february-23

Raising the Flag over Iwo Jima

Days into the Battle of Iwo Jima, the commanding peak of Mount Suribachi was captured on February 23, 1945.  In what would become of the most iconic images from World War II, five U.S. Marines, Harlon Block, Rene Gagnon, Ira Hayes, Franklin Sousley, Michael Strank, and U.S. Navy Corpsman John Bradley, raised this flag, replacing a smaller flag.

Marines raise flag over Iwo Jima [Etc.], 1945
Motion Picture Films from “United News” Newsreels, 1942 - 1945

Beginning seventy years ago on February 19, 1945, the Battle of Iwo Jima lasted for over a month, as U.S. Marine Corps and U.S. Navy forces invaded the volcanic island to dislodge its Japanese defenders.

More on the 70th Anniversary of the Battle of Iwo Jima →

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Marines Raise Flag Over Iwo Jima, 1945
From the series: Motion Picture Films from “United News” Newsreels, 1942 - 1945

Seventy years ago, Associated Press photographer Joe Rosenthal captured what is perhaps the most iconic image of the Second World War. Taken just days into the more than month-long Battle of Iwo Jima, the Pulitzer Prize winning photograph documented the raising of the flag on Mount Suribachi

Although not as well-known as Rosenthal’s photograph, there is also a moving image record of the flag-raising. Marine Sergeant William Homer Genaust shot 16mm color footage of the event. Sadly, Sgt. Genaust never left Iwo Jima. Nine days after filming the raising of the flag, he was hit by enemy fire. His body was never recovered.

Genaust’s footage was used in this edition of United News, a newsreel series produced by the Office of War Information and distributed to theaters both domestically and overseas. The original footage was color, but was enlarged and copied to black and white for use in the newsreel. Two other stories are featured on this newsreel, including updates from the war front in Japan and Germany.

via The Unwritten Record » Raising the Flag Over Iwo Jima

More on the 70th Anniversary of the Battle of Iwo Jima →

10

Promo Photos from Shadowhunters Episode 10 ‘This World Inverted’

Clary and Jace get a tip from Meliorn that they can find Valentine by locating a portal in another dimension, but only Clary can venture into this new world. What Clary finds in this alternative universe is that life there is like the threat of demons no longer existed and Shadowhunters were no longer needed. While she realizes that this dimension is the life she always dreamed of, Clary must act fast or she will lose herself in the alternative world forever. Meanwhile, Alec and Isabelle must face the consequences of the Downworlder attack.

Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3

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Calvin Klein: How do you define a strong man?@kendalljenner thinks it’s someone who knows how to treat a lady. The model reveals all behind-the-scenes at the Spring 2016 Iron Strength Calvin Klein Underwear ad campaign shoot. #mycalvins

5

February 23, 1986. Sunday. It was morning in Cebu. Cory, a devout Catholic, stayed overnight in a Carmelite Monastery in Cebu. Just yesterday, thousands of supporters flocked Fuente Osmeña to see her and cheer for her. A thunderous applause and cheers of “Cory! Cory!” went on and on as she reiterated her call to join her campaign for civil disobedience. That night she was advised not to return to Manila there was a plot to assassinate her, just like what happened to her husband three years ago. A convoy made its way to the Mactan International Airport to divert the military’s attention. They didn’t know that Cory was not there on a convoy but on a white sedan that went secretly to the Carmelite monastery.

At 9:00 p.m, Cory arrived in a secret entrance to the monastery. The Carmelite nuns fervently believe that she was the real President of the Philippines even after the announcements of the result of the fraudulent snap election were made. Therefore to take her in and hide her for the night is not only a privilege but a duty they willingly took, knowing all the risks.

Meanwhile, at past midnight, today, a massive propaganda war was being waged by Enrile and Ramos. Over the radio through the Catholic church’s Radio Veritas, a radio station that was not controlled by the government, Enrile and Ramos called out the people to support the ouster of Marcos. Marcos was sick, but despite that he called General Prospero Olivas to disperse the crowd around the camps but to no avail. He was told, “The crowd is beyond the capability of my men to disperse.“ Marcos instructed the general to call Major General Josephus Ramas. Olivas never made the call.

Enrile and Ramos agreed that Ramos should go to Camp Crame. Therefore a lady, at 1:30 a.m. called on the crowd numbering thousands for some of them to go there "para magka-guardiya doon.”

By 5:30 a.m., under the direction of Marcos, the Philippine Constabulary attacked and neutralized the radio antenna farm of Radio Veritas. The radio station became limited only to Luzon and was said that it would not last a day.

This morning, after a very simple breakfast at the Carmelite Monastery in Cebu, Cory had a visitor: Blaire Porter, the American consul. The consul reassured her that the United States was committed to protect her in her return to Manila. At 11:00 a.m. she leaves the monastery, and by past noon, she was on board a Cessna private plane to Manila.

At 12 noon, the crowd in EDSA numbered to around 400,000 people. Ramos called on Enrile to join him in Crame, as tanks directed by Marcos was already in Boni Serrano Avenue. Other tanks are coming from Guadalupe to Camp Crame.

Unknown to the military however, one of the cars that went past the Guadalupe tanks was Cory’s. At around 3 p.m. they traversed the EDSA road to Wack-Wack.

A group of civilians coming from the direction of the Makati Hotel overtook those Guadalupe tanks and called on the buses, cars, and people in the Ortigas and EDSA intersection to help them. “Help us! The tanks are coming!” Almost without a minute to lose, the people formed barricades across the intersection to stop the 12 tanks.

From a teacher who was there:

“What a switch! The military is supposed to protect civilian lives, yet there we were, prepared to camp out as long as it took to protect military lives until Marcos gave in, or bombed us off the face of the earth. We didn’t really know what manner of harm they intended to inflict on us. We dared not think about it, because that would make us afraid. Was David afraid when he faced Goliath? Or was he not, because God was on his side? God was on our side. We could not be afraid. Period.”

(quoted in Angela Stuart-Santiago’s website)

Meanwhile, fresh from the Sunday services, Evangelicals were stationed in Gate 2 of Camp Aguinaldo, leading the barricades there. Whenever the Catholics would pray Hail Mary, they would in their own contribution to the revolution, sing “Fairest Lord Jesus.”

In Ortigas and EDSA intersection the advance of the military tanks slowed down as they saw the overwhelming crowd blocking them. Marine Commandant Artemio Tadiar, known as “Tadjak” was the leader of these Marines. The women pleaded with them.

“Temy, you also have a wife and children, please don’t do it!” There was crying and pleading of the people.

“Bakit kayo sumusunod sa diktador?” … “We’re Filipinos like you! Don’t kill us!”

Reconnaissance helicopters hovered around under the command of Tadiar as the crowd swelled by the minute. In the most dramatic episode of the revolution yet, Judge Alfredo Tadiar called on his nephew via Radio Veritas for him to stand down.

“Artemio, this is your Uncle Fred. Your Aunt Florence and I and all your cousins are here in Crame. Now, Boy, please listen to me.” The people cheered. Tadiar, seemingly angered, called on the people to disperse or they’ll “take the backdoor.” The people responded with a resounding no. The tanks advanced about a meter more. 

National Artist Nick Joaquin from The Quartet of the Tiger Moon writes:

Only as death became an immediate possibility did the general mood become grimmer and graver, more serious, though still outwardly lighthearted. The smiling crowds dancing forth to meet cannon and tank with crocus and cross, with roses and rosaries, were performing the ultimate sacrament of grace under pressure.

The crocus ribbons we tied on signified tiger yellow, however striped with black. Philippine activism was at last putting a tiger in its tank.

But the tanks stopped. And with that came the cheers of the now hundreds of thousands of people at EDSA. By evening crowds surged around Camp Crame and Camp Aguinaldo. It was an effective civilian buffer. The military had no choice but to pull out. Even as the crowd thinned, it was noted that the civilian buffer was always there.

Around this time, Cory Aquino called on Ramos and Enrile (not at the same time) at Wack-Wack to talk to them. A few days more and the ousting of the dictator will soon be a reality.


In celebration of the 30th anniversary of the EDSA People Power Revolution of February 1986, a peaceful revolution that ended an oppressive dictatorship in the Philippines, to the shock of the entire world.


Photos above: 

(1) The EDSA crowd in the early afternoon of February 23, 1986. Photo taken by Joey de Vera. Courtesy of the Presidential Museum and Library.

(2) Young men cut down a tropical pine, drag it to the middle of the street and leave it there as a barricade against tanks. Photo by Romeo Vitug. Courtesy of the Presidential Museum and Library.

(3) Hemmed in by thousands of unarmed men and women, the Marines keep their positions on their tanks with machine guns. Photo by John Chua. Courtesy of the Presidential Museum and Library.

(4) Civilian men faced the tanks with linked hands crying out: “We are Filipinos. Are you going to shoot fellow Filipinos?” Photo by Patrick Uy. Courtesy of the Presidential Museum and Library. 

(5) The people pleaded to the Marines, some in anger and defiance. Photo by Joe Galvez Jr. Courtesy of the Presidential Museum and Library.