faster function

A Guide to Making Up Diseases (as Explained by a Biologist)

So listen up y’all, nothing drives me crazier as both a writer and a scientist than seeing alien diseases that make no fuckin’ sense in a human body. 

If you’re talking about alien diseases in a non-human character, you can ignore all this.

But as far as alien diseases in humans go, please remember:


Fever? A response to help your immune cells function faster and more efficiently to destroy invaders.

Sore/scratchy throat? An immune response. Diseases that latch onto the epithelium of the throat (the common cold, the flu) replicate there, and your body is like “uh no fuckin’ thanks” and starts to slough off those cells in order to stop the replication of new virus in its tracks. So when it feels like your throat is dying? guess what it literally is. And the white spots you see with more severe bacterial infections are pus accumulation, which is basically dead white blood cells, and the pus is a nice and disgusting way of getting that shit outta here.

(No one really knows why soreness and malaise happens, but some scientists guess that it’s a byproduct of immune response, and others suspect that it’s your body’s way of telling you to take it easy)

headache? usually sinus pressure (or dehydration, which isn’t an immune response but causes headaches by reducing blood volume and causing a general ruckus in your body, can be an unfortunate side effect of a fever) caused by mucous which is an immune response to flush that nasty viral shit outta your face.

Rashes? an inflammatory response. Your lymphocytes see a thing they don’t like and they’re like “hEY NOW” and release a bunch of chemicals that tell the cells that are supposed to kill it to come do that. Those chemicals cause inflammation, which causes redness, heat, and swelling. They itch because histamine is a bitch.

fatigue? your body is doing a lot–give it a break!

here is a fact:

during the Spanish 1918 Plague, a very strange age group succumbed to the illness. The very young and very old were fine, but people who were seemingly healthy and in the prime of life (young adults) did not survive. This is because that virus triggered an immune response called a cytokine storm, which basically killed everything in sight and caused horrific symptoms like tissue death, vasodilation and bleeding–basically a MASSIVE inflammatory response that lead to organ damage and death. Those with the strongest immune systems took the worst beating by their own immune responses, while those with weaker immune systems were fine.

So when you’re thinking of an alien disease, think through the immune response.

Where does this virus attack? Look up viruses that also attack there and understand what the immune system would do about it. 

Understand symptoms that usually travel together–joint pain and fever, for example.

So please, please: no purple and green spotted diseases. No diseases that cause glamorous fainting spells and nothing else. No mystical eye-color/hair-color changing diseases. If you want these things to happen, use magic or some shit or alien physiology, but when it’s humans, it doesn’t make any fuckin’ sense. 

This has been a rant and I apologize for that. 

Speed data for the brain’s navigation system

In order to guide us accurately through space, the brain needs a “sense” of the speed of our movement. But how do such stimuli actually reach the brain? Researchers at the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) have now identified a signal pathway in mice that feeds speed information directly into the brain’s navigation system. Scientists led by Stefan Remy report on this in the journal “Nature Neuroscience”. Similar neural pathways exist in humans. They are known to be damaged by Alzheimer’s disease – a possible explanation why spatial orientation is frequently impaired in this form of dementia.

In this study, the researchers stimulated specific areas in the brains of mice and recorded the evoked brain activity. “In previous studies, we found specific cells in the medial septum that fire at higher rates when the mouse moves faster. They function as ‘speedometer cells’. Possibly, they receive their input from deeper brain areas that are involved in motion control”, explains Professor Remy.

Neuronal data bus

These neurons are connected to other brain regions via long-range projections. This includes an area called the “entorhinal cortex” which is considered to be the brain’s navigation center. “The computations needed to navigate in space are ultimately made in this area of the brain,” says Remy. “We have now been able to show that the rate at which the speedometer cells fire influences neuronal activity in the entorhinal cortex. When the firing rate increases, activity in the entorhinal cortex increases too. The speedometer cells act like a data bus, an interface that relays speed information directly to the brain’s navigation center.”

Cause of spatial orientation disorders?

Humans have similar neural pathways connecting the medial septum and entorhinal cortex. Their function has not yet been investigated in detail; however, in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients these connections are known to degenerate early in the progress of the disease. “The symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease include spatial memory impairments. In such cases, it might happen that an affected person cannot find the way home,” says Remy. “Our results now provide a possible explanation for these symptoms: Information about the ongoing speed of movement is withheld and does not reach the brain’s navigation center.”

anonymous asked:

Seeing those american posts about ''white people don't season their food'' always makes me wanna laugh (but also punch someone) because those people never tasted any european cuisine beside americanized italian food, and live in a country where they call a dry packaged toast ''bread'' and eat freaking cheese in a spray; also sorry to break it to you guys but if you can only make a meal tasty and eatable by dumping half a package of spicies in it, then i don't think there's much to be proud of

A huge chunk of people on this website seem to suffer from a superiority complex where they make stupid generalisations about “the enemy” (white ppl) (while not realising they stereotype “non-white” people at the same time but whatever) and feel proud of the silliest things. 

There is not such a thing as “white people food” and they seem to think “white Americans” = ‘em Europeans. 

While European cuisine differs from country to country and region to region, there are some general similarities, like the use of dairy products, meat being substantial parts in lots of dishes, salads accompanying the food, and for flavouring we mostly don’t use spices, but herbs, sour tastes and ways of preparation like caramelising, flambé, roasting etc.

To equal spicy food with flavour is just screaming ignorance towards cooking and adding tons of tabasco on top of your otherwise tasteless food has nothing to do with seasoning. 

Spices aren’t as prominent here because of simple reasons:

  • We live in a moderate climate zone, people in hot climates use spices in food to cool down, as spicy food makes you sweat
  • Hot climates make food spoil faster, spices have antimicrobial functions, no need for that here
  • Spicy ingredients like chili grow in hot climates, thus they aren’t “native” here and not ingrained in our cuisines

Yeah, every time I see one of those posts, I imagine an American taking a bite from their Domino’s pizza with fries, both bastardised American versions of European “white ppl” food.

So I have this theory I have been thinking about for a while and if you’d let me indulge for a moment.

As much as it pains me to say this, I feel as though I must: Logan Sanders, as a side, is not needed. Stay with me.

You see, a friend and I were theorizing and I brought up a point that Thomas made in the “Moving Forward” video. Logan is NOT a feeling. My theory is that if Logan himself were to, let’s say die, Thomas would remain unaffected. This is not canon, however, it is just a theory. See, I believe that Logan is the only side who has the ability to “duck out” as Virgil did on account of the fact that Thomas would stay the same, the only thing missing would be the physical Logan.

The other sides can whine about how “the others can do my job” and “they’d be better off without me”, but that is untrue. It’s a cycle: Morality, Anxiety and Logic cannot fill the position of Creativity because they are not Creativity. Morality, Logic and Creativity cannot take the place of Anxiety because they are not Anxiety. Anxiety, Logic and Creativity cannot take the place of Morality because they are not Morality. It’s not their JOB, it’s not what they’re there for. Logic however? No replacement needed, it’s already built in to Thomas’ system so long as that cutie still has a brain in his noggin.

That being said, what happens if Logan were to “duck out”? Well, I think that, however mean this may be, that Thomas’ so-called Logic would function better, faster because whether or not he likes it, Logan does have emotions. Argo, these emotions sometimes affect his decisions. So without pesky emotions getting in the way, Thomas would be able to function better.

It hurt my friend and I a lot to come to this train of thought and expand on it but we are proud of what we came up with and I wanted to share it.

IO - Independant Operator.

Aka, me resurrecting an oldass muse to add as a side-character, just because I want to dabble once again in the MMX serie.

Just so you know, this is effectively a reboot, and if you wish to conserve relationships you might have had with this muse, you probably should let me know so we can discuss it - otherwise, I’ll consider them null.

Size : 6″3′ in bipedal mode

Base Animal : Boreal Lynx

Weight : Considerable, though not unreasonable for most

AI : Between her mid to early twenties.

Built to function within a variery of terrain variation in freezing temperatures, Io’s primary function is to navigate treacherous terrain to bring assistance to whoever may need it. Equipped with a quadrupedal function for faster travel, razor sharp and serrated claws, and an internal heating system that can remedy to any case of hypothermia, not to mention fetching bright yellow stripes to be distinguishable against a snowy background, she’s a perfect fit for her job. She also is programmed to match her function, sporting a cheerful, spunky and bubbly personnality, along with a caring streak well suited to her function involving, well, caring for people that really do need it.

Unfortunately, she’s prone to bouts of lonelyness due to her isolation, which she somewhat compensates for by watching movies, reading, and just generally keeping herself VERY busy, and anxious moments when she is placed within an environnment with too many people at once. Despite her longing for lasting bonds of friendship, she has a hard time going to cities and mingling with the unfriendly, cold crowds, and will act considerably more reserved in that setting. Though, when the right amount of people are present, she’ll quickly return to being her happy self.

She’s a curious, adventurous, child-at-heart person, with a great enjoyment of adrenaline-filled moments. To her, going FAST is just the spice of life. She’s bouncy and energetic most of the time, though with more mellow moments on occasion, and is never over taking the occasionnal cat-nap.

Random facts :

-She can remove her facial mask and visor. Underneath, her face is very much human-like, though covered in a very soft peach fuzz that lenghtens into full fluff around her jawline, and sporting very sharp teeth. Her tongue is, thankfully, lacking the rough texture of her feline counterparts.

-Actually capable of letting out very loud purring sounds as a way to try and relax people around her. She’ll also occasionally mix feline sounds into her speech patterns if compelled to, like growls and hisses and the occasional chirp.

-Has a pretty terrible tendancy to chew on things when bored or compelled to. She’ll chew pencils, rubbery objects, and generally, anything that looks like it could have a good texture will wind up between her teeth. She actually has a lot of jaw strenght, so it has occured that she wound up crunching right through many a pencil’s ink reservoir. This, surprisingly, has never done anything to diminish the bad habit, which can get annoyingly noisy at times.

-Can occasionally act a bit demanding when bored and not paid attention to. She’ll try to get between what you’re doing and you and request your full attention, insisting a little until you either yield, or tell her to go away. It’s not a good idea to ignore her, as she’ll take this as a goal to prevent you even more to do whatever it is you’re doing.

-Though understanding of boundaries, she’ll always go for physical affection from the get-go if she hasn’t yet been told that it’s not to her interlocutor’s liking, being mayyybe just a little touch-starved.

linkeightvideo  asked:

So if a raven or a bird in general hurt themselves getting a broken wing (and any injuries from crashing into Hogwartsesque rocks) and someone took them in. How would you heal the bird safely? All I can find is to bring them to a wildlife professional but what if you are a wildlife professional?

There are a lot of bones a raven can break in a crash.

(Source. You should check them out. Have a browse. )

What they break, and how badly they break it, will depend on how fast they were traveling. If a fractured bone only has a simple (one break) and closed (no breaking of the skin) fracture, then it will heal better than a compound (multiple breaks or multiple fragments) or open (through the skin) fracture.

A simple, closed fracture can be treated by strapping the wing. A fracture in the middle of the wing may be treatable with a figure 8 wrap, but a humeral fracture may also need strapping to the body. You have to be carefully with this though, because if you wrap a bird’s body to tightly, they simply can’t breathe. Fractures than involve the joint will also do worse than a midshaft fracture.

Pain relief is highly recommended for birds with fractured wings. Unsurprisingly it encourages a faster return to function, and they eat better. For legal reasons though I wont be posting drugs or dosages here. Keep in mind that opioid drugs do not work the same in all species.

A simple, closed fracture in a raven wing may take as little as two weeks to heal. If the wing is left bound too long, or the fracture is not treated promptly, contraction of the muscles and ligaments in the wing can render the bird unable to fully extend its wing. I’ve encountered this issue several times in eagles that have been hit by cars, but too wily to be caught for several weeks. The propatagial ligament contributes to the wing membrane when outstretched, and the bird will not be able to fly if this has become rigid.

If the wing bones do not heal in a good position, the bird will not be able to fly as well as it used to, if at all. Even though a raven is very resourceful, the reduced mobility will negatively impact its survival. This is even more important in precision fliers like owls.

Now, I know you asked about a fractured wing, but depending on how this raven crashed into the rocks, they may have also sustained a sternal fracture.

The sternum, or keel bone, is the big blade-shaped bone on the front of the thorax that the flight muscles attach to. Birds commonly fracture it by falling onto their chest, and if this raven was trying to brake when it collided with the rocks then it’s likely to have injured either its legs or its sternum.

A sternal fracture renders the bird unable to fly upwards, but it can flutter downwards. They take several weeks to heal, but require relatively little intervention to do so. They generally heal very well because the sternum is stabilized by the flight muscles. The birds fly fine, but the bone usually feels a bit crooked afterwards.

A sternal fracture requires less care for the bird to recover, and you would expect a good to complete recovery afterwards. Consider it if you want something a bit different, but less complex, than a broken wing, whist still having an injury that prevents the bird from flying.

Originally posted by corvus-s

No, I’m not here in studyblr community to write pages and pages of notes and post cute photosets here. You know why?

Those kinds of notes don’t help me. They aren’t functional (to me). 

What really works for me is mind maps. Flash cards, post its… not pages and pages of text. Even those extremely pretty ones that we see in our dash… if I make one of those it would be extremely pretty to have on my notebooks, but it wouldn’t be functional.

What I’m trying to say here is, if you’re new (or old too) on studyblr community, do not try to copy other people’s way to study. Yes, when I entered here I started making thousands of pretty notes (and you know, they take a long time to be done) but a few days after that I realized that wasn’t helping me. I was thinking about getting notes in here, not studying.

But then, I started looking for other ways to make notes. It was when I figured out another ways of taking notes that are faster and way more functional (to me).

So, please, before thinking about your blog, think about yourself. Of course, the more notes we get the more we feel motivated, but that is not our main goal, right? At least mine isn’t. I’m here to find motivation, yes, but what is this motivation for? 

It is to make me study more. And beyond studying, it is to make me learn more. So, this is my advice for all baby studyblrs out there. Before thinking about notes and your blog, think about what is going to be more functional to you. 

Maybe your way to learn will be with those super pretty notes, but it is ok if it’s not. It’s ok if it is writing thousands of mindmaps that don’t even look that pretty, but the main goal is to learn, not to make them pretty. If you can only learn if they’re pretty, that’s great too!


Thank you i love you all have a good day


AN: Temporary character death and angst. Don’t kill me, please. AO3

He couldn’t see anything. He was left in total darkness, like a satin blindfold had covered his eyes and blocked his view.

Chat tried to grab at the restraint, but his hands only felt the thin empty air. There was nothing preventing him from seeing, then why did he still hear the sounds of an akuma wreaking havoc echoing in his ears, but was only greeted with blackness.

The world was spinning around, vertigo setting in, the unfamiliar feeling of losing his sight was going over his head. He vaguely heard someone screaming his name, but his knees gave in and he stumbled to the ground before he could assure them that he was okay.

It was disconcerting. Head whirling, he screwed his eyes shut and opened them, but without any luck. He was completely blind.

Abruptly, he was hit with a strange smell, as something rotten was seeping through his nostrils. He raised his hand to his nose and mouth, suppressing the urge to vomit. It reeked of corpses.

As quickly as it had come, it was gone. And then he was choking.

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anonymous asked:

So, idk if you do hydra cap but personally I love it but, all I see is Dom!hydra cap and that's a big no no. So just think, HYDRA gets Steve like a couple years after the plane crashes and by this point Bucky is th WS. Steve already has some memory probs from the ice which works in HYDRAS favor but once they get him out into the field he's just a fucking animal (I read something once about how Steve would be a much more lethal WS cause all his anger) and he is killing peeps left and right (1/?)

2/?) it don’t matter if they’re HYDRA, everybody’s freaking out and in comes Bucky in all his WS glory and all it takes is one eye contact and one word b4 Steve calms and just defers to Buck because they might not consciously remember it but that’s the way it’s always been. So now HYDRA is basically unstoppable for a few years until the serums start acting up (I’ve got a head anon that bucks is more mental which is why he didn’t blow up like a balloon and why they had to keep wiping him) and

3/?) they’ve gotta start putting the WS on ice more which means they can’t utilize hydra cap as much cause they got no one to bring him down so slowly but surely they become a ghost story again until Chautari where they don’t want no alien taking control so they send out the soldiers to fight then off and get the tesseract if they can but they get subdued by the avengers (either Nat recognizes them or someone recognizes Steve) and they keep them separated thinking it will help them heal but

4/?) Steve just keeps getting angrier and more violent and Bucky gets jittery cause he’s remembering things more but like all he remembers about Steve is that he’s his and keeps demanding to see him. Finally they reunite the two and then it could go so many ways rough blood drawing sex, Steve goes into subdrop etc but one thing for sure is that having Bucky there makes him remember way faster once they are “functional” SHIELD wants to use them but they are just like fuck that noise we have been

5/5) used for the past seventy years you can take that offer and shove it where the sun don’t shine, but they keep getting pestered about it so they run off the grid and live as happily ever after as they can get 😊 (now that I’ve written all that out I feel like I have to commit and write a full length fic, opinions?)

I am firmly in the “full length fic” camp :D

ignisscientiia  asked:

PROMPT: I waited for you.

Waiting for Snow (Bellarke FF)

Word Count: 1539
Post 2x16
You evil little bunny. Eff you…eff you very, very muuuuuch. Thanks for making me break my own heart.
Severely shitty bellarke angst.

Winter had become Bellamy’s favourite time of year.

Part of it was the fact that they stored up food months in advance in preparation for the cold season, in preparation for the times when animals hid, because it meant he didn’t have to go out and hunt every two weeks.

Part of it was the peace that came with the difficulty of starting a war in the middle of a snowstorm, so all their enemies were kept at bay.

Part of it was the quiet, when everyone woke up in the morning, and looked outside, understanding that if they stood still enough, the crunching of gently falling flakes of snow would be the only sound they heard.

If you asked him why he looked so content in winter, he would list those three things; the ease, the peace and the quiet. The one thing he couldn’t admit, even to himself, was that the snow made him think of Clarke.

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