#mypubliclandsroadtrip in BLM Wyoming checks out pronghorn, deer, sagegrouse, and more amazing wildlife on #wildlifewednesday!
Wyoming has an unbelievable variety of world class wildlife. From grizzly bears to marmots, golden eagles to cutthroat trout, Wyoming offers something for everyone. BLM lands are vital to big game, upland game, waterfowl, shorebirds, songbirds, raptors and hundreds of species of non-game mammals, reptiles, and amphibians.
As you drive through Wyoming, you’ll see pronghorn - commonly called antelope after its African cousin - the fastest land animal in North America at up to 55 mph. There are almost as many pronghorn in Wyoming as people!
If you look overhead, try to spot a golden eagle, a Swainson’s hawk or peregrine falcon. Listen closely and you’ll hear the distinctive song of Wyoming’s state bird the western meadowlark. And keep a close eye on the landscape - Wyoming is home to about 40 percent of the Greater Sage-Grouse in the United States.
In cooperation with other state and federal agencies, BLM Wyoming manages habitat for several endangered or threatened species like the black footed ferret, the Wyoming toad, the Canada lynx, grizzly bears, and trumpeter swans. Wyoming’s wildlife is truly worth the watching!
Converse, Inverse, Contrapositive, plus False and Reverse Inference; or Why Many Typology Arguments Suck
Let’s take an if-then statement that we assume to be true:
If an animal is a cat, then it is a vertebrate. This is the original statement.
The converse is: If an animal is a vertebrate, then it is a cat.
The inverse is: If an animal is not a cat, then it is not a vertebrate.
The contrapositive is: If an animal is not a vertebrate, then it is not a cat.
As you can see, assuming a true original statement, the only derived statement that’s automatically true is the contrapositive. Dogs are vertebrates, but dogs are not cats, so the other two statements are not universally true.
The converse and inverse are true only if the ‘then’ statement is unique to the ‘if’ statement (and, since the inverse is the contrapositive of the converse, the inverse and converse are always either both universally true, or both sometimes false). So “If an animal is a cheetah, then it is the fastest land animal” is our initial statement, then all 3 derived statements are true because only the cheetah is the fastest land animal.
How does this work in typing arguments? Take a look!
If a person is an NJ, then they are future-oriented. This is about as true as we’re going to get for our original statement; obviously people of one type are all still unique, but at some point we have to have a basic idea of what the functions mean or this is all meaningless. ANYWAY, the contrapositive is “If someone is not future-oriented, they are not an NJ.” Fair enough.
The trouble is that arguments often take the form of the converse: “If someone is future-oriented, then they are an NJ.” That’s not necessarily the case. It’s not like less than a quarter of the population of this planet walks around with goals beyond “what’s for dinner”. So you either need to also provide evidence that they’re not any other type, or find behaviors that are uniquely NJ characteristics.
Now: false and reverse inference. But first, the syllogism.
A syllogism is a logical series of statements that is as follows:
All A are B
C is A
Therefore, C is B.
(you can also replace ‘all’ with ‘no’ or ‘some’, or use it for groups rather than individuals - use your search engine or research method of choice to learn more).
The classic statement is
All men are mortal
Socrates is a man
Therefore Socrates is mortal.
With a syllogism, you can make a logically consistent argument but with a false premise, leading to a false inference. For example:
All philosophers are frogs
Socrates is a philosopher
Therefore Socrates is a frog.
Obviously he’s not, but the final statement does follow from the first two. This shows up in typing in statements like this one:
No people who understand metaphors are Se-doms
John is a person who understands metaphors
Therefore John is not an Se-dom.
The argument is logically consistent, but the first premise is incorrect. You can prove literally anything from false premises. The really good funkymbtifiction argument about Tony Stark being an ESFP discussed this - the premise “Only NPs are inventors” is, to quote Othello, false as hell.
Finally we get reverse inference. This is incidentally why you should take neuroscience studies with a grain or twenty of salt and why, once I stop having to read papers on MRI for class, I intend to go over Dario Nardi’s publications with a highly skeptical eye. Reverse inference looks like this:
1. We gave the subject a task to do and part Q of the brain lit up.
2. We’ve previously found that part Q of the brain lights up when using cognitive process P.
3. Therefore, this task must use cognitive process P.
In this, the two premises are valid (observed phenomena), but the argument is invalid. This shows up in typology as such:
1. This character achieved a difficult goal.
2. We’ve previously found that achievement of a difficult goal has been associated with high Te users
3. Therefore this character has high usage of Te.
You have to consider that multiple processes may have the same outcome.
From Blue Whales and Elephants to hummingbirds and Thailand 2 gram bumblebee bats – everything is possible in the animal kingdom. Humans are supposed to be at the top of the food chain; we have built cities, explored the world… Our list of accomplishments is long, and yet, animals still surpass us in many ways!
The World’s Strongest Man is Eddie Hall. He deadlifted 1020 pounds! His incredible strength got him into the World Records, but it is nothing compared to animals. An elephant can lift 600 pounds just with its trunk; the trunk contains over 40,000 muscles. But is it the strongest animal? Not even close. In relative strength, a rhinoceros beetle is much stronger. This insect is tiny, but can lift and carry 850 times its own bodyweight with a little horn on its head. If Eddie Hall carried 850 times his own body weight, we would be walking around with 316,200 pounds on his shoulders – that is the weight of a large, adult Blue Whale or a wooden tea!
Artic terns are known as migration champions. They travel 22,000 miles every year. Grey Whales and Northern Elephant seals hold the record of longest migration among mammals with an impressive 13,000 miles round trip. Ten years ago a great white shark made it from Africa to Australia, travelling the 12,400 miles in nine months. But the longest non-stop migration by a bird (that was recorded!) was done by a bar-tailed godwit. In just nine days it flew 7,145 miles from Alaska to New Zealand. It lost half its body weight as it didn’t stop to drink or eat during this time.
Do we even dare compare humans to this? Firstly, we can’t fly. Even after we built planes, the longest non-stop flight covered 10,376 miles from Singapore to New York and the Airbus had four engines, a pilot and co-pilot and everyone got to take breaks for food. The bar-tailed godwit did it all alone.
Two years ago everyone was cheering on Usain Bolt when he broke the world record, running at 27.79 miles an hour during a 100 metre sprint. And he is still strikingly slower than animals.
The cheetah is known as the fastest animal on land and it can run more than twice the speed of Bolt. In three seconds, it can reach a speed of 60 miles an hour and run almost three sprints. In the water, a sailfish can be even faster and swim at 68 miles an hour. But even faster is the peregrine falcon. It would easily overtake any car on a German motorway at 200 miles an hour (the suggested speed is 80 miles an hour).
One animal can beat humans in two categories at once. The impala, an antelope living in Africa, can jump33 feet far and 20 feet high if it feels danger coming. It is a defence mechanism, but also for fun. Humans have created Olympics to compete in those categories and so far, the records lie with Mike Powell for the long jump, who reached just over 29 feet and Gerald Sensabaugh jumped just under 4 foot in 2005. If our sporting competitions ever open to animals, humans will be off the winning podium as fast as a cheetah can run!
San Diego Zoo Global has been breeding cheetahs for more than 40 years, yielding more than 130 cubs, and is a member of the national cheetah Breeding Center Coalition (BCC) to create a sustainable cheetah population that will prevent extinction of the world’s fastest land animal.
This is a pronghorn, often locally referred to as an antelope. Their top speed varies between individuals but they can run 35 mph for 4 mi (56 km/h for 6 km), 42 mph for 1 mi (67 km/h for 1.6 km), and 55 mph for 0.5 mi (88.5 km/h for .8 km). It is often cited as the second-fastest land animal, second only to the cheetah. It can, however, sustain high speeds longer than cheetahs. Photo by Doug Dance Nature Photography