exposure high

Crystal Safety, Revisited

There’s an awesome post going around by @prettycitywitch that discusses crystal care and toxicity. I noticed a few errors in it, just due to the source that was used, so I contacted her and got permission to rewrite it to ensure the most accurate information possible is spread around in the witchy community. I’ve gone through every crystal in her list and added a few others. 

Everything in this list has been confirmed by the Gemological Institute of America Laboratory (one of the foremost in gemological research), multiple published mineralogical sources, and/or at least two online mineralogical databases. Crystals of particular concern in each category have been bolded; the other listed crystals have a bit of wiggle room.

Crystals affected by sunlight or heat
Most crystals (including nearly all in this list) are safe to expose to sunlight temporarily - you can wear them in jewelry during the day, for example, but don’t leave them in your windowsill for weeks. In general, colorless crystals may be left in the sun indefinitely, while colored (especially pink) crystals should be stored in a place that doesn’t get direct sun all day. Heat, on the other hand, can easily affect many crystals, but usually only at high temperatures (steam or a jeweler’s torch), so I’ve only included the ones that could be damaged by relatively low temperatures.

  • Amber - may crack in heat
  • Amethyst - may fade over time; safe to expose to sun temporarily
  • Apophyllite - heat can cause flaking; sunlight is fine as long as the specimen is kept cool
  • Maxixe (dark blue beryl) - fades extremely quickly to pale brown in sunlight; color can only be restored through irradiation
  • Azurite - will fade over time with exposure to sunlight; store in a dark, cool environment
  • Celestine - fades in long exposure to sunlight
  • Chrysoprase - may fade in sunlight; restoration of color sometimes possible through prolonged storage in water
  • Fluorite - occasionally can fade in sunlight
  • Hackmanite - exhibits tenebrescence, a temporary change in color due to sun exposure; will return to original color if kept in a dark area
  • Hiddenite - unstable in sunlight and heat to a lesser degree than kunzite
  • Kunzite - will fade drastically in sunlight; indoor incandescent light can also slowly affect this stone
  • Larimar - fades over time when exposed to sunlight and heat
  • Morganite - deeper colors or more lilac hues can fade in sunlight
  • Opal - fading is minimal, but sunlight, heat, and changes in air pressure can cause internal fracturing called “crazing”
  • Pearl (& mother-of-pearl) - may lose color or turn dull in sunlight or heat
  • Sulfur - extremely heat-sensitive; crystals may fracture or burst if left in the sun or held in your hand
  • Topaz - irradiated stones may fade in direct sunlight
  • Tugtupite - exhibits tenebrescence, a temporary change in color due to sun exposure; will return to original color if kept in a dark area
  • Vanadinite - may darken and lose transparency in sunlight
  • Zircon - heat-treated stones may revert to original color over time in sunlight; avoid exposure to UV lights (tanning beds, nail salons, etc)

Water-soluble crystals
Though many crystals will eventually be worn away by water mostly due to tiny particles of other substances suspended in the water, there are very few that will dissolve in water in any significant way. Contrary to what some believe, most crystals with the suffix ‘-ite’ aren’t water-soluble; ‘-ite’ simply means ‘stone’ and is part of most mineralogical names. 

  • Anhydrite - not water-soluble, but instead will absorb water and convert to gypsum; store in a dry environment and do not submerge
  • Boji stone - not water-soluble, but may rust due to iron component
  • Calcite - somewhat soluble in slightly acidic water; neutral or slightly alkaline water is usually safe; negligible dissolution in air due to gaseous carbon dioxide
  • Celestine - very slightly soluble
  • Chalcanthite - easily soluble in water, but must be stored in a humid environment
  • Chalcopyrite - not soluble, but may rust due to iron content
  • Fluorite - very slightly soluble
  • Halite - easily dissolves in water; moisture from your skin or humidity in the air can eat away at crystals
  • Hematite - not water-soluble, but exposed rough areas may rust
  • Magnesite - slightly soluble; solubility increases with presence of salt
  • Magnetite - not water-soluble, but may rust due to iron content
  • Malachite - slightly soluble in water containing carbon dioxide
  • Marcasite - water may trigger decomposition into melanterite, which contains sulfuric acid
  • Mica (muscovite, fuchsite, lepidolite, etc) - plate or sheet-like specimens may absorb water into cleavage planes and begin to break apart; aggregated crystals are safe in water
  • Pyrite - exposure to water, including high-humidity environments, can trigger breakdown
  • Rhodochrosite - slightly soluble in water containing carbon dioxide
  • Sulfur - soluble in warm water; may form sulfuric acid over time if left in a wet or humid environment
  • Ulexite - dissolves in hot water; slightly soluble in cold water

Acid-soluble crystals
A large number of crystals will dissolve in acid. Many only dissolve in strong acids, such as hydrochloric acid - I won’t list those here because it generally won’t be a concern. There is very little information on mineral solubility in weak acids, such as vinegar, so this list is incomplete. But really, why are you soaking any of your crystals in acid?

  • Amber - “young amber” is soluble in a large number of chemicals
  • Aragonite - easily soluble, even in dilute acids; effervesces
  • Atacamite - readily soluble in acids
  • Azurite - may be slightly soluble
  • Calcite - easily soluble; effervesces
  • Lapis lazuli - composed of a number of minerals, including calcite, which may be acid-soluble; acetone and other substances may remove dye
  • Magnesite - slightly soluble in acids
  • Malachite - readily soluble in acids; color may also be affected
  • Pearl (& mother-of-pearl) - soluble in acids; surface will become dull and pitted
  • Rhodochrosite - slightly soluble in warm acids; effervesces
  • Smithsonite - effervesces and dissolves in acids

Crystals affected by salt
Salt is a dehydrator, so any hydrated crystal may be damaged by it. Salt has a hardness of 2 to 2.5 and may scratch any mineral softer than this. It is safe to put non-hydrated crystals of a hardness between 2.5 and 7 in salt, but very fine scratches may occur due to impurities; don’t put cabochons or faceted stones in this hardness range in salt.

  • Apophyllite - may dehydrate in salt, resulting in flaking; usually not an issue unless combined with heat
  • Cavansite - may dehydrate
  • Chalcanthite - dehydrates easily, forming potentially dangerous powder; store in a humid environment
  • Gypsum (including selenite) - hardness of 2; may be scratched by salt; may dehydrate to anhydrite
  • Opal - will dehydrate and develop internal fractures called “crazing”; store in a wet or humid environment
  • Pearl (& mother-of-pearl) - may become dull and pitted
  • Stilbite - may dehydrate

Potentially dangerous crystals

In general, crystals are pretty safe - handling them is usually okay. Many crystals do have somewhat dangerous elements, such as aluminum-bearing garnets, but they’re “locked” in the crystal structure in a way that prevents them from harming us unless the crystal is powdered or dissolved and inhaled/ingested. The occasional garnet or moonstone gem water won’t hurt you in the slightest.

Because there’s no way for this list to be ‘complete’ - I don’t know what unusual stones you might have - I advise you to never make gem waters with or otherwise ingest

  • powdery, very fine, or fibrous crystals;
  • crystals which you have not identified;
  • metal ores;
  • metals, with the exceptions of gold, platinum, tungsten, and titanium; and
  • stones composed of a variety of minerals.

Don’t use these crystals for gem water, elixir, massage oil, etc. Don’t put these crystals in your mouth or otherwise insert them into your body.

  • Adamite - contains arsenic
  • Amazonite - generally safe, but the color is usually caused by traces of lead; don’t use flaky or powdery specimens in gem waters
  • Atacamite - contains copper
  • Aurichalcite - contains copper and zinc
  • Azurite - contains copper
  • Boji stone - composition can vary, so some stones may have dangerous components
  • Brochantite - contains copper
  • Cerussite - ore of lead; wash hands after handling; do not inhale dust
  • Chalcanthite - contains copper; wash hands after handling; do not rub eyes after handling; do not inhale; do not ingest
  • Chalcopyrite - ore of copper
  • Chrysocolla - contains copper
  • Cinnabar - ore of mercury; always wash hands after handling; do not inhale dust; never ingest in any form; do not heat; massive (aggregate) cinnabar can contain elemental mercury which is very easily absorbed by the body
  • Conichalcite - contains copper and arsenic
  • Cuprite - contains copper; do not ingest
  • Dioptase - delicate, may break or crumble into powder; contains copper
  • Eilat stone - contains copper
  • Galena - ore of lead; wash hands after handling; flaky/crumbly specimens are common, be careful not to inhale dust
  • Malachite - contains copper
  • Marcasite - decomposes to melanterite, which contains sulfuric acid; do not ingest; wash hands after handling; do not inhale
  • Mohawkite - contains copper and arsenic; may contain other toxins
  • Psilomelane - contains barium
  • Pyrite - broken-down pyrite can contain sulfuric acid; do not ingest; if pyrite appears blackish or crumbly, wash hands after handling
  • Realgar - contains arsenic; wash hands after handling; never ingest
  • Serpentine (sp. chrysotile) - safe unless fibrous; do not inhale; asbestos
  • Stibnite - very soft; contains antimony
  • Sulfur - can form sulfuric acid when in contact with moisture
  • Turquoise - usually safe unless powdery; contains copper
  • Vanadinite - contains lead; may have traces of arsenic
  • Wulfenite - ore of lead and molybdenum; do not ingest or inhale

A few final safety reminders

⚠️ Never swallow any crystals, because some otherwise safe crystals can interact with your stomach acids and produce dangerous chemicals.

⚠️ Never crush, powder, or dissolve crystals with the intention of inhaling or ingesting them - fine powders and solutions make elements more accessible to the body.

⚠️ Wash your crystals in water and gentle soap before making any gem waters, elixirs, etc. with them. Even if the crystal itself is safe, it may have been in contact with other dangerous crystals or chemicals.

⚠️ Never make gem water, elixirs, etc. with crystals that are on/in matrix (the base rock the crystals grew from). You don’t know what the matrix is composed of, and it may contain dangerous minerals or elements.

⚠️ Never burn, hold in a candle flame, or intentionally heat your crystals. Intentional heating should only be performed by a jewelry or gemstone professional in a controlled environment.
The sole exception to this is anhydrite without matrix, which may be carefully raised to 200°C (~400°F), dry heat, to dehydrate it and change any gypsum components back to anhydrite. Be aware that this process can occasionally result in fractures, breakage, or internal damage to the stone.

Keep yourself and your crystals safe, everyone! There’s no way for this list to be complete, because there are thousands of minerals out there, so please feel free to contact me if you have questions about any particular stones!

Star Cluster Omega Centauri in HDR 

Behold the largest ball of stars in our galaxy. Omega Centauri is packed with about 10 million stars, many older than our Sun and packed within a volume of only about 150 light-years in diameter. The star cluster is the largest and brightest of 200 or so known globular clusters that roam the halo of our Milky Way galaxy.

Though most star clusters consist of stars with the same age and composition, the enigmatic Omega Cen exhibits the presence of different stellar populations with a spread of ages and chemical abundances. In fact, Omega Cen may be the remnant core of a small galaxy merging with the Milky Way. The featured image shows so many stars because it merged different exposures with high dynamic range (HDR) techniques.

Omega Centauri, also known as NGC 5139, lies about 15,000 light-years away toward the southern constellation of the Centaurus. 

Credit: Mike O'Day


Red bluff - a 60 meter high exposure of red and yellow clay and sedimentary rocks exposed by the Pearl River, Mississippi

anonymous asked:

I am hyped! A few, selected appearances gives him much more control about the questions. Also no over exposure or constant traveling. He'll be done with promo within 2 weeks, but it'll be great shows with a wide audience. I don't want IVs where they discuss his love life or hair or interviewers touching his hair again lol! I always hoped / thought he'd do it that way. This way he'll do it with people he likes & trusts and they let him talk for once ;) excited! SNL, Grimmy, maybe Corden? X

it’s definitely going to be very tightly controlled. I do think Corden is on the table. I think he’ll have about a month of well-spaced promo. Depends on the album date. The whole thing is low-exposure, high impact, low risk.

This isn’t the kind of thing I usually post, however a lot of people have been writing stories and fanfiction with characters who suffer with PTSD which is great! and with voltron and red vs blue and marvel and a bunch of other shows representing characters with the illness a lot more people are writing characters PTSD.  So here’s some facts about Post Traumatic Stress Disorder so everyone is better informed.

The Post Traumatic Stress Disorder or PTSD is an anxiety disorder that develops after experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event, or after traumatic event has happened to a loved one. DSM V defines a traumatic event as exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violence. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder is identified as the development of characteristic symptoms following exposure to a traumatic event. PTSD develops differently with every individual and there are many different symptoms that present themselves, however there are three main symptoms that are present in most cases of posttraumatic stress disorder.

1.    Re-experiencing the traumatic event. This can present in nightmares, upsetting memories, and flashbacks to the traumatic event.

2. Increased anxiety. This can lead to trouble sleeping, outbursts of anger, hypervigilance, difficulty concentrating and constantly feeling on edge.

3.    Avoiding reminders of the trauma. This can be avoiding activities or places that remind sufferer of the trauma, or it could present as the sufferer being unable to remember aspects of the traumatic event.

PTSD is associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, though exact statistics are impossible to prove, it is believed that PTSD sufferers have a higher risk of suicidal ideation.

The biopsychosocial model or BPS is a way of describing how biological, psychological and social factors combine and interact to influence a person’s mental health. Biological factors involve physiologically based influences, such as our genetic structure, Psychological factors involve the processes involved in our mental processing such as our beliefs, emotions and ways of thinking. Social factors are the environmental effects surrounding the individual including our skills at interacting with others, the quality of our interpersonal relationships, and the type of support available from others when needed.

The biological factors in sufferers of posttraumatic stress disorder are few, however there is a higher chance of experiencing the disorder when family members have suffered from it, indication that there could be a genetic factor involved in the contracting of posttraumatic stress disorder.

The psychological factors such as a person’s ability to cope with stress have an influence on PTSD is greatly affected when someone is suffering from the disorder. If a person with low self-esteem is involved in a traumatic event where they are treated as worthless, they are more likely to suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder because of that event.

Social factors surrounding PTSD are the main cause of the disorder. A traumatic event is more likely to cause posttraumatic stress disorder if an individual in in an environment where they feel unsafe (e.g. war zone) The symptoms of PTSD are more likely to affect an individual when they are in an environment where there is a high exposure to stressors or risks of violence.

PTSD is caused by a traumatic event being experienced or witnessed, but many environmental factors perpetuate that fear that caused the first symptoms. One of the most common symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder is the removal of oneself from situations that remind them of the event or memories of the event.

There are any treatment options available for those suffering from PTSD, the most effective being talking therapy and animal assisted therapy

Abstract from an article posted on the 21st May 2016 summarises that animal assisted therapy has had significant results in PTSD sufferers. In one study of the effect of dogs with patients, psychologists noted an 82% reduction in symptoms.

Psychological treatment (talking therapy) is what people usually think of when people say therapy, it involves working through memories of the trauma, modifying unhelpful beliefs and thoughts, and gradual exposure to triggers which are being avoided. This has been found to be the most effective treatment for people suffering from PTSD

Antidepressant medication can also be effective for posttraumatic stress disorder and may be recommended if symptoms are not resolved using psychological treatment. they can reduce anxiety, fear, depression and anger and if there are no other options are useful to aiding those suffering from PTSD

There are many individual support networks for PTSD sufferers and their families; online chat rooms and groups who meet weekly or monthly are available all over the world to those who seek them out.

So there you go! 

attackonblackmagic  asked:

Can I have a one shot of Eren being a fangirl and Levi being a famous singer?

Don`t sleep with groupies, that was always Levi`s rule, one that was never hard to follow. Until now.

Of course out of all the unattractive, but still very much appreciated, fans he had, it had to be this one, this babe who was the one he was meeting. Backstage, total privacy and all the time in the world. 

And this kid didn`t even realize he was being eaten alive by gunmetal eyes, instead he was gushing over how much he adored No Name`s latest album, and that he was just their biggest fan!

“It`s just such an honor! You`ve always been my favorite!” The brunet squealed, fuck Levi loved brunets. No, stop, bad.

“Right, thanks…”


“Eren. You`re a sweetheart, thanks for the support.” Shit, he was flirting, he wasn`t trying to flirt, fuck his natural charm.

The boy giggled, squirming cutely in his seat. “Thank you, Levi.” He said coyly.

“Heh, gotta ask though, why you`ve got on something like that, in January.” Levi inquired, and it was honestly valid! Not an excuse to sneak a less than discreet peek at his fan`s revealing outfit.

No Name T-shirt that was cropped by hand, black shorts that were verging on indecent exposure charges and high heels that would have screamed hooker on anyone who wasn`t this kid. Eren batted his eyes at him sweetly,

“Well, my mama always told me to dress to impress.” The brunet purred, “So… Are you impressed yet?”



“What if I am?” Levi purred back, his brain screaming at him.

“Then maybe you should take a closer look.” Shit, that pout was going to kill him.

But, he still had self control.

“I don`t do fans.” He said, almost sadly. Eren just laughed again,

“Who said you were going to do me?”

Well then, that changes everything.

so pray to god for a lil' more spring - Chapter 1 - eternalsession - RWBY [Archive of Our Own]
An Archive of Our Own, a project of the Organization for Transformative Works
By Organization for Transformative Works

Relationships: Jaune Arc/Pyrrha Nikos

She smelled of maple leaves and cinnamon. Her voice was the autumn breeze, cold enough to bite, but a welcome change. Her touch felt like putting on a sweater, sitting near a fireplace. Her eyes were radiant, and they were brilliant, an unbreakable emerald whose shine challenged the very sun.

He smelled of cherry blossoms in bloom and mint. His voice was the spring breeze, banishing the cold winter wind, but not hot enough to burn. His touch felt like the feeling of the wind on her skin, like taking a swim in a small lake. His eyes were filled with determination and ambition, a perfect sapphire.