family structures


I’m sure we hear more about him in the future. We have got to get these kids to understand that striving to be a rapper, football and basketball player is not the only thing out there. Unfortunately, kids make fun of kids who get good grades or are in honor classes because they don’t view it as being cool. It is critical to stop the bullying and stop that mentality. At some point the cycle of poverty needs to stop somewhere within a family. A child that focuses on school and graduates high school and moves on to college helps end the perpetuation of repeating the cycle of uneducated people in a family structure. When that child graduates and hopefully moves on to a great career. Numerous inventors were black.. THIS is what our youth should focus on, strive for!

Antimicrobial Agents  - Cell wall inhibitors

Based on mode of action • divided into families based on chemical structure

 Modes of action Interference with: 

  • cell wall synthesis 
  • protein synthesis 
  • nucleic acid synthesis 
  • plasma membrane integrity 
  • metabolic pathway 

Inhibitors of Bacterial Cell Wall (peptidoglycan) Synthesis 

  • The Beta-lactam Family 
  • The Glycopeptides 

Peptidoglycan is composed of N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM) repeat units, and amino acids.  Each NAM is linked to peptide chain and the peptide chains are cross-linked.


  • Includes penicillin derivatives (penams), cephalosporins (cephems), monobactams, and carbapenems.
  • class of broad-spectrum antibiotics containing a β-lactam ring
  • Bacterial transpeptidase enzymes are responsible for catalysing cross-linking of the peptide chains
  • β-lactam ring bind to these transpeptidases – this inhibits cross-linking between peptide chains and prevents synthesis of stable PG
  • Cell wall synthesis ceases and the bacterial cells eventually die due to osmotic instability or autolysis. 


Polypeptide agents - basic structural elements amino acids 


  • complexes with peptide portion of peptidoglycan’s precursor units 
  • vancomycin is a large hydrophilic molecule able to form hydrogen bonds with the terminal D-alanyl-D-alanine moieties of the NAM/NAG-peptides
  • preventing PG transglycosylation reaction – PG precursor subunits (NAG-NAM+peptide) cannot be inserted into peptidoglycan matrix;
  • Vancomycin also alters bacterial-cell-membrane permeability and RNA synthesis

Uses:  serious Gram positive infections e.g. MRSA wound infection

Adverse effects:

  • damage to auditory nerve 
  • hearing loss (ototoxicity) 
  • “Red man/neck” syndrome - rash on face, neck, upper torso 
Setups and parallels (12.15 meta and spoilers)

I’ve pretty much just watched the ep and a couple earlier episodes for context so if I’m retreading ground, sorry. 

12.15 is pretty “by the book” and I don’t think that’s necessarily a bad thing. When things are spread out for you in simple terms, it can be easier to see what’s been happening and what will happen based on the information given. (as long as they don’t pull as s10.)

This episode is very tight in that there isn’t much room for extra threads in terms of where the story is going. Not by Davy’s watch anyway. Another writer could change it up but probably not in any huge way. Davy seems to have received a lot of story notes or he knew of changes that were going to be happening to characters in the future so he set up information to the audience to make those changes and decisions make sense in the long run(even if they were unfavorable) You know, that thing that didn’t happen with enough backing for Crowley’s decisions in 12.13. This episode pretty much screams “we’re in for the long haul”. It also does an interesting job at pointing out the mental state of everyone at the moment. Again, I think this is to give a groundwork for what happens later on. This is an episode of setup and context. 

More detailed info below. 

Keep reading

Trans boys can get boyfriends and still be boys
Trans boys can get girlfriends and still be boys
Trans boys can get married and still be boys.
Trans boys can have children and STILL BE BOYS
It’s not “cheating” its not “feminine” its not always the person’s concious decision
Boys are boys regardless of society’s expectation of familial structure

Thoughts on Galra and Altean family structures:

Originally, far back before Allura and Coran’s 10,000 year cryosleep, Galra and Alteans were once a single race of shapeshifters that began to diverge as one group (the Galra) slowly lost their abilities. Because of this, though, their family structures are very similar, namely when it comes to childrearing.

Past Galra and current Alteans don’t really do gender as a general rule, because their power to adapt allows them to change their presentation and secondary sex characteristics at will, so any Galra or Altean has the ability to reproduce with any other Galra or Altean. There is no such stigma against same sex couples or having more than one partner because concepts like having a specific orientation or cheating don’t exist for them.

Galra (and Altean!) children are raised communally by multiple adults at once, many of whom have no connection to their actual parents. After growing up together, sleeping together, playing together, children are never alone for even a moment, and this fosters strong attachment to their own loosely-defined “community.” In the Galra’s case, all the Empire is one’s family and they traditionally greet each other by calling one another terms like “brother” or “mother” depending upon age, even if they’re strangers as a sign of respect. Alteans did this at one point, too, but as years passed, it became less and less common.

The loss of Galra shapeshifting was gradual over a period of thousands of years. Alteans, with their famous diplomacy, mostly restricted their interbreeding to more advanced (read: humanoid) alien species. (After all, what better way to forge an alliance than through tying families together and raising children?) Whereas Galra didn’t discriminate and preferred ones that were more animalistic because they believed they were naturally better at combat. Generations passed and their natural ability to shapeshift waned until it was practically nonexistent in anyone except the Druids, which are atavistic throwbacks to previous generations, thus their relatively human appearance.

Over the past 10,000 years, conception between Galra has been growing increasingly difficult, to the point where it’s rare for new Galra children to even be born at all. This isn’t too big a trouble because Galra are naturally long-lived, but because of that, children are highly prized. Any new Galra child born in the last few centuries is automatically elevated to royalty status, mostly as a formal title and little else, but it means all younger Galra are considered family of Zarkon and granted status within the Empire. This also means that the discovery of a long-lost Galra child would cause quite a stir among the Empire, but where in the universe would they manage to find such a thing?

Sex: Male
Height: 178cm
Weight: 64kg
School year: 3rd year high school student
Star sign: Gemini
Blood type: AB
Codename: Crow
Arcana: Justice
Initial Persona: Robin Hood
Family structure: None (lives alone in an apartment)
Skill: Reasoning
Habit: Getting lost in thought during conversation
Hobbies: Cycling (uses a hybrid bicycle for easy turning in Tokyo), rock climbing, fashionable games like darts
Favorite food: Nothing in particular.
Regarding food, using it as a topic is more important to him, so he always makes sure to try out the latest popular dishes. Waiting in long lines isn’t painful for him. He also uses his cycling hobby to ride around town, gathering stories to use in conversation with adults. Since he spends a lot of time with adults, he has a reputation amongst Tokyo’s famous hidden stores and high class restaurants, although in truth he has little interest in the food’s flavor.

Goro Akechi

(not my photo, transl credit @beefbulgogi)
Different types of Nihilism, summed up.

I pretty much summed up the Wikipedia article’s different forms in an easier to understand way.

Metaphysical Nihilism - The world/universe/multiverse might not exist/be possible. Denying some or all forms of existence.

Epistemological Nihilism - All knowledge is unfalsifiable. Nothing can be proven or disproved.

Mereological Nihilism - The belief that objects with proper parts do not exist, and that everything, in both time and space, is simply basic building blocks with the appearance of proper parts.

Existential Nihilism - The belief that life has no intrinsic meaning or value. (Note: Many existential nihilist view meaning as personal choice.)

Moral Nihilism - The belief there are no instrinsic morals, right or wrong. Or that morality is a construct of humanity. (Note: Many moral nihilist view morals as a personal decision.)

Political Nihilism - The rejection of certain or all parts of social structures, such as but not limited to governmental, political, family, or legal structure.
DNA and RNA Viruses Mnemonic for USMLE Step 1

To all my microbiology studiers out there. I found this video when I was studying for the virology block of my micro class, and this + sketchy micro was an absolute GODSEND. If you’re struggling with remembering the structures and families of the viruses or prefer flow charts over big tables, CHECK THIS DUDE OUT. I could listen to him talk viruses to me all day. 

Here’s a look at how I implemented it into my First Aid (pages 148, 150).

Hope someone finds this helpful!

Um. I just came across this on IG and it honestly bothers me. Here we have 2 sibling interactions and it’s natural to draw parallels but there is a significant difference with how both sets were raised and for that reason alone, I don’t think it’s logical or fair to make such a direct comparison.

Daenerys and Viserys grew up with no family structure, being shipped around from port to port, never having a home or even a place to feel safe for long and at times not even food to eat or a place to sleep. Dany loved her brother despite what became of him and I believe Viserys loved her too but at some point the burden of being the one set to avenge his family grew heavy on him and that became more important than the only family he’d known. His name meant nothing as he was still treated a beggar and that ultimately enraged and corrupted him. I’ve never believed Viserys was inherently evil, not with the way Dany thought of him after his death. The show never did a good job of relaying this though. I mean she still names one of her dragons after him (!!) and it’s a tragedy in itself that Viserys ended up alienating the person he should’ve cherished most.

In contrast, Jon and Sansa come from a stable, nuclear family and although Jon isn’t noble by name or free of the experience of being branded a bastard, he still had a hell of a better upbringing than Viserys ever did. He had a strong father figure, fully functional sibling relationships and was taught a strong set of values.

This is not a defense of what Viserys did to Dany but I think it’s important to understand the conditions these characters come from. It’s not as simple as good vs bad or pitting one against the other.

Patriarchy vs. Matriarchy

Because of the unequal nature of human reproduction, patriarchy is an inherently violent structure. Patriarchy is founded on the belief of male supremacy: that males should own and control the female reproductive ability. This is reinforced through culture and the threat of male violence.

Women must be subjugated in order to maintain the patriarchal family structure; liberated, free women would not choose to devote their lives and their bodies in total service to husbands. Patriarchal culture grooms women from birth to expect to cater to husbands when they grow older, and teaches women that the key to happiness is to provide men with children.

Matriarchy, however, does not require the subjugation of men. This is because men do not have to sacrifice their own bodies in order to reproduce. Men do not need to be convinced to give up their lives in devotion to women in a matriarchal culture the way that women need to be convinced to devote themselves to men in a patriarchal culture.

Under matriarchy, men could retain full independence from women, men would retain their human rights, and could choose on their own whether to engage in a heterosexual family life or to live as a free bachelor or with their male lover(s).

Families would be structured so that lineage is tracked through the mother, who retains the rights of parentage. There would be no gendered hierarchy or economic disadvantage for women pressuring us to remain partnered with men; similarly, men would not be culturally coerced to remain partnered with women, either. Should men and women partner together and become unhappy, divorce would be easily obtainable and stigma-free. Men and women would only partner together when genuinely desired. 

Women would not be required to disclose paternity of a child to a man; the child would be considered hers. Single motherhood, or motherhood by women partnered together would be normal. Bisexual women who live their lives together with a female partner might engage in a sexually open lifestyle with side partners of both sexes. Polyamoury of all types would be accepted, because it would not be a cultural imperative to determine paternity.

This doesn’t mean that men would be completely alienated from family life; heterosexuality is a biological orientation, and men and women who genuinely love each other would still choose to live together. The man would not have a cultural safety net for any bad behavior on his part, however, and he would be raised in a culture that recognizes women as men’s intellectual equals. He would not feel superior or a sense of ownership over his female partner, and their relationship would be built upon an ongoing act of continued mutual respect, rather than staying together for any other socially pressured reason. 

When it comes to those who reproduce, because of the biological, sacrificial nature of pregnancy, women who partner with men would still have reasons to find their male partners valuable (though if the relationship turned south, both partners would have the economic freedom to have the option of independence available to them), which men can do by demonstrating their care and respect for women. Humans still have bonding hormones, after all. Because a man would still be able to be financially independent from women if he desired to do so, he would not be trapped in a relationship, and would have the power to leave any time he wished. In this way, healthy relationships would be the norm, and the power imbalance of biology corrected by culture.

Women would have complete financial independence from men in such a society, and because mothers would have default parental rights, fathers would not have to pay child support, either (which is only necessary in a patriarchal culture where men maintain economic control). Men would not be subjugated by matriarchy in any manner.

What do men lose under matriarchy? Men lose their artificial, socially constructed ownership over women and children. A man is not entitled to children, a man is not entitled to shape the minds of the children a woman’s body created.

Handing an artist a bucket of paint is not the same as creating the art.

The only women who become mothers under matriarchy would be women with the legitimate desire to do so. Abortion access would be widely available, as would birth control for both male and female people. Men who are sexually active with female partners would be socially expected to take control of their own fertility–it makes more sense to take the bullets out of a gun than it does to shoot live rounds at a bullet proof vest. No woman would ever be told that motherhood is the only way she could be happy or that motherhood is an obligation for women, because the intense sacrifice required would be understood and respected. Motherhood would be given the respect it deserves, as a woman’s intense experience of creating a child with her body would be given the cultural admiration and acceptance it deserves. Motherhood would be an aspect of public life rather than private life; there would be no stigma to breastfeeding. Society would be structured to accommodate mothers, with childcare facilities available to working women, with fair maternity leave available to women, with sex education available to everyone.

Because women would be seen as intellectually capable autonomous human beings, and because the sacrifice required for motherhood would be given the weight it deserves, women who live child free lifestyles would be seen as living happy and satisfying lives. Women would not be looked at as reproductive objects. Child free lifestyles for women would be very common, normal, and accepted, and everyone would understand why child free women live the way that they do.

Lesbians would be able to live openly and freely in a matriarchal society, as there would be no compulsory heterosexuality fueled by male entitlement to female bodies. Lesbians would never be told that they are “wasted resources” that a man could have possessed.

Gay and bisexual men would be free to partner and love each other, as well, because there would be no social pressure on men to partner heterosexually with women when they have no desire to do so.

Matriarchy as a family structure is good for everyone. 

Dare to dream. 

Prayer for the Sanctity of the Family Structure

Holy Trinity, architect of humanity and archetype of the
family, we ask you to protect the sacred and ancient
structure of the family: man, woman, and child.

Guard the family from intellectual deconstruction,
political redefinition, social dissonance, and

Inspire the Church, both clergy and laity, to be
steadfast in defending marriage and family in their
traditional form, and to advance this cause in public
and in private with courage, humility, and love.

We ask this through Christ, our Lord.


Christianity is an Instruction Manual for Patriarchy

The whole structure of the religion is like, the holy Father who passes his power on to the Son and then there’s also the holy spirit which is present in ~all men~ basically saying that men have access to God’s power. (As a little girl reading the Bible, when you read that, didn’t you ask what about women?)

Mary is the holiest woman ever because God knocked her up and it wasn’t even her choice she just accepted it and dedicated her life to serving him and obeying his wishes. So the best thing a woman can aspire to be is an obedient baby maker who produces a son for the holy father–and he gets the credit for being the ultimate creator, not the woman who actually grows the baby in her physical body, nourishes it with her body. That is taken for granted.

Patriarchy is a family structure within a society where a man marries a woman in order to gain use of her body as a baby making factory for the benefit of his lineage; where the roles of men and women are that the husband is responsible for shaping the moral character of the children while the wife does the manual daily labor around the home and the dirty work of raising the kids. This is male supremacy. This is why women take men’s last names when we get married, as a symbol of ownership. This is why fathers “give away” their daughters at a wedding to the new husband who now owns the wife. The father/husband is the authority on right and wrong and makes the decisions for the family, the wife’s role is to provide the man with children and keep house for him in exchange for basic survival.

Reject patriarchal religion. Reject traditional marriage ceremonies.

In the book ‘Archeofuturism’, Guillaume Faye lists what he deems to be the cancers eating away at the social fabric of Europe. They are, as follows:

  1. The demographic colonisation of the northern hemisphere by peoples from the South.
  2. The failure of multiracial society, which is increasingly racist and neo-tribal.
  3. The progressive ethno-anthropological metamorphosis of Europe.
  4. The return of poverty in both East and West.
  5. The slow but steady increase in crime and drug consumption.
  6. The ongoing disintegration of family structures.
  7. The decline of the educational system and the quality of school curricula.
  8. The disruption of the passing down of cultural knowledge and social disciplines.
  9. The disappearance of folk culture and its replacement by the brutishness of masses rendered passive by audio-visual technology.
  10. The progressive decay of cities and communities in favour of sprawling suburbs devoid of all transparency and coherence.
  11. Endemic urban revolts – like a rampant May of ‘68, only worse.

This is what we’re up against, this is what we have to push back and overcome.

(Mostly Unsupported) Headcanon

So TFA and the extended novels talk a bit about how Brendol Hux created the new Stormtrooper program and how good he was at taking these little children and basically brainwashing them into fighting for him. And it works, mostly. Despite being ostensibly kidnapped from all over the galaxy, these new Stormtroopers are loyal to the First Order to an obsessive degree (see, being trained to never remove helmets, etc).

So how did he do it?

Well one of the most effective tactics of cults is to mimic a family structure, where the leader is the ‘parent’. And we already know that back at the Academy he ran a group of boys who he had killing each other in competition for his favor. So we know that he’s willing to use tactics like that, taking attention-starved young people and providing them with the positive reinforcement they need only when they conform to the behavior he wants. Training them. This sort of thing is ridiculously effective at undermining the human psyche. People, especially children, have an innate need for the affection and approval of an authority figure.

Basically what I’m saying is what if the Stormtroopers were all trained from early childhood to view Hux Sr specifically as their ‘father’ and to obey him specifically? 

It creates a sense of family that we’ve never really seen in the the bad guys on SW before. If you’re taking all of these children away from their families at young ages you have to give them something to replace it. The most effective way would be to teach them that the Order is their new family. Foster a sibling-like relationship between ‘troopers and teach them to love and respect their ‘trainer’, Hux Sr., at the replacement parent. It’s a honey and vinegar situation. 

Straight abuse when they fail to conform is going to breed resentment. But give them a father figure who loves them and doles out rewards (affection, approval, etc) for desired behavior in hand with punishments for undesirable behavior and you’re going to have a child who is much more devoted to the system than one who only receives punishments. Parent/child affection is a really strong bond, and if Hux Sr. is smart he would milk that shit to get his troops behaving the way he wants.

Now. Why do I find this idea hilarious?

Because there’s rampant headcanon that General Hux is popular with the Stormtroopers. Well with this headcanon, of course he is. He’s their big brother.

tl;dr What if all the Stormtroopers thought of Hux Sr. as their daddy

Cautionary Poly: Jen

As notebook paper, plastic silverware and booming accusations were being hurled through the air, I was scrambling to find my hoodie and my backpack and flee the kitchen before the Mr. Coffee was launched at my face, sacrificed to the warlike gods of jealousy, poor communication and differing expectations. This poly triad fight began over a pizza topped with black olives…or did it?

I met this married couple online a few months before, and I was impressed by their welcoming dating ad including a smiling portrait of the two of them. I loved dating male-female couples because I am poly and pan, and because it seemed to me that a close, family-like triad structure was the best, most satisfying way for me to live my poly. Husband, wife and me—the newest partner, sharing time, energy, a bed and even a large pizza on occasion—everyone happy, healthy and making a life together one day at a time. That’s the light side of being a third partner in a MFF triad, being the cherished single, pansexual female that this couple had wanted since they’d opened up their relationship a few months before.

I was surely responsible for my part in the almost immediately-apparent dark side of this arrangement. After chatting with this couple online for a few weeks and meeting them in person a few times, I agreed to be their exclusive girlfriend, and further agreed to a slew of pre-determined regulations set forth by them, for me, without my contributions or even my knowledge in some cases. I wasn’t aware that common, everyday dating bits like watching movies, eating at restaurants, sleeping in beds and ordering pizzas were all things that had rules around them, but I discovered these hidden clauses one by one, accidently, until by the time the pizza order was called in on that night, this triad went right back to being a couple and me alone, all of us worse off for the experience.

This night started off like any other weekend date night with husband and I off work, wife on the way home, and we’d planned a Netflix and chill night (heeheehee) and wanted to order a pizza so we could all make out rather than cook things. He called in the order—a large pepperoni with black olives, which was their fave pie, and one of mine. The pizza arrived at the house before wife did, and she came through the door, dropped her purse, jerked open the box top, and unleashed the fires of hades on husband for the unforgiveable sin of ordering “their” pizza for the three of us. “You KNOW BETTER!!” wife shrieked as she shoved the boxed pizza off the counter onto the linoleum.

Wife threw things at husband while I ducked, dodged, and frantically searched for my belongings and headed straight out the front door. Neither of them took notice of my departure, at least until husband sent me a lengthy email the next day which I thought accurately outlined where he, she and me had gone wrong. From the beginning, as it turned out. There were more red flags in this situation than there were positive green lights, and I failed to notice some of them, and ignored the rest in favor of being in a triad relationship.

They were not ready for a poly relationship, triad or otherwise, they had very different expectations of what their poly would look like, and they were not properly communicating their…well…anything. I let the relationship form too quickly, I mostly communicated with him, and let him speak for her more than she actually spoke, I hadn’t clearly defined MY expectations, and I completely missed the part where wife was lukewarm to the whole poly concept at best, and fiercely opposed to emotional attachments at best.

I wasn’t able to turn this trio of people into a healthy, happy, long-term triad, but I was able to accumulate a basketful of valuable takeaways in the form of “Dos” and what NOT to dos.

Dos: Slooooowwwww dooooooown! NRE feels really, really fucking awesome, but getting into a poorly-run dynamic feels really, really fucking awful.

Speeeeeak uuuuuup! Assert your wants, needs, personal boundaries and plans for your future with potential dating partners, from jump, and revisit as often as needed.

Screen/vet/get to know potential partners BEFORE agreeing to anything that looks like a relationship. I admit that I spent more time vetting a phone carrier than I did checking out some of the people I wanted to date. Not anymore. ☺

What NOT to dos: Don’t just meet potential partners, and be compelled or inclined to go with the flow and let things happen around you without your ideas and wants being a factor.

Don’t get blinded by the thrill of newness, or err….let your junk make big, important decisions for you. Junk is junk. It’s good for sexy stuff, but very bad at making sustainable life choices.

Don’t be afraid to get yourself out of something you see as being harmful to you and/or others. Do not wait until a coffee machine is being thrown in your general direction before you choose to walk out the door and leave a relationship that is clearly not healthy.

From this point forward, I was more experienced and educated about my partner choices, and what I was and wasn’t willing to deal with, and I now know (and am grateful for the lessons of) that when it’s about a pizza, it’s not really about a pizza, and a Mr. Coffee is better used to brew a pot for everyone to share, around a kitchen table, talking out problems, laughing, joking, and making healthy plans for everyone to get their needs met in a poly relationship.

Cautionary Poly: Teachable Moments in Polyamorous Relationships is a special feature of Poly Role Models. The goal of this feature is to highlight the fact that successful polyamory isn’t always free of mistakes…and those mistakes can definitely be gained from.