faustulus

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Gemini Altar (Altar of the twins)

Ostia, Italy

0.84 x 0.84 m ,  1.10 m high

First day of October, 124 CE


A container for offerings or a statue was fastened on top with lead (the altar is explicitly called “altar” in an inscription, but it may have been re-used as a statue-base). The four corners are decorated with ram’s heads and wreaths. The front has a depiction of Mars, Venus (with goose and Amor), and Hymenaeus (the god of marriage). On the back we see Romulus and Remus, suckled by the she-wolf. They are found by two shepherds, Faustulus and Faustinus. This story is situated near the Palatine (the Lupercal), and the personification of the hill can be seen in the upper left part. In the lower right part is the personification of the Tiber. Jupiter’s eagle is present as well. On the sides of the altar are amorini, hauling the weapons and chariot of Mars. The amorini are moving towards the front side of the altar.

THE FOUNDING OF THE CITY

Today on April 21st in 753 BC, the prophecy given to Aeneas by the Gods shortly after he and the remaining Trojans fled the sacking of Troy in 1184 BC came to fruition. The founding of Rome was one that would change the course of world history.

Numitor, a descendant of Aeneas, was King of Alba Longa. His younger brother, Amulius, envied this position, and so sent him into exile to usurp his throne. To prevent any vengeance or competition arising up from Numitor’s heirs in the future, he simply killed them off. Furthermore, he then forced Numitor’s daughter, Silvia, into becoming a Vestal Virgin, having her swear celibacy for 30 years.

Quirinus was a God who emanated from Helios and was carried down by the Goddess of Forethought, Athena. Mars crafted him a mortal body within Silvia’s womb, and thus Quirinus was born Romulus, alongside his twin, Remus. Following the discovery that Silvia had given birth to twins, Amulius imprisoned Silvia and ordered a servant to kill the twins; who instead took pity on the infants and showed them mercy; instead sending them adrift down the river Tiber.

Eventually, the river begun overflowing, leaving the infants in a pool by the bank. There, an animal said to represent both Helios and Mars, the She Wolf, was said to have lost her own cubs when she came across the twins, deciding to nurture them and give them suck. Soon after a farmer named Faustulus came across them, and with his wife Acca adopted and raised the children as shepherds.

On 752 BC, while they were herding their sheep one day, they were met by shepherds under the rule of King Amulius. These shepherds begun a fight with the twins in which Remus was captured and taken before King Amulius. Romulus gathered and incited a band of local shepherds to join him in rescuing his captured sibling. King Amulius believed that Silvia’s children were dead, and hadn’t recognized Remus or Romulus. After a conflict, Romulus freed his brother, and in the process killed King Amulius. Being offered the throne of Alba Longa, they rejected it and instead chose to reinstate Numitor on the throne. However, they did still want to rule a city, and so they left to go and find their own.

After finding a proper location with seven hills, Romulus and Remus were bickering over where their city would be founded. Romulus supported the construction of the city on the Palatine Hill, and Remus supported the construction of the city on the Aventine Hill. Taking the auspices to read the will of the gods, Remus on his hill saw six birds, while Romulus saw twelve. As a result it was decided that Romulus’ choice was the one with divine favour, which lead him and his followers to begin construction of their city on the Palatine Hill. Romulus took to marking the city’s sacred boundary with a plough drawn by a white bull and a white cow to begin building the city’s walls, but Remus scornfully jumped over the furrows, causing the furious Romulus or one of his Chiefs to kill him.

To secure the new settlement’s future population he outlawed infanticide and established an asylum for fugitives, where freemen and slaves alike could both find protection in the new city and recieve Roman citizenship.

At one point, due to a shortage of females since the population of Rome was mostly young and unmarried men, Romulus organised the abduction of single women who were marriageable from nearby Italic tribes by drawing them in with grand festivals & games, most notably the local tribe of the Sabines, and taking the women’s hand in marriages without the consent of their families. A conflict ensued in which enraged Italic tribes warred with Rome, which ended when the women ran between the armies of their fathers and their new husbands, pleading for them to put down their weapons and negotiate for peace. Peace was reached, where Romulus and the King of the Sabines, Tatius, joined together to form one community.

Over the years, the city and its relations developed. Tatius died, and conflicts with Italic and Etruscan tribes continued to rise as Rome grew more and more powerful. After a reign of 36 years, Romulus mysteriously disappeared in a violent storm, causing an uproar of confusion and accusation of murder to go around; along with a claim that their King had simply abandoned them. However, Proculus Julius, a man who had been friends with the King, came forth, swore a sacred oath in which he could not lie, and revealed the truth of what happened to the missing Romulus. He recounted an experience where Romulus descended from the sky infront of him shortly after his disappearance. Puzzled and shocked, Proculus asked why Romulus had abandoned his city as he did: confused, mourning, suspicious and on edge. Romulus revealed that it was the divine will of the Gods that took him into the Heavens by destroying the mortal part of his body with the fire of lightning during the storm, and that he was ascended into the heavens by the Goddess Athena straight back to Helios, and that in truth he was the God Quirinus. He revealed he was sent forth by King of All, his duty being to build a city that would become the greatest on Earth, and now that work is done. The now-revealed God then promised to watch over his people before ascended back into the heavens. With this information revealed to the people of Rome, the divine truth had overcame them and eased their minds; causing them to abandon their suspicions and anger over their old king having left them. King Numa, a Sabine and a great reformer, was made Romulus’ successor and proclaimed the second King of Rome.

And today the eternal city still stands another year.


Bibliography:

Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus, Hymn to King Helios, 358 AD

Plutarch, and John Dryden. Selected lives: from the parallel lives of the noble Grecians and Romans. Franklin Center, PA: Franklin Library, 1982.

I made this post about two days ago and was falling in all kinds of love with it. I decided to write origin stories, starting with Ryan. 

(if there is any historical inaccuracy, I apologize!)

Edited: Ryan’s wife is unnamed, and shall remain so. I’d ask that you reblog this version.

Keep reading

Pietro da Cortona (1596/7-1669)
“Romulus and Remus Given Shelter by Faustulus” (1634)
Oil on canvas
Baroque
Located in the Musée du Louvre, Paris, France

In Roman mythology, Romulus and Remus are legendary twin brothers, whose story tells the events that led to the founding of the city of Rome and the Roman Kingdom by Romulus. Faustulus was the shepherd who found the infants Romulus and Remus, who were being suckled by a she-wolf, known as Lupa, on the Palatine Hill. He, with his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children.

ART HISTORY MEME || [5/7] sculptures/other media: Lupa Capitolina (The Capitoline Wolf)

The Capitoline Wolf is a bronze sculpture of a she-wolf suckling twin infants, inspired by the legend of the founding of Rome. According to the legend, when Numitor, grandfather of the twins Romulus and Remus, was overthrown by his brother Amulius, the usurper ordered the twins to be cast into the Tiber River. They were rescued by a she-wolf who cared for them until a herdsman, Faustulus, found and raised them. The age and origin of the Capitoline Wolf is a subject of controversy. The statue was long thought to be an Etruscan work of the 5th century BC, with the twins added in the late 15th century AD, probably by the sculptor Antonio Pollaiolo. However, radiocarbon and thermoluminescence dating has found that it was possibly manufactured in the 13th century AD.

On This Day In History~ April 21st

753 BC; Romulus and Remus found Rome

Romulus and Remus as historical figures, would have been born around 771 BC. They were purported to be sons of Rhea Silvia and Mars, the god of war. Because of a prophecy that they would overthrow their great-uncle Amulius, who had overthrown Silvia’s father Numitor, they were, in the manner of many mythological heroes, abandoned at birth; in this case, on the Tiber River by servants who took pity on the infants, despite their orders. The twins were nurtured by a she-wolf until a shepherd named Faustulus found and took Romulus and Remus as his sons. Faustulus and his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children. When Remus and Romulus became adults, they killed Amulius and restored Numitor. They decided to establish a city; however, they quarreled, and Romulus killed his brother. Thus Rome began with a fratricide, a story that was later taken to represent the city’s history of internecine political strife and bloodshed.

il-cav  asked:

Hi, love your blog 😍 I'd like to know if there are cards based on Italian/Roman mythology... Thanks!

Thank you! 

Raised by Wolves is a reference to the two legendary founders of Rome, Romulus and Remus. At birth their great uncle, the usurper King Amulius, ordered them to be put to death by exposure. A servant took pity and placed them in a basket and left it in the Tiber river. The twins were carried safely to shore and were found by a she-wolf, who nursed them for a short time before they were taken in by the shepherd Faustulus and his wife Acca Larentia. As the sons of Mars, the twins were natural born leaders and eventually they led an uprising against Amulius and restored their grandfather to the throne. 

Eventually the twins decided to start their own city. They returned to the river where the wolf found them, but argued about the hill they should use. After consulting an augur, Romulus began construction on Palatine Hill. Remus mocked the city wall that Romulus was building and jumped over it jokingly. In a fit of rage, Romulus killed him and declared his new city Rome.