female will graham

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★ ·.·´¯`·.·★ [ Ashley Graham] ★·.·´¯`·.·★

✴ Weight: 91 kg or 201 pounds
✴ Height: 5 ft 9 in or 175 cm
✴ Hair Colour: Dark Brown
✴ Eye Colour: Dark Brown
✴ Birth Place: Lincoln, Nebraska, United States
✴ Date Of Birth: October 30, 1987
✴ Occupation: Model

I watched NBC’s (edit : sorry for the HBO derpHannibal for a while and it was a really interesting serie overall (even if it got silly at times). I’m still very fond of the original movies, but the visuals on this show were gorgeous!

Miniprint made for TCAF.

Available on Etsy  (✿◕◡◕)

Femininity, masculinity and word association

Each year we ask half the students in our Psychology of Women classes (most of whom are women) to provide word associations to the words “masculine” and “feminine” and ask the other half, working independently, to provide associations to the words “dominant” and “subordinate.” (We invite the reader to do this too before reading any further. A word association is the first word that comes to mind when one thinks of, say, “masculine.” You should not stop to analyze your associations as you write them down. Nor should you censor or revise terms. Rather, you should write down as many words as you can think of in as short a time as possible. Now, write down all the associations you have for each of the four terms: masculine, feminine, dominant, and subordinate. Generate all the word associations you can for the first term before moving on to the second term. Keep separate the associations for each of the four terms.)

Students are consistently surprised by the outcome. Students’ word associations to “masculine” and “dominant” are often identical (“ strong,” “powerful,” “in control,” “courageous,” “has money and status,” “leader,” “aggressive,” “competitive,” “strong-minded”). Likewise, word associations to “feminine” and “subordinate” are often identical (“weak,” “small,” “dependent,” “insecure,” “non-assertive”). However, the students notice that, when the associations are similar but not identical, they tend to be more positive for the word “feminine” than for the word “subordinate.” For example, associations to “feminine” but not to “subordinate” include “nice,” “caring,” “intuitive,” “sensitive,” and “flexible.” Word associations to “subordinate” but not to “feminine” include “indecisive,” “passive,” “handicapped,” “fearful,” “captive,” “intimidated,” “oppressed,” “suppressed,” and “puppet.”

Interestingly, when we have varied this task and asked students to generate word associations for the terms “feminine” and “victim,” we have obtained similar findings. In many instances, common terms are associated with both words. When word associations differ for the two terms, the associations to the word “feminine” tend to be more positive than those to the word “victim.”

We view the positive associations to the word “feminine” to refer to (Societal) Stockholm Syndrome strategies for interacting with dominants. Being nice, caring, intuitive, sensitive, and flexible help ensure that interactions of subordinates with dominants go smoothly. We propose that oppressed group members adopt such behaviors in order not to threaten dominant group members.

The negative associations to the word “subordinate” emphasize lack of power and the negative effects on subordinates of such lack of power (e.g., passive, handicapped, fearful, captive). The differences in word associations to “feminine” and “subordinate” suggest that the students do not view positive traits such as caring and sensitivity as responses to being, for example, fearful and captive. Thus, this observed difference in word associations suggests that the students deny that hostile conditions producing subordination may generate positive, feminine, Stockholm Syndrome characteristics. Such denial would be consistent with Societal Stockholm Syndrome.

The relevance to women of the negative words associated with the word “subordinate” was uncovered in chapter 4, where it was shown that women as a group are more depressed, anxious, and fearful than men. Moreover, women were found to act less aggressively and both to be more likely to deny anger at others and attribute our successes to luck, not skill, than men. These findings suggest that the negative terms students associate with the term “subordinate” do in fact apply to women as a group. That is, women are more fearful, intimidated, and handicapped compared to men, feeling, for example, that we must do more than men for the same amount of pay yet feeling that we are unable to express our anger for fear of men’s retaliation. If women as a group are subordinate to (captives of) men as a group, we would expect women to have such a psychology.

The work of Jeanne Block (1976) sheds further light on the fact that, for females, the psychology of subordination is similar to the psychology of femininity in its positive (Societal Stockholm Syndrome) aspects. In particular, Block’s summary of research on sex differences suggests that the behavior of females is described by both the negative characteristics attributed to subordinates by students and the positive characteristics attributed to femininity. Viewed more broadly, Block’s findings offer additional support for the conclusion that masculinity and femininity are code words for male domination and female subordination.

Loving to Survive by Dee L.R. Graham