exxon oil spill

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March 24th 1989: Exxon Valdez oil spill

On this day in 1989, hundreds of thousands of barrels of crude oil were spilled into Prince William Sound in Alaska by the Exxon Valdez oil tanker after it ran aground. Between eleven and thirty-two million gallons of oil were spilled, creating one of the worst human-caused environmental disasters in history. The cleanup operation was especially difficult due to the Sound’s remote location which was only accessible by air or by boat. The spill damaged the local habitat, covering 1,300 miles of coastline and 11,000 square miles of ocean. It was the largest ever oil spill in American waters until the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Whilst the cleanup operation was completed, it is believed that the oil will continue to have a negative effect on the area for many years.

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Pollution Sucks Tee by BLACKMAGIKA

This logo was designed in 1989 by a family member in protest of the Exxon Valdez oil spill that happened in March of that year in Prince William Sound Alaska, just east of Anchorage. That spill destroyed ocean habitat in Alaska and has affected BC and the whole pacific coast. We have decided to reprint it using the last known original and have added the printing on the back.

All profits from the sales of this shirt are going to be donated to small shore clean ups on Vancouver Island and if it does well I’m planning to donate to shore clean up efforts in Alaska, Washington, Oregon and California.

nytimes.com
Evacuations After Montana Oil Spill

An ExxonMobil pipeline that runs under the Yellowstone River in Montana ruptured Saturday and leaked hundreds of barrels of oil into the waterway, causing a 25-mile plume that fouled the riverbank and forced municipalities and irrigation districts downstream to close intakes.

Have we learned nothing?

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25 Years Since the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

On March 24, 1989, the oil tanker Exxon Valdez had just entered Alaska’s Prince William Sound, after departing the Valdez Marine Terminal full of crude oil. At 12:04 am, the ship struck a reef, tearing open the hull and releasing 11 million gallons of oil into the environment. Initial responses by Exxon and the Alyeska Pipeline Company were insufficient to contain much of the spill, and a storm blew in soon after, spreading the oil widely. Eventually, more than 1,000 miles of coastline were fouled, and hundreds of thousands of animals perished. Exxon ended up paying billions in cleanup costs and fines, and remains tied up in court cases to this day. The captain, Joseph Hazelwood, was acquitted of being intoxicated while at the helm, but convicted on a misdemeanor charge of negligent discharge of oil, fined $50,000, and sentenced to 1,000 hours of community service. Though the oil has mostly disappeared from view, many Alaskan beaches remain polluted to this day, crude oil buried just inches below the surface.

Dorsal collapse has to do with the collagen within the dorsal fin. Dorsal fins are composed of fibrous, connective tissue. Less than one percent of orcas in the wild have collapsed dorsal fins (Dave Ellifrit & Astrid van Ginneken)

What leads to collapse in wild whales: Wild orcas seen with dorsal collapse had explainable reasons as to why it occurred. This includes spinal issues or injury from other orcas or surfaces that weakened the tissue, causing it to flop over. It was also documented that there was collapse in a few bulls in Prince William Sound after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill.

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Dorsal fin collapse can also indicate signs of poor health. If the orca is dehydrated, the tissue is weakened. If an orca is near getting a “peanut head” (a “peanut head” is a shape of an orca head just prior to death. It usually is a sunken area behind the neck), its fin is going to collapse.

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In captivity, the orcas do not face any currents or obstacles that strengthen their muscles. This leads to “pattern swimming”. Pattern swimming is repeatedly swimming in the same manner, such as clockwise or counterclockwise. This creates only one side of pressure against their body. The fin collapses in the direction the pressure is forcing it to.

Orcas rest at the surface in captivity out of boredom and stress. The fin is weightless under the water, but since they’re above it, gravity pulls the fin downward.

In many parks, including Seaworld, the water is warmer than it should be. This is so trainers can go in the water. The warmer water can take part in dehydrating them.

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Hydration is key to preventing the tissues from weakening. Orcas extract fluids from their food to keep themselves hydrated. The orcas are deprived of the right nutrients they must intake since their food is dry and dead already. Also, orcas are given less food than what they would get in the wild, believe it or not. Less relative food leads to less water intake.

So it is proven captivity IS the reason Tilikum, Ulises, Kshamenk, Keet, Bingo, Keto, Kyuquot, and Tuar have collapsed dorsal fins, and from negative impact on their lives and bodies.

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Captivity is not okay. It just isn’t.

herpinknessreigns  asked:

Heyyy...I'm sure you don't know this because you work with chimps not otters, but i was always kinda curious after seeing that one famous gif float around: do otters REALLY hold hands while they're sleeping to avoid drifting apart or was that like...one photo in a million? I know its not your area of expertise but you know all sorts of amazing things so I thought I'd ask just in case ^_^

While I do work primarily with nonhuman primates, my training (and prior experience) has been with all kinds of vertebrates, especially mammals and birds, so I actually know this one!

Yes, they actually do this!
The hand holding behavior has been referred to as “bunching,” “podding,” or (the current favorite) “rafting”.  

Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) hunt and forage independently, but they tend to rest together in the same-sex groups we like to call rafts. Male rafts are generally much larger than female (+ offspring) rafts. They hold hands and will even wrap themselves - and young - in kelp while eating or resting to keep from drifting out of their territory and off to sea. 

While the two otters in the above gif are adorable, rafts in the wild can be anywhere from 10 to +100 individuals! Rafts of several hundreds of otters have been observed, but regional populations can be drastically different. Otters are still recovering from over hunting / poaching of the fur trade and environmental disasters like the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

(Sea otter population in Glacier Bay, Matthias Breiter)


I hope this helped and please feel free to send me questions / tag me in posts you’d like me to look into. If I don’t know the answers (complete with sources!) I’ll be sure to direct you to someone who does. 


Additional References:

  • Dean, Thomas A., et al. “Food limitation and the recovery of sea otters following the'Exxon Valdez'oil spill." Marine Ecology Progress Series 241 (2002): 255-270. (PDF)

  • Garshelis, David L., Ancel M. Johnson, and Judith A. Garshelis. ”Social organization of sea otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska.“ Canadian Journal of Zoology 62.12 (1984): 2648-2658. (PDF)

  • Tinker, M. Tim, Gena Bentall, and James A. Estes. ”Food limitation leads to behavioral diversification and dietary specialization in sea otters.“ Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105.2 (2008): 560-565. (PDF)

  • Wild, Paul W., and Jack A. Ames. ”A report on the sea otter, Enhydra lutris L., in California.“ (1974). (PDF)

warpedchyld  asked:

:D Spacedogs prompts you say? Nigel and Adam playing poker. Adam is thoroughly stomping on Nigel and Nigel is both pleased and angry.

Yes, indeed i said prompts but then you thought i was some sort of le chiffre and i actually knew the rules of this game x) So lets pretend this is how we play poker and my minimal research on this damn game.

This is inspired by the midnighters by @drinkbloodlikewine (cause it would fit that verse best)

Unfortunately, shit had backfired. Massively backfired. They had been able to track down Nigel and therefore also found Adam. His Adam. It was late when Nigel burst through the door, waking up Adam, and making him pack a few clothes and necessary equipment to plan out a strategy to swim out of this pile of shit. 

Of course, it was a rough time for Adam to adjust. His carefully planned schedule had been shambled. And Nigel was scared the stress of it all would trigger any sort of reaction from Adam. 

And it did. 

Nigel had done everything to reassure his clever boy, sending his goons for macaroni and cheese, for books on space, for anything that would remotely make Adam feel at home in their hide out. 

~~~~~~~~

When Adam emerge out of the bedroom, eyes still a little blood shot from just waking up, Nigel had his feet on the table, fingers playing around with cards. A little squeak of the floor board made him reach for his gun, but then relax when Adam whispered a “good morning.” 

The dangerous man, put down the fire arm and gestured for Adam to come over. The younger man tentatively approached, and let Nigel wrap his arm around his waist. He kissed the tiny bit of fleshed which peaked out of his pjs. 

“Have you slept?” He asks looking at the empty beer bottles, and chips on the table. 

“Not really.”

“What were you doing?”

“Keeping us safe.”

“By playing…cards?” He pauses and makes the connection between the chips, the cards and the dollar bills on Nigel’s side. “ Poker?”

“It keeps us awake.”

“You need to rest. Sleepiness has been at the origin of many disasters such as the Three Mile Island, the massive Exxon Valdez oil spill, the 1986 nuclear meltdown at Chernobyl. But it can also cause heart diseases, diabetes, strokes but can also lower your libido, and-”

“Fuck, i’m not causing a nuclear disaster here. And don’t worry, gorgeous, i’ve done this many times, and im healthy like a bull. As for my sex drive…” He pulls Adam closer and nuzzles him lower. 

“No.” Adam tries to squirm away. 

“No?”

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