famous trials

alright idk about all of you but i’m ready for calypso the “ton of character development possibilities, struggling without her magic, trying to gain it back, still being bitter towards the gods, could do something extremely rash” daughter of atlas and famous nymph 

‘Celtic’ Witchcraft

I remember in my early days trying to find resources on historical Celtic witchcraft. I wanted to learn about the witchcraft from the places I descended from. So, I searched for answers. I read book after book on the supposed witch practices found in Wales, Ireland, and Scotland (Raymond Buckland never steered me so wrong, and that’s really saying something). However, I remember feeling…unsatisfied. It didn’t seem historical or based in any pre-Gardnerian lineage. It seemed like Wiccan influenced witchcraft based in Gaelic and Gallic mythology. However, the authors of the books were claiming that it was truly historical and traditional. Lo and behold, I was correct. So then came the question “What is historical ‘celtic’ witchcraft and where can I find it?” 

First of all, there is no one Celtic witchcraft. The word ‘Celtic’ applies to both Gaels and Gauls (though it’s said that Gauls aren’t included in that term at all, but for now, we’ll use it). There are six nations covered under ‘Celt’; Wales, Ireland, Scotland, Brittany, The Isle of Man, and Cornwall. Any witchcraft that originates from those lands can be considered ‘Celtic’, but the use of that term can create confusion and misinformation. Though they may look similar at times, and though they are all witchcraft, they are not the same. Methods changed from environment to environment. The witchery has always been based in the Land. 

I’ll briefly describe the practices and lore found in each land, but it is by no means exhaustive. 

Cornwall

In the circles of traditional witchcraft, Cornish witchery has been made very clear and accessible with much thanks to the wonderful Gemma Gary. Cornwall has perhaps one of the strongest histories of magical practice out of the Celtic Fringe. Not only witches, but Pellars (cunning folk), were a large part of the culture. Folk magic, the basis of both witch and pellar magic alike, ran rampant through Cornwall. The Pellars of Cornwall held a very strong likeness to witches, so much so that some folklorists consider them the same. The Pellars made it a point to have a wide range of services available to their customer. That meant that they would both curse and cure. The magic of Cornwall often came in the form of small spell bags filled with either powders, folded written charms, or other magical ingredient. These bags did a number of things, from love conjuring, curse breaking, and spirit banishing to healing, luck magic, and finding lost possessions. According to Cornish witch lore, a witch’s power fluctuates with the seasons, and it was in the spring that a witch’s power was renewed. The different pellars and witches of Cornwall would also clash through reputation of power. Though they clashed, the witches of Cornwall would also gather for their sabbats, which were a strange thing to behold to outsiders. Witches, both young and old, would dance with the Devil around fires, faster and closer to the flames with each pass, and never be singed. The ability to spontaneously disappear is spoken of (which may suggest flying). Black animals, especially black cats, are often spoke of in Cornish witch lore. The association with witch and toad is especially strong here, and it can be seen as a familiar, a shapeshifting witch, a charm, or an indicator of a witch. 

Wales

Witchcraft that comes from Wales can be particularly tricky to find. The term ‘Welsh Witch’ has been popular since the early days of Stevie Nicks. This makes it notoriously difficult to find any historical references on actual Welsh witches. In actuality, there were two kinds of magical practitioner in Wales. The first was a wizard (known as a cunning man in England) and the second was a witch. Wizards were very popular and plenty in number in Wales. Their practice was based mainly in healing the ill and livestock. They also did favors, like giving love potions and undoing witch spells. One Welsh tale, however, tells about a conjuror who is unable to undo a witch’s spell on a butter churn, so the farmer must turn to another witch to reverse it. Welsh witches were thought to have great power. They were able to raise the dead, curse their enemies, and according to older legends, shape shift and fly. Observing the myth of a sorceress named Cerridwen and the legends of Morgan le Fey and Nimue, there comes a general idea of what a witch was in Wales and Welsh legend. The idea of someone brewing potions and poisons was most definitely associated with witches, but more broadly, elements of water and weather seem to have importance. Interaction with the fairies also holds a very strong importance in Welsh craft. Walking between worlds, particularly this world and the world of the Fairy (Avalon, anyone?), was a skill that many wizards, witches, and heroes of Welsh myth acquired. All in all, the witchcraft in Wales is quite similar to the witchcraft found in England, as is the interaction between Wizard (cunning folk or Wise Men and Women) and Witch. 

Brittany 

In Brittany, a very strong fear and dislike for witches is found that is unlike Wales. Witches in Brittany were thought to be many in number. The legends suggest that they targeted farmers especially, making sure always to turn milk sour and spoil butter. They were also accounted to be particularly dangerous and vicious. Any man who watched their Sabbat would either not be found, found dead, or found scared witless and unable to speak. The witches of Brittany, however, were also sought out by the townsfolk. Indeed, there were witch doctors to fix their issues, but the witches were sought out for love spells and favors. Witch-cats are also mentioned, which could be either a reference to familiars or shapeshifting. Most strangely, Breton witches are said to very rarely cast spells on their targets and instead cast spells on the animals and possessions of the target. Every village is said to have a local witch. Some villages are said to be completely filled with witches. Many of them carry cane-like sticks with which they cast their spells. They were also said to be skilled in spells to find things, like lost objects and buried treasure. The line between village conjuror/wizard and witch is difficult to draw here. They may choose to help or harm, depending on their inclinations. For that reason, they still hold a strong reputation in Brittany, despite it being a place noted for its skepticism. 

The Isle of Man

On the Isle of Man, both witches and magicians were an important part of the environment. The first thing you’ll find on the witches from the Isle is that they practiced much magic involving the weather and the sea. Magic was used to help the fishermen catch more fish, make sure the winds were good for travel, and settle storms at sea. A charm was made by a witch and given to a sailor that stored the winds inside. When he was at sea and in need of a gust, he would use the charm. Interestingly, the line between witch and cunning person seemed to blur here. Cunning folk were known as Charmers and Witch Doctors. Witches, however, were employed when needed. There was a perceived difference between the magic of different kinds of practitioners. Do not be mistaken, though. The fear and dislike of witches still existed. Many farmers feared the wrath of witches, especially when their crops failed and their cattle died. To reveal the witch responsible, they would burn whatever died. The person in pain the next day was thought responsible. As throughout all of Europe, witches were thought to have gained their power either through birth or through the Devil’s grace. However, witches were looked upon differently in the Isle than other places. Because of its long associations with magic, it had many kinds of magical practitioners and witches were not always considered to be the most powerful of them. Magicians, who practiced an art to compel and work with spirits and powers beyond other kinds of practitioners, were revered. They were usually compared to the image of Manannán Mac Lir, considered both a sea god and a powerful magician. The ability to fly and walk between worlds was also attributed to the witches and magicians of the Isle of Man, most likely due to the latter. 

Scotland

Witchcraft flourished in Scotland perhaps as much, if not more than, in Wales. Scotland’s witch trials are famous, and perhaps the most famous among them was Isobel Gowdie. In her free confession, she detailed a story that most labeled imaginary. She spoke of fairies, elf bolts, curses, shapeshifting, flying, and lewd activities with the Devil. When comparing it with the confession of Alison Pearson, another Scottish witch she had never met, a Scottish fairy tradition begins to appear. Alison also details stories of going under the hills to meet the fairies, as well as them making elf bolts. More trials begot more folklore and legends. Stories of witches working the weather to destroy crops, sink ships, and cause havoc spread. More tales of a Man in Black appearing to future-witches and witches alike began to run rampant. John Fian, a male witch, was famed for his botched love spell, teaching witchcraft, harshly bewitching people whom he didn’t like, and attempting to sink the fleet of King James VI with a storm. Much of Scotland’s witchcraft was influenced by Gaelic legend and myth. Scotland’s witchery was not Gaelic alone, however. Norse invaders came and brought their magic with them. In Orkney, a Scottish Isle filled with witch history, the Vikings came often. Their language and culture mingled with the Scots’. Soon, cunning women were referred to as Spae Wives. The word Spae comes from the Old Norse spá,which means ‘prophesize’These spae wives told fortunes, created charms, and protected against foul magical play. The witches of Scotland, however, proved a match for them. They killed cattle, cursed babies, and brought general havoc with them. 

Ireland

Historical Irish witchcraft is perhaps the most difficult to find out of all the Celtic regions, and this is for a few different reasons. The first being that many lineages of Wicca have taken Irish mythology and applied it to the Gardnerian influenced witchcraft that they have. Many times when the word ‘Celtic Witchcraft’ or “Celtic Wicca’ comes up, this is what is being referred to. The second reason that it’s difficult to find is because the witch trials in Ireland are few and far between. The trials barely touched Ireland, amounting to a whopping 4 trials. The generally accepted reason for this is that Ireland was extraordinarily lax with its witchcraft laws. Most times, using witchcraft against another person’s possessions or livestock resulted in prison time. Only by harming another magically would a witch be executed. Interestingly, many people took this as a sign that Irish witches were generally less severe than their other Celtic counterparts. Florence Newton, the famed witch of Youghal, put the assumption to rest. When a woman refused to give her any food, she kissed her on the street. The woman became extremely ill and began to see visions of Florence pricking her with pins and needles. Florence also kissed the hand of a man in jail. He became very ill, cried out her name, and died. In a Northern Ireland trial, eight women were accused of causing horrific visions and poltergeists in the home of a woman. The ability to create illusions is a trait attributed to fairies in Gaelic myth. Those fairies are said to have taught the witches their skills in both Ireland and Scotland. Irish witches were said to turn themselves into animals, especially hares and crows, to spy on their neighbors. They would also place spells on those whom they wish in their animal form. They were also said to have used bundles of yarrow and branches of elder to fly. These sticks they flew upon, before brooms, were known as ‘horses’. They were said to fly up out of the chimney of their own homes. A tale of witches using red caps to fly also appears in Irish lore. This is another example of their strong ties to the fairies. The similarity between Irish and Scottish witchery has been noted, as they both have strong ties to Gaelic lore.

Witchcraft from the Celtic lands is a complex and unique thing, changing between each of the six nations. To lump them under a single title would be to lose the subtleties and differences between each. Saying that Irish witchcraft and Welsh witchcraft are the same is a fool’s lie. Saying that they are similar is true. Shapeshifting, flying, fairies, storms, and charms are found in each. But they are different.
It isn’t a bad thing when the myths of these lands are paired with Wicca or Wiccan influenced witchcraft. However, the historical practices from those places mustn’t be overwritten. 

famous renaissance figures as dril tweets
  • julius ii: please bring your rats to the new castle flea market so that i may bless/heal them. ill be sitting in a lawn chair wearing a stolen priest outfit
  • savonarola: "horny" has killed more people than all the volcanoes on earth combined
  • cesare borgia: dis charged from the army for doing memes too much
  • giovanni sforza: I TAKE BACK EVERY KIND THING I'VE SAID ABOUT THE GIRLS ON HERE ! SHALLOW AND CRUEL ! HEART LESS DEVILS ! MANIPULATING MY POSTS & TRICKING ME
  • lorenzo de' medici: if youre one of the guys who blocked me on here, i Forgive you, and im ready for you to unblock me now.
  • dante alighieri: forced to remove my famous "DANGER: MAY CONTAIN LETHAL LEVELS OF SARCASM !!" sign from the front door of the poolside shed that i live in
  • cosimo de' medici: the first step to becoming a Millionare is to acquire one hundred dollars
  • pico della mirandola: if i saw someon e on the street wearing a dunce cap, i would challenge him to my famous Three Trials of Wisdom, and soundly defeat him
  • rodrigo borgia: i pay good money to load my son's bag with treats, and if Erasmus Infowars Copfucker wants to devour them in the library, so be it
  • caterina sforza: "This Whole Thing Smacks Of Gender," i holler as i overturn my uncle's barbeque grill and turn the Fourth of July into the Fourth of Shit
  • leonardo da vinci: at first i thought Science was a shit waste of time. then somebody did a meme of it,. and now... hooboy...now i like it
  • niccolo machiavelli:
  • MYTH my posts are for the Pauper
  • REALITY my posts are for the Prince
  • caravaggio: U cant wear a sword. A sword is not clothes. Yes, A SHeathe, is clothes. The sword goes in the sheath, but that doesnt make it clothes bitch
  • lucrezia borgia:
  • THERAPIST your problem is, that youre perfect, and everyone is jealous of your good posts, and that makes you rightfully upset.
  • ME I agree
  • petrarch: THIngs other people like: being bastards, being Uniformly tasteless THINGS I Like: Being reasonably kind, and trying to help, when i can
  • marsilio ficino: (bowed head solemnly rises from deep thought) Intellidgence is the strength of wisdom

clodiuspulcher  asked:

I have a confession: I followed your blog because I liked the URL ciceroprofacto. I soon realized your blog was about Alexander Hamilton and Not Cicero but your content is so good I couldn't unfollow... ANYWAY, I know Hamilton associated himself with Cicero- he called Burr the American Catiline at some point, right?- but there's some other parallels between them and I was wondering if you have any other stories/anecdotes/info about Hamilton's feelings on Cicero. Thanks, and I love your blog!

I also have a confession: I made up this username after questions about Cicero helped me qualify for the state certamen bowl as a team of myself.  the username is a lie about the content here but I really am tight with Cicero as far as interests go.

But yes!  Hamilton and Marcus Tullius Cicero: the comparison is striking.

Both were born in January, and despite having well-to-do fathers with good family names, were held back by their circumstances as youths.  Cicero was born in Arpinum, a little over sixty miles south of Rome, Hamilton in Charleston, Nevis, separated from major hubs of the British empire.  Both had one brother (though Cicero was the elder brother and Hamilton the younger), and both of their mothers were described as intelligent and thrifty.  Both men were described as sickly boys, Cicero was semi-invalid and Hamilton frequently ill.  In order to enter ‘cultured’ society, both men had to self-fashion themselves through studies of Latin and Greek, history, poetry, and philosophy.

For both Cicero and Hamilton, it was their talent as students and their ability to use rhetoric effectively that caught the attention of sponsors who facilitated their education.  While they studied, both men met two friends they would keep lifelong correspondence with, Hamilton with Robert Troup and Hercules Mulligan and Cicero with Servius Sulpicius Rufus and Titus Pomponius.

Both men used military service (and public offices cursus honorum) to distinguish themselves and earn the connections and experience that would help them get careers in civil service.  During their military service, both distinguished themselves as intellectuals, both credited as one of the most versatile minds of their generation.

After their stints in the military, both men immediately began careers as lawyers and statesmen in the public eye.  Both were infamously effective orators.  Cicero’s use of Latin rhetoric was so distinguished he changed the way people used the language.  I don’t remember the exact quote, but it was said that prose in Latin and the romance languages up through the 19th century was either a return to his style and syntax or a reaction against it.

Both men were also inflammatory speakers.  Cicero’s first major (and most famous) trial as a lawyer was in defense of a man named Sextus Roscius, and in the defense he presented, he challenged the dictator Sulla (whose army he had served in) by accusing some of Sulla’s political allies of having actually committed the crime.  After that case, Cicero left Rome and spent some time in Greece studying philosophy and oratory (and I would liken this to Hamilton’s break with Washington, retirement from the military and study of law).  Some historians speculate he had fled Rome because of the political threat, but that’s not proven. 

Ironically, both men married up in their mid-twenties.  Hamilton to Elizbeth Schuyler and Cicero to Terentia, of a plebeian noble house of Terenti Varrones.  Both Eliza and Terentia were actively interested in their husbands political careers and sometimes helped them in their work.  In both cases, there are traditional rumors that the men married for convenience and political ambitions, but both marriages lasted around 30 years through marital turbulence.  The Reynolds affair in 1791 mirrors a stint in the 50s BCE where Cicero claimed Terentia had betrayed him and they briefly divorced and remarried (though I’m not sure about the reasons behind it).

Cicero returned to Rome shortly after completing that ‘higher education’ in Greece.  And, like Hamilton, he entered politics and quickly rose through the ranks.  Both men entered civil service posts that centered on the financial stability of their countries.  Hamilton’s post as Secretary Treasury somewhat mirrors Cicero’s work as a Quaestor in Sicily though Hamilton’s work focused more on establishing the system of finance and Cicero’s focused more on rejuvenating and legitimizing a broken system.  In Rome, 20 ‘Quaestors’ were elected each year to maintain the finances of a province with the Consul or Proconsul of that area.  It was a big deal among the men on the cursus honorum to move along the ranks quickly, at the youngest age possible, and many tried to do so by bribing the electors and speculating from taxes.  Cicero effectively did so by publicly ousting the other statesmen who did so with sharp oratory and accusations, thereby earning the trust and admiration of the voting male citizens, then canvassing and campaigning for his position.

Like Hamilton, Cicero was constantly shadowed by his lack of reputable ancestry, wealth, and birth.  He was neither a noble nor a patrician and, having moved through the ranks by canvassing rather than consular ancestry, he was labeled a novus homo or “new man”.  The last novus homo who had been elected consulate was a distant relative, Gaius Marius, who was politically radical and unpopular after Sulla’s ascension in the Roman civil war.  Sulla’s reforms had strengthened the upper-class equestrian class, the optimates, and Cicero was an eques. More importantly, he was a constitutionalist, unable to side politically with the populares faction.  Despite this, in each election, Cicero was voted first of all the candidates he stood against, most popular among all Romans except those of the poorest classes.  Like Hamilton, Cicero held the strong centralized republican ideals of a gentry class that would never truly accept him despite his intellectual talents and personal charisma.

Hamilton did liken his feud with Burr to Cicero’s campaign against Catiline, though I would say Cicero’s conflict became much more serious while Hamilton’s was cut short by their duel and Burr’s public defamation.  
In 63 BCE, Cicero was elected Consul over Catiline, creating personal animosity between the two.  In previous years, Catiline had sullied his own name with a series of crimes that took him to trial, between murder, speculation, and proscription. In a last-ditch effort to attain the consulship, he promoted universal cancellation of debts to draw the support of the lower classes and began talking his way into the support of men in the senatorial and equestrian rank who, after a political purge, had also become inviable candidates to public office for their own crimes (and men with good reason to dislike Cicero).  
After Cicero took office, he spent his time preventing Catiline’s conspiracy to overthrow him and the Roman Republic as a whole.  He delivered four famous speeches, the Catiline Orations, that listed Catiline and his supporters’ crimes, and denounced his supporters as debtors.  Catiline fled to Etruria after the first speech but Cicero delivered three more to prepare the Senate for a counterattack.
Catiline planned to return with an army of veterans from Sulla’s military, peasant farmers and debtors.  The supporters he’d left behind in the Senate worked to gain the support of the Allobgroges, a tribe of Gauls, but the Gauls delivered their letters to Cicero and the senate and Cicero was able to force the conspirators to confess their crimes.  He had them taken to the Tullianum, the most notorious Roman prison, and strangled without formal trial.

We all know how Hamilton’s feud ended, and it’s hard to say what would’ve happened in his public life had he lived longer.  Given how similarly Hamilton’s life seemed to match-step with Cicero’s, I imagine he would’ve managed to stir political conflict and eventually actuate his own death or ejection from the political field.

After his orations against Catiline, Cicero went on in his political career.  He refused an offer of partnership with Julius Caesar, Pompey and Crassus, fearing it would undermine the Republic.  After this Triumvirate rose to power, he was exiled by a law against anyone who executed Roman citizens without trial.
He returned to Rome and resumed his involvement in politics about a year later, avoided supporting Caesar by leaving Rome with Pompey’s staff when Caesar invaded Italy in 49 BCE and tried to get his endorsement.
He caught beef with Pompey as well and Cato, arguing with his commanders for their incompetence, returned to Rome and received a pardon from Caesar (fully planning to politically undermine his dictatorship with constitutional law whenever possible).
He wasn’t involved in Caesar’s assignation but was supportive of it and became a popular leader afterwards.  As Mark Antony carried out Caesar’s public will after his death, Cicero countered him politically and attacked him in public speeches, “the Phillipics”, calling the Senate against him.  Cicero was wildly powerful with the public will and his supporters volunteered to take arms against Antony and his supporters.  But, matters escalated, Antony continued military conquest and defied the senate, after he refused to lift the siege of Mutina, he was declared an enemy of the state.  Cicero began a campaign to try and drive Antony out, even contacted Cassius, one of Caesars assassins, and alluded that Antony was a greater threat.  But, it didn’t work and soon after Antony and Octavian allied with Lepidus, formed the second triumvirate, and began hunting their political rivals.
Cicero, so publicly loved, was able to hide for some time, but he was caught in December 43 BCE in Formiae, trying to leave in a litter.  He leaned his head out in surrender, decapitated in a gladiatorial gesture that bares the neck and makes the task easier.  In the Roman tradition of oratory, hand motions are emphasized and characteristic.  So, Cicero’s hands and (I’ve heard rumors of his tongue) were cut off and nailed on display on the Rostra in the Forum along with his head, the only victim of the Triumvirate to be displayed like that.

I don’t personally know of any anecdotes of Hamilton comparing himself to Cicero, but I do know he would’ve read and translated Cicero’s speeches and philosophies, and I can definitely see why he would feel a kinship with his life story.  Here’s an article that discusses the allusion to Catiline.

tldr; Marcus Tullius Cicero and Alexander Hamilton were self-made men, “homines novi”, born in obscurity and rising quickly through the ranks of civil service positions through the merit of hard work, military service, and emergence into law.  Despite this, and even as effective supporters of centralized constitutional power, they were both shadowed by their inability to completely fit in with the upper-class aristocrats.  Both were gifted orators, political philosophers, and financial planners.  Characteristically self-righteous, they both refused to back down from their core political beliefs, even when that placed their own lives at risk, leading to both their unparalleled political rise as well as their ultimate downfall.

different-existence  asked:

Hi :) i was just wondering about some popular fics? Like how fifth harmony have famous ones like trials and tribulations or CC7? what are some well written bechloe ones? Thanks! 👌☀

Hi!  Without a doubt, the most popular Bechloe fic is @redlance‘s Experimentation, and it is widely accepted as the Bechloe Bible in the fandom.  Currently it is a work-in-progress, but was updated as recently as yesterday and is a must-read. 😄 

A few other well-known fics which I often see recommended by others are:

The Sexual Implications of Teleportation by Care

stare into the sky until we’re blind by @thecousinsdangereux

You Still Make Sense To Me (Your Mess is Mine) by @emilyjunk

Hope that helps.  Any followers who have other suggestions, please feel free to add to this thread.  👍😄

Westminster Hall

Westminster Hall is the oldest existing portion of Old Westminster Palace still intact.  Erected in 1097, the great hammer beam roof was an addition made in the reign of Richard II in 1393.  The hall is an impressive 68 feet by 240 feet, and was contemporarily the largest hall in Europe. 

The hall has been used in the past for judicial purposes (Court of the King’s Bench, Court of Common Pleas, and Court of Chancery) as well as for coronation banquets and royal lying-ins.  Famous trials in the hall include Charles I, William Wallace, Thomas More, Cardinal Fisher, and Guy Fawkes.

2

The Jewish Avengers

During World War II a large group of former Jewish partisans and Holocaust survivors formed a post war underground organization called the “Nokmim”, also known as the “Jewish Avengers”.  The goal of the Jewish Avengers was simple, to avenge the deaths of the Holocaust, mostly by hunting down former Nazi war criminals.  They worked in small cells of 4 or 5 people, with cells located all across Germany and Europe.  It was not uncommon for cells to even travel to South America to hunt down Ex Nazi’s who had made their home in Argentina or Brazil.  Typically the Nokmim would perform assassination missions, killing a target on the spot. In one incident a Nokmim agent injected a former Gestapo leader with kerosene while he was being hospitalized for an illness. They would also abduct targets, sometimes while disguised a Allied soldiers making an arrest, then take the prisoner into a secluded area, hold a mock trial in which summary judgment was passed, then execute him.  At first Nokmim members would simply shoot a condemned Nazi, but later they adopted strangling as their favored execution method. In the post war 1940’s and 50’s, they were responsible for the deaths of hundreds of ex Nazis.

Most Nokmim groups only targeted those who had direct involvement in war crimes or crimes against humanity.  However, one group, called the Nakam, was much more radical in their beliefs.  Founded by the Lithuanian Jew and partisan fighter Abba Kovner, the name “Nakam” was based on the Hebrew phrase “Dam Yahudi Nakam” (Jewish Blood Will Be Avenged).  This reflected Kovner’s intentions accurately as he believed that justice would only be served if eye-for-an-eye vengeance was exacted upon the German people.  Kovner believed that the Germans needed to pay with the deaths of 6 million people in order to make up for the 6 million Jews who were killed during the Holocaust.  In 1946 Kovner formulated a plan to bring about his revenge.  Obtaining poison from the Haganah in Palestine, Kovner and his agents planned to infiltrate water plants in Germany and poison the water supplies of Munich, Berlin, Weimar, Nuremberg, and Hamburg.  Supposedly the mission was given the go ahead by future Israeli President Chaim Weizmann, although this is disputed today.  However many other high ranking Jewish leaders in the Haganah knew of the plan and thought it was too extreme.  They tipped off Allied authorities, and Kovner and his gang were arrested in France with forged papers.

Kovner’s plan of poisoning 6 million Germans had failed, however he decided to try again, this time poisoning 3,000 loaves of bread destined to be fed to 12,000 German POW’s at the Langwasser Internment Camp in Nuremburg.  Around 1,900 POWs were sickened with arsenic poisoning.  According to Nakam members, around 300-400 died, although Allied reports make no mention of deaths.

In 1947 Abba Kovner left the Nakam in 1947 in order to fight in the Israeli War of Independence. He later became a poet, and testified in the famous trial of Adolf Eichmann.  He died in 1987.  The Nokmim continued hunting war criminals across Europe and South America until it gradually its members parted ways in the 1950’s.

A brief history lesson....

Oh so the only thing Arabs and Muslims bring is terrorism? I guess everyone forgot that….

1. Surgery
Around the year 1,000, the celebrated doctor Al Zahrawi published a 1,500 page illustrated encyclopedia of surgery that was used in Europe as a medical reference for the next 500 years. Among his many inventions, Zahrawi discovered the use of dissolving cat gut to stitch wounds – beforehand a second surgery had to be performed to remove sutures. He also reportedly performed the first caesarean operation and created the first pair of forceps.

2. Coffee
Now the Western world’s drink du jour, coffee was first brewed in Yemen around the 9th century. In its earliest days, coffee helped Sufis stay up during late nights of devotion. Later brought to Cairo by a group of students, the coffee buzz soon caught on around the empire. By the 13th century it reached Turkey, but not until the 16th century did the beans start boiling in Europe, brought to Italy by a Venetian trader.

3. Flying machine
“Abbas ibn Firnas was the first person to make a real attempt to construct a flying machine and fly,” said Hassani. In the 9th century he designed a winged apparatus, roughly resembling a bird costume. In his most famous trial near Cordoba in Spain, Firnas flew upward for a few moments, before falling to the ground and partially breaking his back. His designs would undoubtedly have been an inspiration for famed Italian artist and inventor Leonardo da Vinci’s hundreds of years later, said Hassani.

4. University In 859 a young princess named Fatima al-Firhi founded the first degree-granting university in Fez, Morocco. Her sister Miriam founded an adjacent mosque and together the complex became the al-Qarawiyyin Mosque and University. Still operating almost 1,200 years later, Hassani says he hopes the center will remind people that learning is at the core of the Islamic tradition and that the story of the al-Firhi sisters will inspire young Muslim women around the world today.

5. Algebra
The word algebra comes from the title of a Persian mathematician’s famous 9th century treatise “Kitab al-Jabr Wa l-Mugabala” which translates roughly as “The Book of Reasoning and Balancing.” Built on the roots of Greek and Hindu systems, the new algebraic order was a unifying system for rational numbers, irrational numbers and geometrical magnitudes. The same mathematician, Al-Khwarizmi, was also the first to introduce the concept of raising a number to a power.
6. Optics/Magnifying Glass
Not only did the Arab world revolutionize mathematics – it also revolutionized optics. The scholar Alhazen (Abu al-Hasan) from Basra was the first person to describe how the eye works.He carried out experiments with reflective materials and proved that the eye does not sense the environment with “sight rays,” as scientists had believed up until then. He also discovered that curved glass surfaces can be used for magnification.His glass “reading stones” were the first magnifying glasses. It was from these that glasses were later developed. Furthermore, Alhazen wrote important scholarly texts on astronomy and meteorology.“ Many of the most important advances in the study of optics come from the Muslim world,” says Hassani. Around the year 1000 Ibn al-Haitham proved that humans see objects by light reflecting off of them and entering the eye, dismissing Euclid and Ptolemy’s theories that light was emitted from the eye itself. This great Muslim physicist also discovered the camera obscura phenomenon, which explains how the eye sees images upright due to the connection between the optic nerve and the brain.
7. Music
Muslim musicians have had a profound impact on Europe, dating back to Charlemagne tried to compete with the music of Baghdad and Cordoba, according to Hassani. Among many instruments that arrived in Europe through the Middle East are the lute and the rahab, an ancestor of the violin. Modern musical scales are also said to derive from the Arabic alphabet. The guitar, as we know it today, has its origins in the Arabic oud – a lute with a bent neck. During the Middle Ages, it found its way to Muslim Spain, where it was referred to as “qitara” in the Arabic of Andalusia. It is said that a music teacher brought one to the court of the Umayyad ruler Abdel Rahman II in the ninth century. The modern guitar developed as a result of many influences, but the Arabic lute was an important predecessor.
8. Toothbrush
According to Hassani, the Prophet Mohammed popularized the use of the first toothbrush in around 600. Using a twig from the Meswak tree, he cleaned his teeth and freshened his breath. Substances similar to Meswak are used in modern toothpaste.
9. The crank
Many of the basics of modern automatics were first put to use in the Muslim world, including the revolutionary crank-connecting rod system. By converting rotary motion to linear motion, the crank enables the lifting of heavy objects with relative ease. This technology, discovered by Al-Jazari in the 12th century, exploded across the globe, leading to everything from the bicycle to the internal combustion engine.
10. Hospitals
“Hospitals as we know them today, with wards and teaching centers, come from 9th century Egypt,” explained Hassani. The first such medical center was the Ahmad ibn Tulun Hospital, founded in 872 in Cairo. Tulun hospital provided free care for anyone who needed it – a policy based on the Muslim tradition of caring for all who are sick. From Cairo, such hospitals spread around the Muslim world.

11. Marching bands Military marching bands date back to the Ottoman Mehterhane. These were bands which played during the entire battle and only ceased their music-making when the army retreated or the battle was over.During the wars with the Ottoman Empire, the bands are thought to have made a considerable impression on European soldiers – after which they adapted the principle for their own use.

12. Parachute
A thousand years before the Wright brothers a Muslim poet, astronomer, musician and engineer named Abbas ibn Firnas made several attempts to construct a flying machine. In 852 he jumped from the minaret of the Grand Mosque in Cordoba using a loose cloak stiffened with wooden struts. He hoped to glide like a bird. He didn’t. But the cloak slowed his fall, creating what is thought to be the first parachute, and leaving him with only minor injuries. In 875, aged 70, having perfected a machine of silk and eagles’ feathers he tried again, jumping from a mountain. He flew to a significant height and stayed aloft for ten minutes but crashed on landing - concluding, correctly, that it was because he had not given his device a tail so it would stall on landing.Baghdad international airport and a crater on the Moon are named after him. 

13. Shampoo
Washing and bathing are religious requirements for Muslims, which is perhaps why they perfected the recipe for soap which we still use today. The ancient Egyptians had soap of a kind, as did the Romans who used it more as a pomade. But it was the Arabs who combined vegetable oils with sodium hydroxide and aromatics such as thyme oil. One of the Crusaders’ most striking characteristics, to Arab nostrils, was that they did not wash. Shampoo was introduced to England by a Muslim who opened Mahomed’s Indian Vapour Baths on Brighton seafront in 1759 and was appointed Shampooing Surgeon to Kings George IV and William IV.

14. Vaccination
The technique of inoculation was not invented by Jenner and Pasteur but was devised in the Muslim world and brought to Europe from Turkey by the wife of the English ambassador to Istanbul in 1724. Children in Turkey were vaccinated with cowpox to fight the deadly smallpox at least 50 years before the West discovered it.

15.  Pay Cheques The modern cheque comes from the Arabic saqq, a written vow to pay for goods when they were delivered, to avoid money having to be transported across dangerous terrain. In the 9th century, a Muslim businessman could cash a cheque in China drawn on his bank in Baghdad. 

16. Earth’s Shape?
By the 9th century, many Muslim scholars took it for granted that the Earth was a sphere. The proof, said astronomer Ibn Hazm, “is that the Sun is always vertical to a particular spot on Earth”. It was 500 years before that realisation dawned on Galileo. The calculations of Muslim astronomers were so accurate that in the 9th century they reckoned the Earth’s circumference to be 40, 253.4km - less than 200km out. The scholar al-Idrisi took a globe depicting the world to the court of King Roger of Sicily in 1139. 

17. Gardens
Medieval Europe had kitchen and herb gardens, but it was the Arabs who developed the idea of the garden as a place of beauty and meditation. The first royal pleasure gardens in Europe were opened in 11th-century Muslim Spain. Flowers which originated in Muslim gardens include the carnation and the tulip. 

18) Refinement
Distillation, the means of separating liquids through differences in their boiling points, was invented around the year 800 by Islam’s foremost scientist, Jabir ibn Hayyan, who transformed alchemy into chemistry, inventing many of the basic processes and apparatus still in use today - liquefaction, crystallisation, distillation, purification, oxidisation, evaporation and filtration. As well as discovering sulphuric and nitric acid, he invented the alembic still, giving the world intense rosewater and other perfumes and alcoholic spirits (although drinking them is haram, or forbidden, in Islam). Ibn Hayyan emphasised systematic experimentation and was the founder of modern chemistry.

So…….. 

We literally SHAPED THE MODERN WORLD kiss my entire ass.  

Have you watched ‘Making a Murderer’ yet? If so, have you noticed any similarities between that case and any other famous criminal trials from years past?

HINT HINT HINT THE PICTURE IS A HINT

THIS WEEK ON THE PODCAST: host Adam Tod Brown and Mayor of Podcast City Brett Rader welcome comics Jeff May and Caitlin Cutt to discuss the similarities (or lack thereof) between Steven Avery and the O.J. Simpson trial. Yay comedy!

O.J. (Probably) Didn’t Do It

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The trials of the Pendle Witches in 1612 are among the most famous witch trials in English history, and some of the best recorded of the 17th century. The twelve accused lived in the area around Pendle Hill in Lancashire, and were charged with the murders of ten people by the use of witchcraft.

Their names were:

  • Elizabeth Southerns, alias Demdike
  • Elizabeth Device daughter of Demdike
  • James Device son of Elizabeth Device
  • Alison Device daughter of Elizabeth Device
  • Anne Whittle alias Chattox
  • Anne Redferne daughter of Chattox
  • Alice Nutter
  • Jane Bulcock
  • John Bulcock son of Jane Bulcock
  • Katherine Hewitt alias Mould-heels
  • Isabel Robey
  • Margaret Pearson.

The accused witches lived in the area around Pendle Hill in Lancashire, a county which, at the end of the 16th century, was regarded by the authorities as a wild and lawless region: an area “fabled for its theft, violence and sexual laxity, where the church was honoured without much understanding of its doctrines by the common people

The Pendle witches were tried in a group that also included the Samlesbury witches, Jane Southworth, Jennet Brierley, and Ellen Brierley, the charges against whom included child murder and cannibalism; Margaret Pearson, the so-called Padiham witch, who was facing her third trial for witchcraft, this time for killing a horse; and Isobel Robey from Windle, accused of using witchcraft to cause sickness.

Denial Brings Regret (End)

Summary: Sam loves the reader, yet when he confesses, she rejects him. In order to get over her, he begins to sleep around, only to have her react jealously and kick out one of the many girls.

Word Count: 2,112

Characters: Sam x Reader

Warnings: None

Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6

A/N: We have arrived to the end. Thank you for reading, guys. It was a grueling journey, but after three months, we are done with DBR. YAY! flannelwrappednightmare, thank you for being so patient with me. I love you, my person.

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Founded in 1631 by European witches who came to America from England, the Salem Witches Institute was once a small school ranging from four to ten witches, and no wizards at all. It was built near the town of Salem, which in fact was founded by the wizard, Roger Conant. Conant went under the guise of a muggle, for it was mostly muggles who lived in Salem. Conant himself created a small circle, and planned to make their own school, and rejected the witches, believing their gender inferior.

So, the witches went off and created their own school, actually creating a castle-like building which they named The Salem Witches Institute. The school was lead by Mrs. Cathermine Sanderson, a strict yet respectable witch with legendary talent in potions, and said to have the animagus of a pale cat. Mrs. Sanderson built her school in the fashion of a castle, having come from Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry herself.

The school had thirteen witches in 1632, and continued to produce many witches, until 1692. At the age of 73, Mrs. Sanderson was not the only teacher at the school, and had employed three other witches to help her. In 1692 the famous Salem Witch Trials began, and unfortunately, the Salem school’s staff was immediately shortened, for Bridget Bishop was hung for witchcraft. Soon after that, Sanderson set up protective wards, completely cloaking the school. Immediately, Sanderson and her staff set out to gather up magical folk, man or woman, and brought them safely to the Institute, and let the muggles kill themselves, and those too ignorant to leave.

Sanderson, after the trials ended in 1693, died a few months later. In her last hour, she signed a will, declaring in it that all genders would be allowed to attend the school, stating that magical folk should stick together. Since then, the school’s defenses have improved and now is completely invisible to muggles. Soon, it would become the most popular wizarding school in the northern states of America. The school is said to be defended by an army of Sasquatches, or “Bigfoots,” which live in the cellars of the school. Students often talk of how they can hear the beasts drumming and singing songs, and often banging sticks together as most Bigfoots do. 

Ms. F. Braithwaite, 3rd of July, 2014.

anonymous asked:

Can you recommend books on the witch trials please?

Sure! The following are pasted from my Recommended Reading List:

  • The Confession of Isobel Gowdie (1662) - one of the most famous trials. I really recommend reading the primary source materials when you can. They read like stories, in a sick way.

talysalankil  asked:

I take it you read the new pottermore story. Is it as bad as your tags make it sound?

If you mean the Salem witch trials story–yes, it’s that bad. This is what she had to say about the Salem witch trials:

“The last, and probably the most dangerous problem encountered by wizards newly arrived in North America were the Scourers. As the wizarding community in America was small, scattered and secretive, it had as yet no law enforcement mechanism of its own. This left a vacuum that was filled by an unscrupulous band of wizarding mercenaries of many foreign nationalities, who formed a much-feared and brutal taskforce committed to hunting down not only known criminals, but anyone who might be worth some gold. As time went on, the Scourers became increasingly corrupt. Far away from the jurisdiction of their native magical governments, many indulged a love of authority and cruelty unjustified by their mission. Such Scourers enjoyed bloodshed and torture, and even went so far as trafficking their fellow wizards. The numbers of Scourers multiplied across America in the late seventeenth century and there is evidence that they were not above passing off innocent No-Majs as wizards, to collect rewards from gullible non-magic members of the community.”

“The famous Salem Witch Trials of 1692-93 were a tragedy for the wizarding community. Wizarding historians agree that among the so-called Puritan judges were at least two known Scourers, who were paying off feuds that had developed while in America. A number of the dead were indeed witches, though utterly innocent of the crimes for which they had been arrested. Others were merely No-Majs who had the misfortune to be caught up in the general hysteria and bloodlust.”

This version fucks up several things:

1) The A good number of judges of the Salem witch trials were NOT native to Salem. All  Many of them were brought in from outside the community, and they did not know the people of Salem before coming there. That would seem to make “paying off feuds” a little difficult. 

[ETA on March 12, 2016: I should add that there were three courts, not one; the second court, known as the Special Court of Oyez and Terminer, was the one that condemned nineteen people to hang. The Chief Judge was Lieutenant Governor William Stoughton, and he was appointed by the Royal Governor, William Phips. The associate judges, also appointed by Phips were: Thomas Danforth of Boston, Bartholomew Gedney of Salem, John Hathorne of Salem, John Richards of Boston, Nathaniel Saltonstall of Haverhill, Peter Sargent of Boston, Samuel Sewall of Salem, and Wait Winthrop of Boston. When Nathaniel Saltonstall resigned from the court upon being told that spectral evidence would be admissible, he was replaced by Jonathan Corwin of Salem. So there were four Salemites on the court that condemned people.  

However, the only truly believable Scourer in the group is Hathorne, who was also on the first witch court with Jonathan Corwin, vehemently hated witches and who acted more like an angry prosecutor than a judge. Although Gedney appears to have been easily swayed–he believed that his friend John Alden was guilty after seeing the afflicted girls in action–both he and Corwin only attended the trials of the second court sporadically.  And Samuel Sewall issued a public confession in 1698 expressing his remorse and accepting “blame and shame” for his actions against innocent people…the only judge on any Salem court to do so.]

2) Rowling cannot say that some of the dead were witches but were “innocent of the crimes for which they had been arrested”, because the crime for which they had been arrested was witchcraft. A witch, by definition, would be guilty of witchcraft.

(I think that she was trying to say that the accused witches and wizards had not hexed anyone’s animals, made anyone sick, etc. But those were not separate crimes. They all came under the umbrella of witchcraft. This fact is well-known to students of that era and to legal scholars, which makes the “wizarding historians” that she cites look ignorant by comparison. If you’re writing fake history, you need to make it convincing.)

3) Rowling’s version places the blame on the judges, saying that they were Scourers out to destroy witches and wizards. This completely ignores the fact that everything started because of the “afflicted girls”–girls and young women ranging in age from 9 (Betty Parris) to 25 (Sarah Churchill). If the girls had not started accusing their neighbors (both slave and free) of witchcraft, no one would have sent for the judges.  There would have been no need.

4) The Salem witch trials were not the only witch trials in America.  The earliest arraignment involving colonists was in 1622 Jamestown; the accused was Goodwife Joan Wright. The first execution in the colonies of a suspected witch was Alys Young, who was hanged in Hartford, Connecticut in 1647. There was also a witch hunt in Hartford, Connecticut in 1662. The wizarding historians make it sound as if Salem was the one and only witch hunt, ignoring others in America and numerous witch hunts in Great Britain and on the continent.

5) Nor were the witch trials of 1692-93 the last witch trials in America, as Rowling’s account would suggest. Virginia, Connecticut, Maryland, New Jersey and New Mexico all had witch trials after that, to 1694 to some time after 1762.  And [i]n 1792 Winnsboro,  [South Carolina,] Mary Ingelman, who had a knowledge of “pharmacy…and simple cures,” and three others were found guilty after cattle got sick and people began acting possessed. Mary and the other three were flogged and the bottoms of their feet were beaten until they burst. There was another witchcraft trial in South Carolina in 1813 (the accused, Barbara Powers, was acquitted). And then there was the Ipswich witchcraft trial of 1878, in which Lucretia L. S. Brown, an adherent of the Christian Science religion, accused fellow Christian Scientist Daniel H. Spofford of attempting to harm her through his “mesmeric” mental powers. (The case was dismissed.)

6) If some of the dead were witches–which is by no means proven, but let us accept it hypothetically–then the following plotholes arise:

a) Why did none of them use Apparition to escape from jail or from the hangman’s noose? There were other cities, even other colonies, and some people who had advance warning that they were going to be arrested did flee by both land and sea.

b) People without magic did try to save the accused by means of petitions and pleas to the court.  Why did none of their magical friends or family try to save any of them by using, y’know, MAGIC? Because there is no mention of such attempts in this account.

c) Why did none of the accused use Imperio on the afflicted girls to make them admit that what they were saying was not true–or on the judges to force them to admit publicly that they were biased, out to get them, etc.? 

d) Why were some people spared if they confessed to witchcraft? If the Scourers were out to destroy all witches, surely there shouldn’t have been any survivors.

e) Given that most witches and wizards in America are not purebloods and that many have been born into non-magical families, why does this book dismiss the non-magical victims of the trials as “merely No-Majs who had the misfortune to be caught up in the general hysteria and bloodlust” as if their deaths did not matter?

And that’s without even getting into the issues of racism, classism and accusations for the sake of land grabs, which had a hell of a lot to do with who was accused.

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Penguin Famous Trials


The books in the photographs are three volumes from Penguin’s Famous Trials series. All ten books in the series had green covers with the exception of volume seven, which describes the three trials of Oscar Wilde at the Old Bailey, and was orange.


The series was founded by Harry Hodge in 1941, who was the Managing Director of William Hodge & Co and was well known in the Scottish courts as one of the foremost expert shorthand writers. The series was an abridged version of The Notable British Trial Series, which Hodge had previously established in 1905. This series, beginning with the trial of Mary Queen of Scots in 1586, had by 1959 issued 85 volumes and forms an unparalleled library of criminal trials.


According to his son, James, “My father thought that the public got little chance of knowing what actually went on in the Courts, and thus the idea of publishing trials germinated; my grandfather, who founded the family firm of publishers of Scot’s Law in 1874, and who like my father was a shorthand writer in his day, thought little of the idea, but he was in Glasgow, and the scheme went ahead.”


The series focused on the trial rather than the crime and cases were selected according to whether they were deemed to have had a notable influence on law and society. Although he would later modify his view, Hodge originally believed that a trial should be at least twenty years old before it can prove itself to have been notable. He also carefully selected his editors and insisted on the greatest possible accuracy in the presentation of the trials.


After his death in 1947 his son James succeeded him as editor of The Notable Trials Series and Penguin Famous Trials. In 1948 he also went on to produce the first volumes in the War Crimes Trials Series.


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