the past tense indicates completion of an action, after which another action action occurs. This is in contrast to -다가 with a present tense action verb, which indicates interruption of an action or simultaneous occurrence of two actions, as seen above. The verbs used in the preceding and following clauses are often contrasting or opposite, though this is not always the case.


Just conjugate the action verb that you want to use to past tense and add -다가! You can optionally remove the “가” at the end and just use this grammar as -았/었다. Also, the subject of both the preceding and following clauses must stay the same.

갔다 올게요! (I’ll go and come back! [More naturally, “I’ll be back!”])

편의점에 들렀다가 집에 갔어요. (I stopped by the convenience store and then went home.)

NOTE: This form can also be used to express that something unexpected happened after doing the action in the preceding clause.

집에 갔다가 문 앞에 웬 소포가 있었어요. (I went home and there was an unexpected package in front of the door.)

기차를 탔다가 6년만에 못 본 친구를 만났아요. (I got on the train and met a friend I hadn’t seen in six years.)



This grammar point is used to give warnings, indicating that if the action or condition of the preceding clause continues, then the negative result in the following clause will occur. It can be translated as “If… then…”. Just keep in mind that it must be used with negative consequences only!

Something important to note with this form is that, while it might seem similar to -(으)면, the two are not totally interchangeable! -다가는 refers to an action that is already known to be in progress, regardless of context, while an identical sentence that changes only -다가는 to -(으)면 refers to a condition in the preceding clause that may or may not be in progress (unless prior context makes it clear that the action is in progress, in which case the two sentences are identical).


Unlike the other -다가s that we have looked at so far, this one can be used with action and descriptive verbs both! Just attach -다가는 to the root of the verb in either present or past tense. Using a verb conjugated to the past tense changes the preceding clause from a situation that is currently in progress to speculating about a present or future event.


  • Action verbs: -다가는
    • 담배를 계속 피우다가는 폐암에 걸릴지도 몰라요. (If you keep smoking, you might get lung cancer [LIT-I don’t know whether or not you’ll get lung cancer].)
    • 이렇게 공부를 미루다가는 기말 시험에 떨어질 수도 있어요. (If you put off studying like this you could even fail the final exam.)
  • Descriptive verbs: -다가는
    • 미세먼지가 이렇게 심하다가는 호흡기 질환 환자들이 많아질 거예요. (If the pollution stays severe like this, the number of respiratory illness patients will increase.)
    • 날씨가 이렇게 덥다가는 특히 노인들이 열사병에 많이 걸릴 것 같아요. (If the weather stays hot like this, it seems that especially many elderly people could get heat stroke.)

PAST— I actually struggled over this section quite a bit! I had to ask some native speaker friends to help me work through it. In general, the consensus we reached is that the examples that I wrote here are correct, but it is far more common to just use -(으)면 for the same meaning.

  • Action verbs: -았/었다가는
    • 어제 처럼 경기했다가는 질 거예요. (If we play like we did yesterday, then we will lose.)
    • 음식을 너무 많이 먹었다가는 배탈이 날 거예요. (If you eat too much food, you’ll get a stomachache.)
  • Descriptive verbs: -았/었다가는
    • 집안 습기가 계속 이렇게 높았다가는 곰팡이가 쉽게 생길 거예요. (If the humidity in your house is constantly high, mold will form easily.)
    • 출산율이 계속 낮았다가는 인구가 감소할 거예요. (If the birthrate stays low, the population will decrease.)



The particle -에다가 has two main functions. One of those functions is to indicate the specific location of something, and the other is to add more information in addition to something else. You can drop the final “가” and just use this particle as -에다.


When used to indicate the specific location of something, -에다가 is attached to an adverb. When used to provide additional information, it attaches to nouns.

Specific location:

  • 종이 밑에다가 사인해 주세요. (Please sign the bottom of the paper.)
  • 가방을 책상 위에다가 놓았어요. (I put my bag on top of the table.)
  • 어디에다 둘까요? (Where should I put it?)

Additional information:

  • 김밥을 만들었어요. 게다가(그에다가) 음료수도 준비해 놨어요. (I made kimbap. In addition to that, I also prepared drinks.) 
  • 소윤 씨는 알바하는 데다가 봉사 활동도 해요. (In addition to working a part-time job, Soyun also does volunteer activities.) NOTE: 데다가 = 데 + 에다가. For more info on -는 데, click here!
  • 이번 주 가스요금에다가 전기요금도 내야 돼요. (This week I must pay my electricity bill in addition to my gas bill.)

And that’s about it for -다가! There’s a lot of information in this post, so take your time reading through it and feel free to ask if you find anything confusing. Happy studying, everyone~

Lesson 9: Past tense 았/었어요, irregular verbs/adjectives, “also”, and making negative sentences.

In lesson 8 we had a look at conjugating sentences in the informal polite present tense. Today we’re going to have a quick look at the informal polite past tense. The informal polite past tense can indicate an action as well as a state of being. The rules for past tense conjugation are the same as for the present tense.

If the final vowel in a verb stem is 아 or 오, then 았어요 is added to the verb stem.

살다 (to live) → 살 + 았어요 = 살았어요
오다 (to come) → 오 + 았어요 = 왔어요 (오 + 았 = 왔)
가다 (to go) →  가 + 았어요 = 갔어요 (가 + 았 = 갔)

If the final vowel in a verb stem is a vowel other than 아 or 오 then 었어요 is added to the verb stem.

먹다 (to eat) → 먹 + 었어요 = 먹었어요
읽다 (to read) →  읽 + 었어요 = 읽었어요
마시다 (to drink) → 마시 + 었어요 = 마셨어요 (마시 + 었 = 마셨 )

 Any verb or adjective that ends in 하다 becomes 했어요 in the past tense.

말하다 (to speak) → 말했어요
공부하다 (to study) → 공부했어요
피곤하다 (to be tired) → 피곤했어요

Now let’s take a look at some irregular verbs/adjectives. Some verbs and adjectives change their stem spelling when certain endings (such as 아/어요) or conjugations are applied to them. Some verbs and adjectives that have irregular forms are ones with stems ending in ㄷ, ㄹ, ㅂ, ㅅ, 으, and 르. Today we’re going to have a look at 으 verbs/adjectives only. Other irregular verbs will be covered in a later lesson.

If the final vowel of a verb stem is 으, the 으 is dropped entirely when the verb is conjugated, and the next to last vowel is used to determine spelling instead.

If the vowel before 으 is 아 or 오 then 아요 is added.

바쁘다 (to be busy) →  바쁘 + 아요 = 바빠요 →  레오 씨가 바빠요. (Leo is busy.)

If the vowel before 으 is a vowel other than 아 or 오 then 어요 is added.

예쁘다 (to be pretty) →  예쁘 + 어요 = 예뻐요 →  채연 씨가 예뻐요. (Chaeyeon is pretty.)

If the verb stem is monosyllabic, 어요 is added.

쓰다 (to write) →  쓰 + 어요 = 써요 →  켄 씨가 버스 번호를 써요. (Ken writes the bus number.)

What if you wanted to make a negative sentence? There are numerous ways in Korean to make a sentence with a negative connotation, but in this lesson we’re going to be looking at one of the easiest and most common ways a sentence can be made negative using the adverb 안 (not).

Placed directly before a verb or adjective, 안 is used to express negation.

안 + verb = 레오 씨가 오늘 회사에 안 가요. (Leo isn’t going to the office today.)
안 + adjective = 그 옷이 안 예뻐요. (Those clothes aren’t pretty.)

For verbs that end with 하다, the 안 is placed between the noun and 하다.

noun + 안 + 하다 = 홍빈 씨가 공부 안 해요. (Hongbin doesn’t study.)

Now let’s take a look at how to express similarity using the subject/object marker 도 (also, too). There are multiple ways to do this, but using 도 is one of the easiest.

Original sentences:
켄 씨가 치킨을 좋아해요. 레오 씨가 치킨을 좋아해요. (Ken likes chicken. Leo likes chicken.) While these sentences are grammatically correct, it is much more natural when speaking this way to say that Leo likes chicken too.

Using 도:
켄 씨가 치킨을 좋아해요. 레오 씨도 치킨을 좋아해요. (Ken likes chicken. Leo also likes chicken).

Keeping everything we covered today in mind, can you understand the following? :)

켄 씨가 피곤해요. 학교에 안 갔어요. 켄 씨가 공부 아 해요. 오늘 레오 씨도 학교에 안 갔어요. 레오 씨가 바빴어요.
Ken is tired. He didn’t go to school. Ken doesn’t study. Today Leo also didn’t go to school. Leo was busy.

sparks-n-dust  asked:

안녕하세요! I was wondering if you could help me: I'm learning about predicates and endings and I've been struggling with the pre-final endings, like the honorific suffix -(으)시, past tense marker 었/았 and the non-sentence-final endings. Is there a way for you to shine some light on me? (My grammar is unhelpful) Thank you so much for all your hard work! This blog has been an inspiration for me to continue studying Korean. 정말감사합니다!!!!


By adding  -시 or -(으)시 to a verb stem, you’re making it an “honorific verb”. This is used when you’re speaking about or to someone who is above you in the social hierarchy. (eg your boss, your friend’s mum etc).  

Please remember that after attaching ~(으)시 to a word, you need to conjugate it to make a sentence. 

“살다” means “to live”. 

 살다 + ~(으)시  = 사시 

Then after conjugating present tense (+ ~아/어요) becomes 사셔요 

Or conjugating past tense (+ ~았/었다) becomes 사셨다

Or conjugating to formal declarative (+ ~ㅂ/습니다) becomes 사십니다.

Some examples include:

“어머니는 무슨 일 하셔?”   -   What kind of work does your mum do?

“언제 가세요?”  -   When do you leave? (technically, it would be “가셔요” but language has evolved so ~셔요 sometimes becomes ~세요 now)

How To Study Korean explains the rules and usage well, so please check out this page if you’re still confused!! :-)

This site also gives examples of the different endings and formulas you can use!

We recently posted a lesson on conjugation [HERE] where we included all the rules.

었/았 is added to the verb stem to change the sentence to past tense. Basically, once added to the verb stem, you then “conjugate it again” by adding 아(요)/어(요) to the end. You do this by taking the last vowel and adding the appropriate ending. 

만들다 = 만들+었+어(요)   =   만들었어요 (the last vowel is ㅡ ) 

가다 =  가+았+아(요  = 갔어요   (the last vowel is ㅏ)

먹다 = 먹+었+어(요) = 먹었어요   (the last vowel is ㅓ)

일어나다 = 일어나+았+어(요) = 일어났어요   (the last vowel is ㅏ)

Non-sentence-final endings end a verb or adjective but not the sentence. The allow you so say one thing (the first “clause” )and connect it to another thing (the second clause) in the same sentence. 

These “endings” include (but are not limited to)

~고 - and then (점심 먹고 갔어요 I ate lunch and then left)
~어/아서 - so, therefore 
~으면서 - while
~지만 - although, but

Some examples include:

점심 먹고 갔어요 I ate lunch and then left. (”고” ended the verb “먹다” but did not end the sentence)

영화를 보면서 과자 먹었어요 While watching a movie I ate a snack (”면서” ends the verb, and allows you to continue to the second part of the sentence)

Thank you for your questions. We hope this helped!!

Title: 訪問者は突然に… “Sudden Visitors…” (PART 2)

Author: Ice and translated by me!

This is Part 6.5 of the Grand Line High School Series
Part [1] [3] [3.5] [4] [5] [6]

Keep reading

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If you have neither, please write at once to the Bad Bi Bureau (@barbidreamdumpster) and request to be bidentified.

Thank you for your interest in becoming a bioqueer and I’ll have you all know that I am excited to host the biannual zero gravity birling tournament this year.

Verb and adjective conjugation

Verb and Adjective Conjugation

Everything you need to know on one page
What is conjugation?

A word like 가다 has many different forms, depending on tense, intention, and the level of politeness, for example 가요, 갔어요, 갈 거예요, 가라, 가네 and 간다. Instead of having every form of every verb and adjective in the dictionary, only one form is used, which is made up of the stem (the non-changing part of a verb) plus 다. This is the dictionary form, or 기본형. By applying the rules below we can transform, or conjugate, the dictionary form into the many different forms used in spoken and written Korean.
ㅏ/ㅓ form

Formed by: modifying the verb stem according to its last few jamo. The basic rule is to add ㅏ if the last vowel in the verb stem is ㅏ, ㅗ or ㅑ, and to add ㅓ if the last vowel in the verb stem is anything else. This seems straightforward until we add contractions, exceptions and irregulars into the picture.
What do you mean, irregulars?

Some verbs don’t conjugate like others with the same verb stem ending. Luckily for us, even the irregulars follow a consistent pattern of conjugation, and so we just need to know which words are irregular. There are only a few exceptions.

Let’s go through each method of conjugating the ㅏ/ㅓ form based on the ending of the verb stem. Vowel-ending verb stems imply that there is no final consonant. For example, 갈다 is covered under Verbs stems ending in any other final and not Verb stems ending in ㅏ.
Verb stems ending in ㅏ (except those ending in 하)

가 + ㅏ → 가
The verb stem stays the same.
Verb stems ending in 하

하 + 여 → 하여/해
하다 and every verb/adjective containing it is irregular. 여 irregular verbs add 여 to the verb stem, or use the short form 해. 하여 is only used in writing, often in the past form ~하였다, and sounds more formal than 해/했다.
Verb stems ending in ㅗ

보 + ㅏ → 보아/봐
Adding ㅏ to ㅗ makes ㅗ아, which can be contracted to ㅘ. Both are used for most verbs, while some like 쪼다 almost always use the long form 쪼아.
Verb stems ending in ㅓ/ㅕ

서 + ㅓ → 서
펴 + ㅓ → 펴
The verb stem stays the same.
Verb stems ending in ㅜ

주 + ㅓ → 주어/줘
ㅓ is added to the verb stem, giving the long form ㅜ어 or the contraction ㅝ. Both the long form and the contraction are used. The contraction is more common.
ㅜ irregular
푸다 (퍼) is the only ㅜ irregular verb.
Verb stems ending in ㅣ

이기 + ㅓ → 이기어/이겨
ㅓ is added to the verb stem, giving the long form ㅣ어 or the contraction ㅕ. The contracted form is almost always used (기다려, 마셔, 쳐) with the exception of 기다, 비다 and 피다, which almost always use the longer conjugation (비어, 기어, 피어).
Verb stems ending in ㅐ/ㅔ/ㅞ

깨 + ㅓ → 깨어/깨
메 + ㅓ → 메어/메
꿰 + ㅓ → 꿰어/꿰
Both the long form and the contraction are used. 꿰다 is the only verb that ends in ㅞ.
Verb stems ending in ㅚ

되 + ㅓ → 되어/돼
ㅓ is added to the verb stem, giving the long form ㅚ어 or the contraction ㅙ. For 되다, the contraction (돼) is more common than the long form (되어). For other ㅚ-ending verbs, the reverse is true, (꾀다 - 꾀어, 뇌다 - 뇌어, 쇠다 - 쇠어).
Verb stems ending in ㅟ/ㅢ

튀 + ㅓ → 튀어
희 + ㅓ → 희어
어 is added to the verb stem.
Verb stems ending in ㅡ (except those ending in 르)

크 - ㅡ + ㅓ → 커
슬프 - ㅡ + ㅓ → 슬퍼
바쁘 - ㅡ + ㅏ → 바빠
본뜨 - ㅡ + ㅓ → 본떠
ㅡ-ending verbs are unusual in that the ㅡ is dropped and ㅏ/ㅓ is added based on the vowel to the left of the ㅡ. If that previous vowel is ㅏ or ㅗ, ㅏ is added, otherwise ㅓ is added. If the verb stem is only one character long (쓰다, 크다, 트다, 뜨다, 끄다), then ㅡ is replaced with ㅓ. This also applies to verbs derived from these five, despite the presence of extra vowels to the left (크나크다 - 크나커, 못쓰다 - 못써, 받아쓰다 - 받아써, 본뜨다 - 본떠).

Some consider ㅡ verbs to be irregular, but others don’t, as every ㅡ-ending verb undergoes ㅡ replacement.
Other vowels

There are no verbs or adjectives with stems ending in ㅘ, ㅙ, ㅝ, ㅑ, ㅒ, ㅛ or ㅠ.
Verb stems ending in 르

치르 - ㅡ + ㅓ → 치러
Nine 르-ending verbs are regular, and they conjugate like ㅡ-ending verbs by replacing ㅡ with ㅏ or ㅓ: 따르다, 다다르다, 들르다, 치르다, 우러르다, 늦치르다, 잇따르다, 붙따르다 and 뒤따르다.

르 irregular
모르 - 르 + ㄹ라 → 몰라
구르 - 르 + ㄹ러 → 굴러
Most 르-ending verbs conjugate under the 르 irregularity, where 르 becomes ㄹ라 or ㄹ러 based on the previous vowel.

러 irregular
이르 + 러 → 이르러
The following verbs conjugate by adding 러 to the verb stem: 이르다, 푸르다, 검푸르다, 짙푸르다, 푸르디푸르다, 누르다, 누르디누르다 and 노르다.

Note: 이르다 is conjugated as 일러 (르 irregular) when used to mean “to say/tell” or “to be early”, and 이르러 (러 irregular) when used to mean “to reach”.
Similarly, 누르다 is conjugated as 눌러 (르 irregular) when used to mean “to press/push”, and 누르러 (러 irregular) when used to mean “to be golden yellow”.
Verb stems ending in ㅂ

잡 + 아 → 잡아
접 + 어 → 접어
Conjugate as a normal final consonant-ending verb stem by adding 아 or 어 to the verb stem.
There are fewer regular than irregular ㅂ-ending verbs and adjectives, so it is easier to learn which are regular, and then assume the rest are irregular.

ㅂ irregular
밉 - ㅂ + 워 → 미워
돕 - ㅂ + 와 → 도와
Drop the ㅂ and add 워.
If the verb is 돕다 or 곱다, drop the ㅂ and add 와.
Verb stems ending in ㄷ

받 + 아 → 받아
뜯 + 어 → 뜯어
Conjugate as a normal final consonant-ending verb stem by adding 아 or 어.
As with ㅂ, ㅅ and ㅎ-ending verbs, there are fewer regulars than irregulars.

ㄷ irregular
깨닫 - ㄷ + ㄹ + 아 → 깨달아
듣 - ㄷ + ㄹ + 어 → 들어
The ㄷ changes to a ㄹ and 아 or 어 is added.
Verb stems ending in ㅅ

솟 + 아 → 솟아
벗 + 어 → 벗어
Conjugate as a normal final consonant-ending verb stem by adding 아 or 어 to the verb stem.
As with ㅂ, ㄷ and ㅎ-ending verbs, there are fewer regulars than irregulars.

ㅅ irregular
낫 - ㅅ + 아 → 나아
긋 - ㅅ + 어 → 그어
The ㅅ is dropped and 아 or 어 is added.
Verb stems ending in ㅎ

놓 + 아 → 놓아/놔
넣 + 어 → 넣어
Conjugate as a normal final consonant-ending verb stem by adding 아 or 어 to the verb stem. In the case of 놓다, 놓아 can be shortened to 놔.
As with ㅂ, ㄷ and ㅅ-ending verbs, there are fewer regulars than irregulars.

ㅎ irregular
The ㅎ is dropped and the last vowel changes to one of three vowels:

Last vowel Changes to Example
ㅏ ㅐ 노랗다 → 노래
ㅓ ㅔ 누렇다 → 누레
ㅑ ㅒ 뽀얗다 → 보얘
ㅕ ㅖ 뿌옇다 → 뿌예

With the following verbs, the ㅎ is dropped and the ㅓ changes to ㅐ: 이렇다, 그렇다, 저렇다, 요렇다, 고렇다, 조렇다, 어떻다 and 아무렇다.
Verb stems ending in any other final consonant (ㄱ, ㄴ, ㄹ, ㅁ, ㅈ etc)

찾 + 아 → 찾아
묶 + 어 → 묶어
If the last vowel in the verb stem is ㅏ, ㅗ or ㅑ, 아 is added, otherwise 어 is added.
ㅏ/ㅓ form - every conjugation method in one table

Stem ending Regularity Example(s)
Dictionary form ㅏ/ㅓ form Meaning
ㅏ (except 하) Regular 사다 사 to buy
하 여 irregular 하다 해/하여 to do
ㅗ Regular 보다 봐/보아 to look, see, watch
ㅓ/ㅕ Regular 서다 서 to stand
펴다 펴 to spread, unfold, stretch
ㅜ Regular 주다 줘/주어 to give
ㅜ irregular 푸다 퍼 to draw (water), scoop (rice), dig (soil)
ㅣ Regular 기다리다 기다려/기다리어 to wait
ㅐ/ㅔ/ㅞ Regular 깨다 깨/깨어 to wake up
메다 메/메어 to be choked, clogged
꿰다 꿰/꿰어 to thread, skewer
ㅚ Regular 되다 돼/되어 to become, be done, develop into
ㅟ/ㅢ Regular 뛰다 뛰어 to run, jump
희다 희어 to be white
ㅡ (except 르) Regular 바쁘다 바빠 to be busy
기쁘다 기뻐 to be pleased
크다 커 to be big, tall
크나크다 크나커 to be huge, enormous
르 Regular 따르다 따라 to follow
르 irregular 모르다 몰라 to not know
부르다 불러 to call
러 irregular 푸르다 푸르러 to be green
ㅂ Regular 잡다 잡아 to catch
ㅂ irregular 덥다 더워 to be hot
돕다/곱다 exception 돕다 도와 to help
ㄷ Regular 닫다 닫아 to close
ㄷ irregular 깨닫다 깨달아 to realise
ㅅ Regular 웃다 웃어 to laugh, smile
ㅅ irregular 낫다 나아 to be better
ㅎ Regular 좋다 좋아 to be good, to like
ㅎ irregular 그렇다 그래 to be like that
누렇다 누레 to be golden/dark yellow
빨갛다 빨개 to be red
하얗다 하얘 to be white
뿌옇다 뿌예 to be hazy/foggy
Any other final (ㄱ, ㅁ, ㄹ etc) Regular 먹다 먹어 to eat
길다 길어 to be long
얕다 얕아 to be shallow
Verbs/adjectives with two ㅏ/ㅓ form conjugations

Dictionary form Regularity ㅏ/ㅓ form Meaning
이다 Copula 이야 to be
Regular 이어 to put something on one’s head
일다 Regular 일어 to rise
to happen, occur
Abbreviation of 이르다 none to be early
이르다 르 irregular 일러 to say, tell
to be early
러 irregular 이르러 to reach
누르다 르 irregular 눌러 to push, press
러 irregular 누르러 to be golden yellow
곱다 Regular 곱아 to be numb/stiff with cold
ㅂ irregular 고와 to be fine, beautiful
굽다 Regular 굽아 to be bent/crooked
ㅂ irregular 구워 to cook, bake, roast, grill
걷다 Regular 걷어 to roll up one’s sleeves, pull up one’s trousers/skirt
ㄷ irregular 걸어 to walk
묻다 Regular 묻어 to bury, keep secret
ㄷ irregular 물어 to ask
되묻다 Regular 되묻어 to bury again, to conceal again
ㄷ irregular 되물어 to ask again, repeat one’s question
to ask back, counter
파묻다 Regular 파묻어 to dig and bury
to bury one’s face in something
ㄷ irregular 파물어 to inquire closely, quiz, grill, dig for information
붓다 ㅅ irregular 부어 to swell
to pour
Abbreviation of 부수다 none to break, smash, shatter, destroy
굴다 Regular 굴어 to act/behave
Abbreviation of 구르다 none to roll
들까불다 Regular (뒤/들)까불어 to mess around, act up
Abbreviation of (뒤/들)까부르다 none to winnow (rice), to shake up and down
썰다 Regular 썰어 to cut, slice (food)
Abbreviation of 써리다 none to harrow a field
Contracted verb/adjectives which do not conjugate with word endings starting with a vowel

Original word Contracted form Meaning Allowed conjugations
가지다 갖다 to have 갖는다, 갖고, 갖니, 갖겠어 etc
디디다 딛다 to step, set foot on 딛는다, 딛고, 딛니, 딛겠어 etc
건드리다 건들다 to mess with 건든다, 건들고, 건드니, 건들겠어 etc
Click here for a full list
Polite form (요)

Formed by: adding “요” to a word’s ㅏ/ㅓ form.

There are only two exceptions: 이다 and 아니다. The polite form of 이다 is 이에요 when followung a word with a final consonant (e.g. 책이에요), or 예요 when following a word without a final consonant (사과예요). The polite form of 아니다 is always 아니에요. “아니예요” is a common misspelling, probably resulting from the influence of 이다’s conjugations.
Plain form (다/ㄴ다/는다)

Formed by: adding 다, ㄴ다 or 는다 to the verb stem.

If the word is an adjective (a describing word) then its plain form is the same as its dictionary form. This is the same as adding 다 to the verb stem.
Examples: 예쁘다, 많다, 좋다, 건강하다, 있다, 없다

If the word is a verb (conveying an action) then its plain form depends on its verb stem ending.

If the verb stem has a final consonant: add ㄴ다.
Examples: 가다 → 간다, 기다리다 → 기다린다, 쉬다 → 쉰다, 사랑하다 → 사랑한다, 움직이다 → 움직인다

If the verb stem ends in ㄹ: change the ㄹ to ㄴ and add 다.
Examples: 알다 → 안다, 팔다 → 판다, 갈다 → 간다, 만들다 → 만든다

If the verb stem ends in any other final consonant: add 는다.
Examples: 먹다 → 먹는다, 신다 → 신는다, 놓다 → 놓는다, 받다 → 받는다
Formal form (ㅂ니다/습니다)

Formed by: adding ㅂ니다 or 습니다 to the verb stem. If the verb stem has a final consonant: add ㅂ니다.
Examples: 하다 → 합니다, 이다 → 입니다, 되다 → 됩니다 If the verb stem ends in ㄹ: drop the ㄹ and add ㅂ니다.
Examples: 알다 → 압니다, 만들다 → 만듭니다, 갈다 → 갑니다 If the verb stem ends in any other final consonant: add 습니다.
Examples: 그렇다 → 그렇습니다, 있다 → 있습니다, 찾다 → 찾습니다

내 맘에 깊이 가득 차버린
공허한 세상 나를 구해줘”


  • 내: My (shortened version of 나의)
  • 마음: Mind, heart
  • : Short for 마음
  • 깊다: To be deep, to be bottomless
  • 가득: Filled, crammed (with), fully 
  • 차다: To be filled (with)
  • 버리다: To throw away (auxiliary verb)
  • 공허하다: To be empty, to be blank 
  • 공허한: Empty, blank
  • 세상: The world
  • 구하다: To save (a life)
  • 주다: To give
  • : 주다 with informal present tense conjugation (주+어 = 줘)


가득 is an adverb that carries the nuance of “fully”, and is a word that is included more for the feeling. So 가득 is often paired with 채우다 or 차다.

“-버리다” is an auxiliary verb (an assistant verb located behind the main-verb, to help add meaning or make the meaning clear.) So “-버리다” is used to further emphasise the state of the verb (i.e. the completion of the verb is stressed). 

Since 버리다 means “to throw away”, when 버리다 is added as an auxiliary verb, it can imply to “do something and be done with it” adding to the finality of the verb. As an extended meaning, speakers can use this expression to imply the speaker’s feeling which can either be: 1) a happy feeling about finally completing a task and getting rid of a burden, or 2) a sad feeling that something happened in a way that the speaker did not want or expect. So putting the whole sentence together, the auxiliary verb (버린 is the adjective form) is helping to communicate how the speaker’s heart is full (with an empty world) and it’s causing them anguish.

>>>If you have any recommendations you’d like to see, let me know! Please include the name of the artist, song title, and any specific details you feel necessary :3 <<<

This is the first lyric breakdown (in a bitesized piece), I hope you guys liked it. Please let me know what you think!

The Basics of Japanese Verbs

In Japanese, verbs are extremely important. They create most of the context for a each sentence, so if you don’t work on your understanding of verbs early on, you might feel like you’re falling behind in your comprehension.

But don’t be scared. Once you get the hang of simple verb conjugations you’ll learn the rest with ease.

Okay now let’s get to it. 

Verb Types

First and foremost, you should know that there are three types of verbs: ichidan (一段), godan (五段), and irregular verbs. 

Ichidan verbs are verbs that end in る. Not all verbs that end in る are going to be ichidan verbs, but all ichidan verbs will end in る if you know what I mean.

食べる | たべる
見る | みる

Godan verbs are all the regular verbs that aren’t ichidan verbs. They can end in る、く、ぶ、む、ぬ、す、つ、う、and ぐ. There are a few weird rules you have to remember with each verb ending, so I’ll give you nine different verbs as examples. 

Don’t feel like you have to know the verbs I use as examples. If you don’t think you can remember or find use for these words, then simply write it down for in your notes as an example or find a different word that you’d prefer that fits the rules I set out.

会う | あう | to meet

歩く | あるく | to walk

泳ぐ | およぐ | to swim

話す | はなす | to talk

立つ | たつ | to stand

死ぬ | しぬ | to die

飲む | のむ | to drink

遊ぶ | あそぶ | to play

座る | すわる | to sit

As for irregular verbs, there aren’t very many. Some would say there are two, some would say there are twelve. I’m going to list three, but just remember that there are nine other that are also slightly irregular, they’re just not as commonly used as the ones I’m listing here.

来る | くる | to come

行く | いく | to go

する | to do

Verb Bases

Next, I’m going to introduce something called verb bases. They act as a guide for verb conjugation. Once you master the verb bases, you can conjugate any verb any way you want.

To use the following charts, remove the final kana from the verb (e.g. る, む, く) and replace it with whatever follows the ‘~’.

一段 | Ichidan

Base 1. ~
Base 2. ~
Base 3. ~る
Base 4. ~れ
Base 5. ~よう
te-base. ~て
ta-base. ~た

五段 | Godan

Base 1. ~わ             Base 1. ~か
Base 2. ~い                    Base 2. ~き
Base 3. ~う                     Base 3. ~く
Base 4. ~え                    Base 4. ~け
Base 5. ~おう                  Base 5. ~こう
Te-base. ~って               Te-base. ~いて
Ta-base. ~った               Ta-base. ~いた

Base 1. ~が             Base 1. ~さ
Base 2. ~ぎ                     Base 2. ~し
Base 3. ~ぐ                     Base 3. ~す
Base 4. ~げ                    Base 4. ~せ
Base 5. ~ごう                  Base 5. ~そう
Te-base. ~いで               Te-base. ~して
Ta-base. ~いだ               Ta-base.  ~した

Base 1. ~た             Base 1. ~な
Base 2. ~ち                     Base 2. ~に
Base 3. ~つ                     Base 3. ~ぬ
Base 4. ~て                     Base 4. ~ね
Base 5. ~とう                   Base 5. ~のう
Te-base. ~って                Te-base. ~んで
Ta-base. ~った                Ta-base. ~んだ

Base 1. ~ま              Base 1. ~ば
Base 2. ~み                     Base 2. ~び
Base 3. ~む                     Base 3. ~ぶ
Base 4. ~め                     Base 4. ~べ
Base 5. ~もう                   Base 5. ~ぼう
Te-base. ~んで               Te-base. ~んで
Ta-base. ~んだ               Ta-base.  ~んだ

Base 1. ~ら
Base 2. ~り
Base 3. ~る
Base 4. ~れ
Base 5. ~ろう
Te-base. ~って
Ta-base. ~った

Irregular Verbs

Base 1. こ                 Base 1. 行か
Base 2. き                        Base 2. 行き
Base 3. 来る                     Base 3. 行く
Base 4. くれ                      Base 4. 行け
Base 5. こよう                   Base 5. 行こう
Te-base. きて                   Te-base. 行って
Ta-base. きた                   Ta-base. 行った

Base 1. し                 
Base 2. し                        
Base 3. する                     
Base 4. せ                       
Base 5.  しよう     
Te-base. して            
Ta-base. した         

What does it all mean?

Well, now that you know how to get the different verb bases, what do you do with them?

I’ll tell you four ways you can use these bases for now.

Base 2 is used to get the masu-form.


Base 3 is the dictionary form and the simple present tense conjugation.


Te-base can be used as a simple way to connect two independent clauses, much like the word ‘and’ in English.


Ta-base can be used to form the simple past tense.


anonymous asked:

Will you please explain the different particles? They r so confusing! Thx! uwu

And indeed they are! Japanese particles have a lot of functions, and you’ll find that one particle will have multiple functions depending on the context of a sentence and verbs that are being used. This won’t be an exhaustive explanation of every Japanese particle and every function they possess. Because there’s so many, I will only cover some of them.

is a topic marker. It introduces the topic of a sentence.

As for Tom, he’s Canadian.

is a subject marker. It introduces new information. This is information that you would deem new to your listener; it’s not necessarily new to you.

As for Tom, he’s Canadian (You probably didn’t know that, so I’m assuming you didn’t know he was).

Keep reading

I think I’ve finally figured out a verb system I like for Modern Ivetsian.  Particularly how to deal with new verbs and borrowings.  I had been playing around with the idea of suffixes evolving from noun-verb compounds, but there were two major problems with that.  First off, the ancestral system and the modern system are both verb-initial.  While Classical Kasshian did have a limited form of verb-incorporation with noun-verb order, turning that into a regular pattern would be a bit strained.  Second, there were still issues with figuring out a consistent set of endings.  The same verb would produce several different variations depending on the phonetic form of the noun it’s attached to, so determining a single set to use, perhaps through analogical leveling, was still tricky.

Earlier I had thought of using auxiliary verbs that would take over the inflections for those verbs.  But I wasn’t too crazy about that.  In part because I didn’t like the idea of some verbs being analytical and others synthetic.

Another idea was that analogy could simply produce one or a small set of regular endings, but that was still too tricky, given the wide variety of endings produced by regular sound changes.

But I think I’ve finally settled on an option.  Similar to the earlier idea of auxiliary verbs, there’d be an uninflected participle-like verb form and an inflected verb.  But instead of it being a single auxiliary verb, I would use light verbs.  So, a small set of verbs with generalized meanings like “give” or “take” would be combined with uninflected forms to create inflections.  Similar to patterns in English like “take a bath”, “make a claim”, etc.

anonymous asked:

Hey, may I know how you differentiate between formal and informal Japanese?

That’s a very big question that would take a whole textbook of information to adequately answer!

Here’s the super-simple-for-beginners version:
When verbs are conjugated with ます endings then they’re more polite than those which are used in their dictionary form with る as the final syllable.

For example:
Today I’ll go shopping.
今日買い物をします。 The ます form of the verb する (to do) is します, this sentence is more polite than the following sentence:

今日買い物をする。 The dictionary form of する is used, which is less formal.

You can find out in far more detail how to use formal and informal Japanese in Tae Kim’s Guide to Japanese here.

The truth:
When to use formal and informal Japanese, how to make sentences with multiple verbs, how to deal with adjectives, keigo (a system of honorific/humble Japanese used to speak to people either above or below you in the social hierarchy) and variations that occur is speech dependent on gender, audience and age all make this issue and incredibly complex one. It’s one of the reasons why people often talk about Japanese being hard to learn.

It has been helpful for me to know :

  • You can make any sentence a bit more polite by making the final verb a ます verb
  • Adding です when appropriate makes a sentence sound more polite than omitting it.
  • Japanese people are very patient and kind as a general rule- so people will be understanding and forgiving of your imperfect Japanese, especially if you’re showing any attempts to be polite.
  • Communication doesn’t require perfect Japanese. I aim for fluency over accuracy in almost all situations because that’s what helps me lead my life here. Over time my accuracy has naturally increased as I’ve continued studying and working at it.
  • Japanese native speakers struggle to use keigo correctly at times, it’s tricky and you don’t need to worry about it in much detail until you are an intermediate learner (about JLPT N3 level, though a little appears as phrases you can rote memorise at JLPT N4).

cataclysmicmelody  asked:

Psssst, i figured maybe youd prefer to make a post and answer this? If not I'm always on skype. Can you explain "tosuru" for me? Readings in one class keep having "toshite" and "toshitara" without me getting it completelyyyy. Thank

*finally answers the question*

The thing to remember about とする is that it’s made of と (the particle that marks a quote) and する (do/make/etc). So (thing)とする basically means do like a “(thing)” or act as if “(thing)” and all the different usages are sort of based on that.

One major use of とする means “assume that…” or “pretend that…”

  • ドラゴンがいたとする。 Imagine there were dragons.
  • りんごの数(かず)をXとする。 Let the number of apples equal X.

This is used a lot to introduce hypothetical situations. It’s literally “do that there were dragons” or “do number of apples as ‘x’”. This is what we’re doing right now. Just play along.

You can put different verb endings on the する to change the meaning around:

  • いくとしたらIf we assume that we go”= Okay, assuming we DO go…
  • ドラゴンがいたとしたらIf we assume that there were dragons,
  • ドラゴンがいたとしても Even if there WERE dragons…

In the form (noun)として, it can also mean “as a noun”:

  • 友達(ともだち)として As your friend…
  • サタンの息子(むすこ)としてエクソシストになる to become an exorcist as the son of Satan (obligatory Blue Exorcist example)

Here you’re saying that the person is doing “noun” = doing the noun thing= acting in their capacity as a noun.

You can use it to make decisions.

  • いくとするか How about we get going (= shall we do “go”?)

Finally, verbおうとする means “try to verb” or “be about to verb”.

  • 私を殺そうとした! (わたしをころそうとした!) He tried to kill me!
  • 何(なに)かがはじめようとしている Something is about to start.

This time, とする comes after the “let’s verb!” form of the verb. So it literally means do “let’s verb!” If someone is over there going “let’s verb!” all the time, that means they’re currently trying to verb. Or it could mean that they’re ABOUT to verb; think of times you might say “well, it looks like it’s trying to snow” or something like that. You mean it’s on the verge of snowing.

anonymous asked:

Okay, so I know this is probably a frequently asked question, and one that is probably hard to answer, but I wanted to know where the best place to start is in constructing a language. I'm relatively new to the conlang scene, speak English fluently, some French (including a hobbyist's understanding of romance language trends), and I have an unusual love of German. I study language history as a hobby, and I was curious if you had any resources or tips I can use.

Dear anonymous,

While it’s true that your question is frequently asked, there’s nothing wrong in asking it again. Conlanging is still a little known craft, despite the surge in popularity it has enjoyed these last years. There are no schools or courses to turn to to learn language construction, and while sources of information exist online, they can be difficult to find for the newcomer who doesn’t know exactly what to look for. And languages are intimidating beasts: how can a single person create such complex systems? Turning to a seasoned conlanger for advice is then exactly the right thing to do :).

This said, as you surmised, your question is a hard one to answer. As an act of creation, conlanging is a particularly personal one, and everyone has their own way to approach the craft. There are similarities, naturally, but also many differences. What I can do, though, is explain how my approach to language creation is like, as well as point out other resources for alternative points of view.

Keep in mind, though, that I am squarely an artlanger, i.e. I create languages for fun and for the beauty of it, and my languages are mostly naturalistic. My approach may not work with other types of conlangs.

I’ll start with two simple tips. One is to learn at least some basics of linguistics, if only to understand the vocabulary used to describe languages. It’s much easier to create a language when you know your declensions from your conjugations and understand what a circumfix is ;). My second tip is to learn about as many natural languages as possible. Notice that I did say to learn about them. You needn’t be a polyglot to be a good conlanger (though it helps ;) ). In any case, try to read grammatical descriptions of as many languages as you can find. Languages are systems (well, systems of systems to be exact, complex structures), and to understand those structures, to understand how different languages are alike, but also how they differ so much from each other, there’s no better way than to read about as many languages as possible. Try especially to read about non-Indo-European languages. Languages are a very diverse bunch, but you’d never notice if you focus only on languages related to English.

For those two tips, one of the best resources I have found is simply Wikipedia. It’s a great place to start, contains many good linguistic articles that are relatively accessible for newbies, and it contains many language descriptions. And if you need more depth, you can always check the references in those articles. But let’s now go on to language creation itself.

When I create a language, I usually go through the following steps:

  1. The very first thing I do is ask myself the question: “what do I want to do with this language?” In other words, what are my goals for this creation? Even if you just want to create a language for fun, you need a clear goal to guide you at every step. Without one, your creation will lack unity and cohesion. Goals needn’t be testable or measurable. They may not even be that clear when you start. But you need some kind of guiding principle to help you focus. Examples of goals can be like “I want to try my hand at an ergative language with lots of head marking”, “what if Latin had displaced German as the main spoken language of the Holy Roman Empire”, “can a language work without nouns” or even simply “I want to create a language the expresses my thoughts better than the languages I already know”. Just think up your own!
  2. With your goal in mind, it’s time to start actually building the language. Everyone goes through it their own way, but the key is to take it slow, one step at a time. Focussing on spoken languages right now, a language consists basically of a phonology, a morphology, a syntax and a vocabulary (those categories tend to bleed into each other, but such a classification is good enough for a beginner). I tend to go through these in that order:
  3. The phonology is not just an inventory of the sounds that appear in a language, but also a description of how syllables are formed and where which sounds can appear in a word (what is called phonotactics). The phonotactics of a language are just as important as its phoneme inventory, as they have a big influence on how the language will sound like. Look for instance at how English can pack many consonants within the same syllable, as in the word strength. Japanese, on the other hand, is much more restricted in the shape of its syllables, and a Japanese speaker without knowledge of English trying to pronounce the word above would end up with something like suterengusu! The phonology and phonotactics of the language you create will have a great influence on the look and feel of your language (an its sound), so they are worth taking your time working on. And while it is likely that you will need to revise your phonology as time goes on and you understand better how your creation works, I typically advise to have a good sound inventory set up early, as you will need words to test the grammar rules that you are going to invent, and it’s difficult to create those when you don’t know which sounds your language uses and which it doesn’t. An invaluable tool when it comes to phonology is the International Phonetic Alphabet, so It’s a good idea to learn to use it.
  4. Once you have the phonology in place, it’s time to work on the meat of the language, its grammar. Typically, you will start with the morphology of your language, i.e. the form, structure and type of its words. This is the place where you will decide which parts of speech your language has. Most natural languages have nouns and verbs, for instance, but not all languages have a separate class of adjectives, or if they have them, they may only have a few. It’s also the place where you decide whether you’ll have noun classes (in European languages those are usually called genders), verb groups, and what, if anything, is marked on these parts of speech. Do nouns change form for number, for function in the sentence (case), do verbs have marking for tense, aspect, mood, which ones are marked, etc. Do adjectives agree with the nouns they complete? Do verbs agree in person, number, noun class, etc. with the subject, the object, both, or neither? Or do they do all kinds of different things? (I heard of one language spoken on an island where verbs have a mandatory marking for whether the action took place on the seashore or inland! :) ) But you’ll quickly need to make decisions about the syntax of your language before you can make all the decisions about its morphology, so let’s go to the next point.
  5. The syntax of a language doesn’t only refer to word order, but it’s a big part of it. Basically, what is the word order in a standard sentence? (typically described by ordering a combination of the letters V, S and O, i.e. verb, subject and object) Do other types of sentences or clauses have a different word order? (your beloved German, for instance, is V2 for main clauses, but verb-final in subordinate clauses) Do adjectives precede or follow the noun they complete? Another important question is your language’s alignment: is your language nominative-accusative, ergative-absolutive, split ergative, or something different (the Austronesian alignment, for instance, is especially cool ;) ). Morphology and syntax interact a lot with each other (that’s why people often speak of morphosyntax), so you’ll often go from one to the other as you build up your language. Here again, take your time, build your language step by step, and revise often, especially at the beginning when things are still fluid. Later it will become more difficult to change things.
  6. Once you have a phonology and a working grammar, as well as some embryo of a lexicon, with words you created to test your grammar rules, it’s time to start making that language grow. That means creating its vocabulary. Now, this is my least favourite part, so I have only little advice to give here. What I can tell you, however, is that the way not to do it is to get a vocabulary list in English and invent a word for each entry. Languages differ in everything, including in which meanings they encode in which words. In other words, there is never a one-to-one correspondence between the vocabularies of two different languages. Not even to two closely related ones! Because of that, you’ll need to be just as careful when creating your vocabulary as you were when you created the phonology, morphology and syntax of your conlang. And remember, languages are systems of systems. Even in a language’s vocabulary, there are structures to find, systems, connections to exploit. Try to discern your language’s spirit, and don’t forget your goal! If you’re creating a language for a fictional people, think about their culture. The interaction between language and culture is complicated, but a nice principle to remember is that people will generally only name what is relevant to them. And that includes not only their environment, but also their feelings, belief systems, theories, etc.

And that’s it. Now, I realise that I used a lot of words and still only scratched the surface of what language construction is, but hopefully you can use this as a first poke in the right direction :).

As I wrote above, this is only my approach to conlanging, and it may not fit your preferences. There are others. People like David J. Peterson, for instance, favour a more historical approach, where they create a proto-language, and derive the language they actually want to create via sound changes (and other fun historical stuff like grammaticalisation). This is a great way to create believable systems and especially believable exceptions and irregularities, but it’s a lot of work and you need to have a good handle on historical linguistics. However much I admire that method, I know it isn’t for me. But if you study language history, it might be fit for you.

Another tip I have is to look at the Language Construction Kit. While it contains some things that I will politely refer to as “inaccuracies”, it is a good guide for a beginner. Just don’t take it at face value and use it more as a guideline, and you’ll be fine.

You can also look into joining existing conlang communities. My preference goes to the Conlang Mailing List (for its civility and level of knowledge) and naturally to the Language Creation Society, which can for instance help you set up a website to showcase your creations, and has a lending library if you want to consult linguistics books but cannot afford to buy them (and don’t have a university library in the neighbourhood).

One last tip: do not rush in to translate texts in your conlang. While translations are a great way to test your language and increase its vocabulary, if you start doing translations before the language has solidified into its own thing, the source language of your translations will tend to seep in your own, with its idiosyncrasies and peculiarities finding their way into your conlang. It’s just so easy to just copy the structures and idioms of the language you’re translating from, when your own conlang has not matured enough to produce its own idioms. So while translations are great exercises, they are counterproductive early in the game. Only start working on translations once your conlang has a solid basis and a big enough lexicon.

So, I hope this answer will help you. Sorry, it has been long in the making, and it may be a little too wordy for Tumblr, but I hope it’ll be useful. Don’t hesitate to send more asks if you need clarification or have other questions!