feeding behaviour

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 Bald Eagles and Crows Sharing Meals on an Alaska Beach 

Kevin McGowan, instructor of the Lab’s online course in bird behavior, Investigating Behavior: Courtship and Rivalry in Birds, describes the feeding behaviors of Bald Eagles and Northwestern Crows on a beach near Homer,  Alaska.

Everyone has these thoughts, literally everyone. however people without OCD can let it pass as some silly thought that has entered their mind. what we do, people with OCD, we see the tiniest or most ridiculous threat which would never happen, and amplify it.

We interpret it as a major threat which makes us feel horribly responsible. this feeds our safety behaviours and anxiety, which circles back and feeds the thought which we continue to interpret as a threat. it’s a vicious circle, and the main problem is that our OCD makes us interpret these thoughts as major threats. 

It makes us believe we can do horrible things or that horrible things will happen

Because we have this feeling of ‘evidence’ that doing our safety behaviours results in the bad thing not happening, we believe that we have stopped it, no matter how ridiculous and irrational it may seem. 

This gives us temporary relief from anxiety but its is only temporary and sky rockets again, looping like our behaviours end up doing, and amplifying the anxiety.

For example, there is a man on a train, he rips up paper and throws it out of the window to keep the tigers away from the train. He therefore believes what he is doing (a safety behaviour) is keeping the tigers (a thought interpreted as a real threat) away. Only if he were to stop the paper ripping, would he learn that there are no tigers, and therefore no threat.

Whilst that is extremely easy to say, its very, very hard for someone with OCD to do, but understanding is the first step to recovery. 

nature.com
The Biomechanics Behind Extreme Osteophagy in Tyrannosaurus rex
Paul M. Gignac & Gregory M. Erickson doi:10.1038/s41598-017-02161-w Received: 25 November 2016 Accepted: 07 April 2017 Published online: 17 May 2017

Most carnivorous mammals can pulverize skeletal elements by generating tooth pressures between occluding teeth that exceed cortical bone shear strength, thereby permitting access to marrow and phosphatic salts. Conversely, carnivorous reptiles have non-occluding dentitions that engender negligible bone damage during feeding. As a result, most reptilian predators can only consume bones in their entirety. Nevertheless, North American tyrannosaurids, including the giant (13 metres [m]) theropod dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex stand out for habitually biting deeply into bones, pulverizing and digesting them. How this mammal-like capacity was possible, absent dental occlusion, is unknown. Here we analyzed T. rex feeding behaviour from trace evidence, estimated bite forces and tooth pressures, and studied tooth-bone contacts to provide the answer. We show that bone pulverization was made possible through a combination of: (1) prodigious bite forces (8,526–34,522 newtons [N]) and tooth pressures (718–2,974 megapascals [MPa]) promoting crack propagation in bones, (2) tooth form and dental arcade configurations that concentrated shear stresses, and (3) repetitive, localized biting. Collectively, these capacities and behaviors allowed T. rex to finely fragment bones and more fully exploit large dinosaur carcasses for sustenance relative to competing carnivores.

anonymous asked:

Toxic friend anon: u are not being hateful, and God won't be mad at u. Staying in a toxic relationship does not help friends or bring them closer to God; it feeds into behaviour that keeps them from Him. I have been in many similar friendships; disconnecting helped me, and sometimes helped them too, because it was a wake-up call for them. Take comfort that God knows your heart, and he knows that you're disconnecting because you need to and not because of malice. Blessings, peace, & good luck. :)

For the toxic friend anon!

anonymous asked:

sry i just took it out on u rlly im just so tired and done with the fandom's shit rn

i’m not going to answer your first ask because that’s not something i want to get involved with at all. also i don’t think that talking about it will do any good - we can’t feed that kind of behaviour in any way. 

the only advice i have is to avoid the content you dont like and only consumed content you DO like. it certainly isn’t the entirety of the fandom that causes drama, they’re just loud when they do and we add fuel to the flame by sharing it/acknowledging it/etc. i understand your frustration and there has been times where i’m disheartened by it all, but if you keep to yourself and interact with your friends who aren’t dickbags, all will be fine. 

dont worry about it dude - i didn’t see it as you “taking it out on me”. i get how you feel but it’s all good. it’s just a tv show in the end of it all so enjoy it as you please. 

Bogle

Cousin to Boggarts and Bogeyman, the Bogle is a primitive creature, closer to Boggarts than any other of the fear-creatures. Bogles simply create enlarged shadows and an uneasy feeling, rather than targeting specific fears as Boggarts do, but are more than capable of devouring people into the shadows in a manner reminiscent to some of the feeding behaviour of Lethifolds, leading to some to draw a possible link. While Lethifolds are still considered more closely tied to Dementors than to Boggarts, the tie is an interesting one, but requires farther study into all fear and despair beasts (including Boggarts, Bogles, Bogeymen, Dementors, Lethifolds and Set-Aasith) before any kind of verification can be given.

Most Bogles are found in largely magical woods throughout Britain, though some are rumoured to be found in Forbidden Forests and Enchanted Gardens elsewhere in Europe - apparently drawn in by the magic - and in long-magical forests in France, such as Brocéliande. They are also commonly sighted around locations claimed by the Fae, particularly Unseelie Fae, who, it is believed, encourage the presence of the creatures to provide them with more fear to draw on for their magic and for sustenance. Like Boggarts, however, Bogles can be dispelled by laughter, not simply being repelled but fully disintegrating. They can also be repelled by suitably bright light, rather as European Gytrashes are.


(Image Source)

(Read about folkloric Bogles Here. I hate that I have to include this but PLEASE DO NOT DELETE THE IMAGE SOURCE OR MY CAPTION.) 

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You are what you eat…..

A large Robber Fly (Asilidae) takes down one of it’s own (perhaps another species or at least the opposite gender). As formidable hunters and with apparent insatiable appetites, it is not unusual to see “cannibalistic” feeding behaviour amongst the Asilids. This could also be related to ill-rehearsed and poorly-timed approaches by males in an attempt to court females.

by Sinobug (itchydogimages) on Flickr.
Pu'er, Yunnan, China

See more Chinese flies on my Flickr site HERE…..

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GUT STASIS IN RABBITS

Gut Stasis is a gastrointestinal condition known as “The Silent Killer” in Rabbits. It is often picked up by owners when they notice their rabbits lack of appetite, lack of faeces production and lethargy. 

What is Gut Stasis?

Gut stasis occurs when the gut motility slows down influencing how quickly the stomach and caecum can empty. As this starts to occur, rabbits often go off their food and water causing the condition to worsen as matter within the stomach and caecum dries out making it harder to pass. The longer this matter sits in the stomach and caecum the more gas and bad bacteria builds up until eventually septic shock occurs and death rapidly follows.

What causes Gut Stasis?

Gut Stasis is very rarely a primary condition, it is almost always a secondary to something. The influencing factors seem to be;

  • Dental Disease - Malocclusion, Overgrown Incisors and Spurs on Molars.
  • Incorrect Diet - Diets which are high in carbohydrates and proteins as opposed to the recommended high fibre diets.
  • Environmental Stress - A change to hutch, garden, handler or another pet such as dog or cat being introduced to rabbits environment. 
  • Dehydration - As stated a lack of water dries out the material in the stomach and caecum making it harder to pass.

What Nursing Care Should I Provide?

Intensive nursing is needed to nurse a rabbit through gut stasis. 

  1. Blood Glucose

Research has suggested that by measuring the blood glucose levels of a rabbit it can be determined wether a gastric blockage has occurred or if gut motility has occurred.

Normal Glucose Range: 4.2-8.2mmol/L

Rabbits suffering from Gut Stasis usually present with Glucose at the higher end of the spectrum (8.5mmol/L) while rabbits with blockage exhibit glucose readings as high as 25mmol/L. While this is a handy piece of knowledge to have, glucose can rise due to the stress of handling and changing environment therefore this should be taken into consideration. 

      2. Pain Scoring

This is thought to be a incredibly painful condition and therefore patients need to monitored very closely for the clinical signs associated with pain. What is hard in this regard is distinguishing between the symptoms of pain and the behaviour associated with pain. 

STRESSFUL RABBITS - Will be scatty, hard to handle and jumpy. 

PAINFUL RABBITS - Will be immobile, have altered breathing pattern, squinty eyes and a hunched up posture.

     3. Managing Stress in a Hospital Environment

Rabbits are prey animals and therefore are always on the look out for dangers and hiding when they see fit! Stress can be minimised in hospital environments by providing them with a box to hide away in while in their kennel. Ideally a big floor kennel would be beneficial as movement will aid gut motility but this should only be carried out if the kennel is away from dogs and busy practice areas. Stress can also be reduced by allowing them to graze in a run on some grass several times a day. Also ensure enrichment such as chew sticks, hay and vegetables are available to stop self mutilation, over grooming and destructive behaviour. 

     4. Feeding Requirements

To draw up a good nutritional care plan for a gut stasis bunny a good history is needed. If the rabbit has only just stopped eating and is still bright and alert syringe feeding critical care formula will be beneficial as this will encourage the gut to start moving efficiently again. For more severe cases a nasogastric tube can be the least stressful option as nutrition can be given continuously and fluids can also be given down the tube maintaining hydration.

       5. Owner Education 

May people believe that rabbits are easy, low maintenance pets which require little to no veterinary care. Unfortunately this is not always the case, prevention is better than cure and therefore making sure that clients know the correct nutritional, housing and vaccination requirements can save not only rabbits lives but owners very large veterinary bills. 

anonymous asked:

Could you explain what you mean by shutdown? I know that it might be difficult to explain to someone allistic, but I'd like to understand autistic traits better.

Sorry for being a little snippy here, but I do feel it’s important to voice my frustration when I initially received this message. Seeing as it was in the middle of a very bad shutdown, I was kinda’ pissed that I was expected to answer questions about it. Especially seeing as it’s a common term within the autistic community, and there are tons of autism blogs run by autistic people that are there specifically for answering questions like this. I’m not blaming you or anything, Anon, I just wanted to have my frustration be heard and gotten out of the way.

Now, what the hell’s a shutdown? I’m gonna’ get pretty in-depth here, as much as I can. Forgive any weird shit, I’m still regaining brain functioning.

Basically, autistic folk have different brains. They’re wired differently. A lot of things that are normal and not stressful at all, are super stressful to an autistic person. Like, I shutdown this time because I’d gone on a trip to visit family. Which involves a ton of socializing. Socializing is extremely stressful to me, because I don’t technically know how allistic conversation works, exactly. Instead, I have to be conscious of all the rules I’ve learned that govern allistic interaction. And a lot of guesswork. Pretty stressful. It’s like having to do long division in my head whenever someone says something to me.

So the autistic brain, when forced to perform to allistic standards, basically goes into a stress response thing. Like, everyone gets it, it’s the same stress response, but the stress you might get from being chased by lions or having to give a really big important speech or not knowing if you’ll be able to pay rent, is the same stress level I might get from, say, the tv being too loud (for me, which is a decent volume for other people), or the ambient noise/lighting in a restaurant, or having a conversation with someone.

And there are two ways that an autistic brain will tend to respond to this. Shutdown or meltdown. (Insert disclaimer here that not all autistic folk experience both, or either) Meltdown is the classic image of an autistic person throwing things, punching things, slamming doors, hitting themselves, biting themselves or other things, screaming, or crying. (all extremely satisfying, actually. Someone said once that it was a physical manifestation of how much the brain hurt. I like that description) The shutdown is when the brain stops working all together. I tend to mildly dissociate, sleep for extreme periods of time (12 hours mostly in one sitting, then various naps afterwards), have an extremely difficult time moving, have extremely disorganized thoughts, and generally just feel like I’ve been hit by a fucking train. Also, I’ve found, that I get urges to engage in harmful stims (self-stimulatory behaviour), which feeds into my theory that personally, my shutdowns are due to going past the point of meltdown by mildly dissociating so that I don’t behave “inappropriately” and therefore tire myself out further and just completely fuck myself over.

Another analogy that I find helps, though a lot of autistic folk personally don’t like it because of the subhuman connotation, is a comparison to a computer. Daily functioning on an allistic level, for me, is like running twenty different high-intensity programs on a really shitty computer. Like, a full version of photoshop, several intense games with maxed out graphics and settings, five internet browsers with 30 tabs open on each (coincidentally, the number of tabs I have open rn), five music players all blaring music, and three video players playing HD movies. While sitting in 100 degree weather. The poor computer is gonna’ overheat or something. But instead of actually doing anything, turning it off or reducing the number of programs, you just stick a fan and a bucket of ice under it. Then it shuts off with a blue screen of death, and somehow your system is fucked up and it takes forever to boot the computer back up. Again, reminder, the activities that cause this level of stress can include driving, going to the store, cleaning, having a conversation with someone, being in a room with a loud noise source (that allistic people don’t think is too loud at all), or with multiple quieter noise sources, cooking, or even just physical stuff like being hungry/thirsty, having to go to the bathroom, or strong emotions.

I hope this helps explain it in a way that’s understandable. I am still willing to answer further questions, it was just bad timing that I got this ask when my brain was barely functioning. Although also, for future reference, the tag actuallyautistic on tumblr (tumblr.com/tagged/actuallyautistic) is where autistic folk put their experiences. And while it’s not cool to post there if you’re allistic (meaning you aren’t even seriously questioning whether you may be autistic or not), it’s very cool to read what actually autistic people have to say about their experiences, and get more than one point of view. Plus, there are lots of blogs dedicated to answering these types of questions, if I’m ever unable to for any reason.

MUDSKIPPERS USE WATER TONGUE TO FEED ON LAND

When a mudskipper (Periophthalmus barbarus)- an amphibious fish- feed on land, it brings a mouthful of water that it uses as a tongue to move food to the back of its throat and into its belly. The whole process happens in less than half a second, which is why it has been hard to detect.  This hydrodynamic tongue is unique in animals.
The unusual feeding behaviour of mudskippers captured in high-speed and X-ray video offers an explanation on the evolution of sea-dwelling animals into terrestrial ones. 

Tokyo ghoul RE: 8 - thoughts on Kafka's crossbreed

Since beginning of TG, Ishida has repeatedly placed book titles in his story and use them to mirror the protagonist’s life stories and major events. 

In TG:Re, chapter 8 Arima mentions he borrowed Sask.’s book “Crossbreed” by Kafka. It’s a very short story but packed with questions of morality. 

The crossbreed discusses the existence of a breed that is half kitten, half lamb. This rare animal demonstrates some identity crisis - not knowing whether it should behave like a cat or act like a lamb, or sometimes even another totally different creature such as a dog, perhaps in order to keep its owner happy. This animal has a peculiar feeding behaviour - such as loves drinking milk rather than eating grass. Although the cat is popular amongst children and they try to bring along their own cats and lambs to let this cat/lamb make new friends, they do not recognise this creature. The cat/lamb attempts to make communicational signals towards the owner, who appears to love the cat and have a mutual understanding of its communication. At the same time, the owner senses its unhappiness more or less due to its feeling of displacement in the world. 

There’s a lot of resemblance to Sasaki/Kaneki’s feelings and resistance. But perhaps the following is the most touching: 

I happened to glance down and saw tears dropping down from its huge whiskers. Were they mine, or where they the animal’s? Had this cat, along with the soul of a lamb, the ambitions of a human being?”. 

The story concludes with this: 

“Perhaps the knife of of the butcher would be a release for this animmal; but as it is a legacy I must deny it that. So it must wait until the breath voluntarily leaves its body, even though it sometimes gazes at me with look of human understanding, challenging me to do the thing of which both of us or thinking”. 

(Oh my gosh, if this was true I hope Arima does really care about sasaki). 

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How Animals Eat Their Food (by MisterEpicMann)

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“The bottom line is that Elena as a human made a very, very, very clear choice that she would love Stefan always and forever,“ she says. "But then her entire life turned upside down, and any feelings she originally had for Damon were still there, and of course magnified. There was always going to be a little bit of a confusion there for her but not enough confusion for her to be over Stefan. It would take a lot to rip Elena away from loving Stefan. It would take years and seasons. We’d be eighty, if we followed the natural progression of that relationship. The sire bond let us have a supernatural reason — and yes, albeit a controversial one — but a very bold way for Elena to finally feel comfortable acting on these feelings that she’s been struggling with now for a couple years. Without it she’d just have that confusion.” (x)

“The night I died, Matt was driving me back to him and yet I found my way back to you.” This is why I have to believe this is truly Elena’s messed up POV and not what are we supposed to believe as the truth. Or why maybe we can’t let the writers forget the sirebond existed. Any choice Elena made after she turned as being true and genuine is negated by the sirebond and was a magnified feeling through the sirebond otherwise, like JULIE HERSELF SAID, Elena would still be confused about how she feels about Damon.

(I wrote a bit about finks, one of my species. I hope you will enjoy reading about them; they live on Inli, which is the world from my novel of the same name.)


Finks are large, eyeless beasts which are largely quadrupedal, and can possess horns, ridges, wing-like protuberances, or any other number of other physical traits. A fink’s exact outward appearance varies between individuals, with their internal compositions being similarly dissimilar. Eye markings, when present, tend to be accompanied by ridging and limited muscle control (allowing a fink to “blink”). A fink lacks a skeleton, but does have many sharp, durable claws and teeth (strong enough to break most rocks, and bend softer metals). Though feeling as solid as any skeleton-bearing creature, a fink’s boneless body enables it to move through far tighter spaces than would otherwise be allowed. Their flesh is superficially similar to an animal’s muscle tissue, but their blood is only rarely analogous, with mercury, water, bleach, brandy, or any one of an infinite myriad of other fluids being equally likely.

A fink is born within hollow spaces underground, invariably near a cluster of minerals, metals, or some other substances. Each fink maintains a sympathetic link to this specific element, which, during its juvenile stage, sustains it and influences its growth and appearance. A fink in an element-rich environment grows stocky and fat, while a fink in a less resource-filled environment is more likely to be lithe and serpentine in build. A fink can might be born from, and subsist on any one of a wide range of materials; there may be silver finks, iron finks, ruby finks, or calcium finks.

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