Excessive nationalism to rally the masses (patriotic symbols and slogans) Lack of recognition of human rights (torture, no due process, and surveillance is okay if the nation is threatened) Identification pf enemies and scapegoats as a unifying cause to rally people (communists, liberals, Muslims, immigrants, etc) Supremacy of the military (disproportionate resources for the military, glorification of military service, the need for perpetual war) Sexism (male domination with women possessing fewer rights, homophobia) Controlled mass media (sympathetic media or indirectly-controlled media is allowed) Obsession with national security (willing to suspend civil liberty for security) Religion and government is intertwined (Mussolini described it as “the holiness of heroism”) Corporate power is protected (the merging of corporate and state power) Labor unions are eliminated (Mussolini said they are the biggest threat to fascism) Disdain for intellectuals and arts (education must be privatized to serve the state, no funds for art) Obsession with crime and punishment (Mussolini said “severe measures must be taken against those who oppose the fascist state”, public order must be sustained) Rampant cronysim and corruption (the relationship between business and government is mutually supportive and corrupt) Fraudulent elections (“fascism denies that the majority can direct human society”, voter rights and power are suppressed, the judiciary rules elections)

The Palazzo della Civiltà Italiana was constructed as part of the program of the Esposizione Universale Roma, a large business center and suburban complex, initiated in 1935 by Benito Mussolini for the planned 1942 world exhibition and as a symbol of fascism for the world. The Palazzo was designed by the architects Giovanni Guerrini, Ernesto Bruno La Padula and Mario Romano and constructed between 1938 and 1943. It was inaugurated on 30 November 1940 as the centerpiece of the Esposizione and continues to be its most iconic building. The structure is also considered one of the most representative examples of Fascist architecture at the EUR.

Tropical Villa, Peter Friedl, 2012-13.

Colonial residence designed by Luigi Piccinato; published on Domus in 1936. It symbolizes modernist utopias during fascism in Italy. The Austrian artist Peter Friedl is currently showing this model at the Biennale in Venice, until 11/22/2015. Superintendent: Okwui Enwezor.