Who deserves the patent on using CRISPR-Cas9 in human cells? Take our poll

Who deserves the patent on using CRISPR-Cas9 in human cells? Take our poll

There is no hotter technology than CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing tools.

Perhaps it is not surprising then that there is a patent dispute over it, which falls into two camps:

(1) Jennifer Doudna & Emmanuelle Charpentier, and (2) Feng Zhang.

Who deserves the intellectual property for use of CRISPR-Cas9 in human cells?

Take our poll.

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Chinese Hegemony: Grand Strategy and International Institutions in East Asian History joins a rapidly growing body of important literature that combines history and International Relations theory to create new perspectives on East Asian political and strategic behavior. The book explores the strategic and institutional dynamics of international relations in East Asian history when imperial China was the undisputed regional hegemon, focusing in depth on two central aspects of Chinese hegemony at the time: the grand strategies China and its neighbors adopted in their strategic interactions, and the international institutions they engaged in to maintain regional order—including but not limited to the tribute system.

Feng Zhang draws on both Chinese and Western intellectual traditions to develop a relational theory of grand strategy and fundamental institutions in regional relations. The theory is evaluated with three case studies of Sino-Korean, Sino-Japanese, and Sino-Mongol relations during China’s early Ming dynasty—when a type of Confucian expressive strategy was an essential feature of regional relations. He then explores the policy implications of this relational model for understanding and analyzing contemporary China’s rise and the changing East Asian order. The book suggests some historical lessons for understanding contemporary Chinese foreign policy and considers the possibility of a more relational and cooperative Chinese strategy in the future.

Feng Zhang is a Fellow in the Department of International Relations in the Australian National University’s College of Asia and the Pacific.

[1507.06732] Lepton flavor violation in the BLMSSM

[ Authors ]
Shu-Min Zhao, Tai-Fu Feng, Hai-Bin Zhang, Xi-Jie Zhan, Yin-Jie Zhang, Ben Yan
[ Abstract ]
In a supersymmetric extension of the standard model with local gauged baryon and lepton numbers (BLMSSM), there are new sources for lepton flavor violation, because the right-handed neutrinos and new gauginos are introduced. In BLMSSM, we study the lepton flavor violating processes $l_j\rightarrow l_i+\gamma$ and $l_j\rightarrow 3l_i$ in detail. The numerical results show that in the parameter space the branching ratios for lepton flavor violating processes can be large enough to be detected in the near future.

Chloral Hydrate Preconditioning Protects Against Ischemic Stroke via Upregulating Annexin A1.

PubMed: Related Articles

Chloral Hydrate Preconditioning Protects Against Ischemic Stroke via Upregulating Annexin A1.

CNS Neurosci Ther. 2015 Jul 24;

Authors: Liu JH, Feng D, Zhang YF, Shang Y, Wu Y, Li XF, Pei L

AIMS: Preconditioning is promising for treating cerebral ischemic stroke. Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a homeostatic antiinflammatory mediator that participates in countering against ischemic injuries. We investigated whether chloral hydrate preconditioning (CH) exerts neuroprotection via regulation of ANXA1 in stroke.
METHODS: Adult male C57BL/6J mice or ANXA1 knockout (ANXA1(-/-) ) mice were randomly allocated to control (NCH) and CH groups [2%, 6%, and 10% chloral hydrate (i.p.) 1 h before the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)]. Neurological performances were evaluated by modified 7-point neurological scales and rotarod test. Cerebral infarction was analyzed by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and MRI. The expression of ANXA1, pro-inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6), and antiinflammatory (IL-4, IL-10, TGF-β) cytokines was investigated by RT-PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence.
RESULTS: Chloral hydrate preconditioning significantly improved the neurological outcomes and reduced the infarction and brain edema after ischemia. In addition, CH increased the expression of ANXA1 in the microglia, decreased the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, while elevated the levels of IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-β in the MCAO mice. Furthermore, both ANXA1 blocker Boc1 (5 mg/kg, i.c.v.) or ANXA1 gene deficiency restrained the protective effects of CH against stroke.
CONCLUSIONS: Chloral hydrate preconditioning protects against ischemic injuries through upregulating the expression of ANXA1, and the followed antiinflammatory mechanisms.

PMID: 26205642 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] http://dlvr.it/Bdq8L6

Chinese Government’s Measure Lifted Market Cap of Internet Companies

The Minister of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) introduced the development of Industrial sector and Communication Industry in the first half of 2015 this morning on a press conference.

Keep reading

China's industrial sector faces pressure: Official

Beijing, July 22 (IANS) China’s industrial sector still faces considerable downward pressure although positive signs have emerged due to government support policies, authorities said on Wednesday.

“Some regions, industries and businesses are facing increasing difficulties, and strong efforts are needed to stabilize and improve industrial operations,” Xinhua quoted Ministry of Industry and Information Technology spokesman Zhang Feng as saying.

The comments came after data showed China’s industrial output grew 6.3 percent year-on-year in the first half of 2015, slightly down from a 6.4-percent increase in the first quarter.

In an encouraging sign, the growth rate has gradually recovered from 5.6 percent in March, the lowest level since the global financial crisis in 2008, authorities said.

China’s economy posted a better-than-expected year-on-year growth of 7 percent in the second quarter of 2015, unchanged from the first quarter.

[1507.05862] Onboard Calibration Circuit for the Front-end Electronics of DAMPE BGO Calorimeter

[ Authors ]
De-Liang Zhang, Chang-Qing Feng, Jun-Bin Zhang, Qi Wang, Si-Yuan Ma, Shan-Shan Gao, Zhong-Tao Shen, Di Jiang, Jian-Hua Guo, Shu-Bin Liu, Qi An
[ Abstract ]
An onboard calibration circuit has been designed for the front-end electronics (FEE) of DAMPE BGO Calorimeter. It is mainly composed of a 12 bit DAC, an operation amplifier and an analog switch. Test results showed that a dynamic range of 0 ~ 30 pC with a precision of 5 fC was achieved, which meets the requirements of the front-end electronics. Furthermore, it is used to test the trigger function of the FEEs. The calibration circuit has been implemented and verified by all the environmental tests for both Qualification Model and Flight Model of DAMPE. The DAMPE satellite will be launched at the end of 2015 and the calibration circuit will perform onboard calibration in space.

CR1 rs3818361 Polymorphism Contributes to Alzheimer's Disease Susceptibility in Chinese Population.

PubMed: Related Articles

CR1 rs3818361 Polymorphism Contributes to Alzheimer’s Disease Susceptibility in Chinese Population.

Mol Neurobiol. 2015 Jul 21;

Authors: Li Y, Song D, Jiang Y, Wang J, Feng R, Zhang L, Wang G, Chen Z, Wang R, Jiang Q, Liu G

Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) reported CR1 rs3818361 polymorphism to be an Alzheimer’s disease (AD) susceptibility variant in European ancestry. Three independent studies investigated this association in Chinese population. However, these studies reported weak or no significant association. Here, we reinvestigated the association using all the samples from three independent studies in Chinese population (N = 4047, 1244 AD cases and 2803 controls). We also selected three independent studies in European ancestry population (N = 11787, 3939 AD cases and 7848 controls) to evaluate the effect of rs3818361 polymorphism on AD risk in different ethnic backgrounds. In Chinese population, we did not identified significant heterogeneity using additive, recessive, and dominant genetic models. Meta-analysis showed significant association between rs3818361 and AD with P = 6.00E-03 and P = 5.00E-03. We further identified no heterogeneity of rs3818361 polymorphism between Chinese and European populations. We found that rs3818361 polymorphism contributed to AD with similar genetic risk in Chinese and European populations. In summary, this is the first study to show significant association between rs3818361 polymorphism and AD in Chinese population by a meta-analysis method. Our findings indicate that the effect of CR1 rs3818361 polymorphism on AD risk in Chinese cohorts is consistent with the increased risk observed in European AD cohorts.

PMID: 26189835 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] http://dlvr.it/Bbcgtm

[1507.04062] Dynamics of social contagions with memory of non-redundant information

[ Authors ]
Wei Wang, Ming Tang, Hai-Feng Zhang, Ying-Cheng Lai
[ Abstract ]
A key ingredient in social contagion dynamics is reinforcement, as adopting a certain social behavior requires verification of its credibility and legitimacy. Memory of non-redundant information plays an important role in reinforcement, which so far has eluded theoretical analysis. We first propose a general social contagion model with reinforcement derived from non-redundant information memory. Then, we develop a unified edge-based compartmental theory to analyze this model, and a remarkable agreement with numerics is obtained on some specific models. Using a spreading threshold model as a specific example to understand the memory effect, in which each individual adopts a social behavior only when the cumulative pieces of information that the individual received from his/her neighbors exceeds an adoption threshold. Through analysis and numerical simulations, we find that the memory characteristic markedly affects the dynamics as quantified by the final adoption size. Strikingly, we uncover a transition phenomenon in which the dependence of the final adoption size on some key parameters, such as the transmission probability, can change from being discontinuous to being continuous. The transition can be triggered by proper parameters and structural perturbations to the system, such as decreasing individuals’ adoption threshold, increasing initial seed size, or enhancing the network heterogeneity.

[1507.04429] Investigation of the Time Performance of a LYSO Array for TOF-PET

[ Authors ]
Liu Jun-Hui, Xu Jiong-Hui, Cheng Feng-Feng, Li Dao-Wu, Zhang Zhi-Ming, Wang Bao-Yi, Wei Long
[ Abstract ]
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) using time-of-flight information, which can greatly improve the quality of the reconstructed image, has recently become an exciting topic. In this work, 3.2mm*3.2mm*25mm finger-like LYSO crystals were used to make a 5*5 array, coupled to the Hamamatsu H8500 photomultiplier tube (PMT) as a detector. A fast leading-edge discriminator was designed for the LYSO-H8500 detector. Average coincidence time resolution FWHM of 330 ps was obtained for the LYSO detector with a reference BaF2 detector, whose time resolution for 511 keV {\gamma}-rays was FWHM 150 ps. Time resolution FWHM of 294 ps was calculated for the LYSO detector, and coincidence time resolution of FHWM 415 ps can be expected for two identical LYSO detectors.