exposed structures

The Extreme World of Deep Sea Cephalopods

Although it is the home of approximately 98% of the ocean’s species, the deep sea is a frontier yet to be explored by natural scientists. Of the estimated 500.000 to 10 million species living on or above the seafloor, new species are discovered and described by marine biologists every year. Being one of the biggest and most extreme environments on Earth, the deep sea’s biodiversity is enormous in both species of prey and predators. From demonic red octopi to gigantic squid wrestling with sperm whales, the most interesting group of marine predators would be the deep sea’s cephalopods.

The biggest problem living as a squid at 5000 meters depth is the pitch black environment you have to hunt in. A great variety of cephalopods have adapted to their surroundings in the most extreme ways. One of the easiest feeding strategies is what we call “passive hunting”, and one of the more scary-looking squid known to science – the genus Magnapinna – uses this technique in the most bizarre way. Known commonly as Bigfin squid, or Long-armed squid, this group is known for its irregular big fin-size and extremely long arms. Although previously only known from caught juveniles, in 2007 an eerie video was made by a research facility in the Gulf of Mexico. What they saw was a 8 meters-long adult squid, floating around in the abyss.

Magnapinna sp.

Another more obvious feeding strategy is active hunting: squid are known to chase and ambush their prey using their intelligence and extremely complicated eyes. While we know that the eyes of squid are highly adapted and look similar to those of a mammal, there’s one species that takes it a step further. The so-called strawberry squid (Histioteuthis heteropsis) gets its name from the strawberry-like appearance of its skin. The light-producing speckles, or photophores, are supposed to confuse predators. What’s more interesting however, is the fact that it has one “normal” eye and one big green eye. It is believed that the smaller eye detects bioluminescence generated from potential prey, while the other eye watches the sky and filters faint light from above.

Histioteuthis heteropsis

While the strawberry squid tries to confuse its own predators, sometimes the best defense is simply being bigger than the predator. Some squid have evolved to be gigantic, take for example the Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas) from the gulf of Mexico. The human sized squid are known to be hostile towards divers and even hunt in packs – sometimes referred to as “a squad of squid”. An even bigger squid can be found in the deep: the Giant and Colossal squid (genus Architeuthis and Mesonychoteuthis) are known to reach sizes over 10 meters. There is only one animal capable of fighting a gigantic squid: the 16-meter long Sperm whale. Although never observed by biologists, evidence of squid-whale battles can be found on stranded whales. Circular marks, believed to be caused by the suckers of the squid, cover the hide of several found Sperm whales.

Lastly, there’s one group of cephalopods often overlooked by the general public. Having the creepiest name from the deep sea, the Vampire squid is one of the most interesting organisms on Earth. Its Latin name Vampyroteuthis infernalis literally means “vampiric squid from hell”, but its name is scarier than the animal itself. The Vampire squid feeds on the so-called deep sea snow: flakes of waste material that slowly falls to the ocean floor. It uses a long thread-like appendage to collect the snow and brings it to its mouth.

Thought to be the common ancestor of both squid and octopi, the bright red molluscs share a lot of characters with the other cephalopods. There are however some differences. When threatened, Vampire squids cannot simply swim away. Instead, they use an unique arsenal of defensive strategies. The filaments between their tentacles can be used to protect their soft bodies, exposing spiny structures on the inside of the tentacles. In addition, Vampire squid have no ink-sacs like other lineages, but can emit fluorescent fluids to scare predators away.

Vampyroteuthis infernalis

There’s a lot we still don’t know about the deep sea and its inhabitants, but every day new species are being discovered by marine biologists. We don’t have to look for other planets to find aliens, the weirdest organisms can be found below the waves, waiting for us.

Hi I’m Werner, master student and invertebrate enthusiast. Most information was found through the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute: if you’re interested in deep sea stuff like me, check out their site.


The Dark knight (2008) // Person of Interest (2011–2016)

anonymous asked:

Do you know how to tell the difference between citrine and treated amethyst?

That I do! 

Most of it has to do with color. Natural citrine is usually pale, smoky, greenish yellow and has even color distribution like so: 

Natural citrine can be an orangey shade, but it is a very rare occurrence because it requires such great heat to achieve the orange shade in the stone that just isn’t found in nature very often. Natural citrine is created when aluminum and lithium trapped inside the crystal structure are exposed to naturally occurring radiation and heat. A natural piece should be very clear with minimal inclusions. Also, take note of the shape. Natural citrine will typically have long parallel sides or sides with a gradual taper as shown above. Typically, natural citrine will go for high prices and be a bit more difficult to find on the market. 

Heat-treated amethyst will be a garish orangey-yellow with uneven color distribution, like so: 

In addition to off coloring, heat treated amethyst will often have a “dogtooth” or diamond shape because it has been broken off of a larger amethyst druzy matrix to sell. Also, because it has been exposed to high temperatures very rapidly, heat treated amethyst is often brittle because of internal fractures that form during the treatment. Natural citrine will not have all of the sparkly little inclusions and fascets that the piece above has because of gradual heating. Not that natural citrine can’t have inclusions, but they are much more rare and they will not form in such a way that the crystal looks cloudy and white like the piece above. 

It is arguable whether or not natural citrine and heat treated amethyst hold the same properties despite the nearly identical molecular structure of the crystals. I do not personally believe so simply because of the processes each go through, but it is up to each user to decide that. 

Hope this helps!

Southampton Water fish trap dated to Saxon times

A timber fishing trap exposed on the Hampshire coast dates back to Saxon times, it has been confirmed.

The weir, built as a permanent wooden structure to catch fish as the tide ebbed, was found by chance on the shore of Southampton Water in 2005.
Radiocarbon dating has shown it was built in the 8th or 9th centuries.
Experts from Exeter University said the results were “thrilling” and provided new insights into the process of coastal erosion in the area.

The 70m-long (500ft) structure was found by chance close to the Fawley oil refinery by archaeology students more than 10 years ago.

Tests showed the structure was built between 680AD and 896AD.

Marine archaeologist Dr John Cooper said the discovery has allowed historians to map changes to the shoreline over 1,000 years as it was covered by advancing saltmarsh which later retreated, gradually exposing the structure over the past century. Read more.

Please Stay

Author: Nat / @idontgiveaflyinggrayson69

Requested: Yes - @stellarbee

Tagging: @claireisbetterthandom

Fandom: Thor

Relationship: Pre-Established; Thor x Valkyrie

Summary: Thor asks Valkyrie to stay on Asgard after defeating Hela.

Word Count: 874


Disclaimer: This ignores the ending of the film!

Comments: I ship this more than I ship Loki x Valkyrie tbh, but I’ll write Loki x Valkyrie if anyone wants it!

Originally posted by theavengers


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Party girl-Justin Bieber imagine (mature)

Justin meets Y/N at a party.

Y/N POV-  

“Y/N, Y/N!” the loud chants of my name can be heard throughout the room, above the loud music. I decided to let loose and go to my best friend’s brother’s birthday party. Tessa, whom i’ve known for over 5 years, assisted we went to her older brother’s 21st birthday party, saying it was party ‘we could not miss.’ 

I continue to move hips to the beat, dirty dancing on the kitchen counter top, not giving a care who was filming. I move my hips, shaking my ass to the fast beats, my mini shorts clinging tight to my curves. After my 5th shot of the stinging vodka, I went crazy, my mind not stable to think anymore. I close my eyes, feeling the hype run down my body, I continue to dance, raising my arms in the air. I open my hazy eyes, glancing down at the crowd. I spot a cute boy. He wore a tank top, that exposed his perfect structured arms that I wanted to touch so badly. 

He focused on me, his eyes staring looking up at me as he leans down to sip from the red cup in his hand. I stand there, lost and dazed from my dancing. I couldn’t focus anymore. 

“Y/N, that was so good!” I hear Tessa cheer from below. I jump down the counter top. 

“I got it all on video!” She continues to cheer for me, telling me how good my dancing skills were. 

I nod lazily, my mind on able to comprehend what she was saying, her words going straight through my left ear and out of my right. I feel unable to stand up, my legs suddenly feeling weak, as if any moment i’ll collapse. I clutch onto Tessa’s shoulder, leaning my weight onto her. She quickly notices something wrong. She turns her attention to me, holding me with two arms, slowing walking me into a quiet corner. 

My mind begins to fuzz, a blur suddenly taking over my vision.  Out of the blue, my eyes began to spin, the blur slightly easing my sight. I look around, confusion striking me. I didn’t know where I was. 

The bed sheets were soft, white and thick. The room, oddly tidy, clean and crisp, not an object out of place. A slightly familiar scent floats around the room, a woody earthy but warm and slightly rosey scent, travels to my scenes. The scent smelt so nice and welcoming. 

“Y/N” A deep voice, still and captivating rang in my ears, signaling my head to turn to its direction. 

I see him standing there, with the same red cup and with a hand in his pockets. He looks handsome as ever, his hair brown and soft, making me want to run my fingers through it, his smirk so confident making me suddenly fall into a nervous pit. 

“Uh,” I awkwardly begin, “What am I doing here?” 

“Well, I saw the way you looked at me the entire night” He replies with a half grin, “and the way you move your body is a sight to see.” 

He begins to walk closer to me, moving closer to the side of the bed. The insides of my body starts to tear apart, struggling to breathe, my mind still boozed from the large amount of alcohol I consumed the last hour. I sit there, unable to move, my eyes large and scared for what’s about to happen. He sits his cup on the bed side table before climbing on the bed. He hovers above me, slipping off his expensive slide ons as he gazes into my eyes, his eyes raking over my face intensly. He closes his body around me, supporting himself with his left hand against the headboard. His face so close to mine, I could smell his scent starting to blur my vision.

My body falls apart under him, suddenly I forgot how to breathe. I hold in my breath, eyes wide as he leans beside my ear, “let’s have some fun.” 

His voice making me melt instantly, “What do you say baby?” 

My tongue suddenly ties in a knot, not being able to reply. He suddenly rubs his thumb inside my inner thighs, making me squirm under his body. I close my eyes, my body not responding anymore. I raise my hips at his touch, wanting more, wanting him to touch me further. 

“More,” I breathlessly moan. I didn’t even know his name but it was ridiculous how much I wanted him. I feel myself becoming wetter every second. He continues to tease me, lightly grazing his thumb in my inner thighs, close to where I wanted him to touch. I quickly unbuttoned my denim shorts, signaling him where I needed him most. I clutch the sheets at the side of me, waiting for him to feel me up. I notice his actions suddenly stopping. I open my eyes to see his brown eyes full of lust. My eyes lace in confusion. 

“You’re drunk Y/N, I don’t think I should go any further,” he spoke seriously. 

“Please, I need you,” I whine breathlessly as I grip his large wrist in a tight grip, wanting him to penetrate me already. 

“God, you’re making this so hard,” He groans. 

I stare at his face. Eyebrows creased and bottom lip taken between his teeth, looking as if he was trying to control himself. I lunge at him, kissing him forcefully, pouring out my lust and want into the kiss. He slides two fingers against my slick folds. I moan into the kiss before I quickly pull away from his lips, instantly forgetting how to breathe. I begin to let out little pants, breathless as he begins to rub against my core with his large fingers.

“You’re so wet,” He growls deeply. I shut my eyes, loving the way he was making me feel. 

“Moan Justin’s name babygirl,” he demands with a warning tone, his warm breath blowing directly in my left ear. His voice edging me closer, making me want to let go already. 

A boy I just meet only less than a couple of hours ago has his fingers between my legs. He had a dangerous look on his face the first time i laid eyes on him, already knowing that he was trouble. His arms, decorated with ink and perfectly displayed through his baggy basketball singlet. The way his eyes would follow, indicating me he wanted me right there and then. 

Suddenly he plunges two fingers into my heat, feeling myself stretch with his digits. I yelp at his rough actions, my eyes opening wide. 

“Say my name Y/N,” he demands once again. 

He roughly penetrates me at a fast pace making me go crazy, my body not able to take it any longer. I feel his digits rubbing intensely against my walls, the pleasure so overwhelming. I stare back at him with lazy eyes, my lips not being able to form a sentence anymore, my tongue tying itself in a knot. He gazes right back at me with an intense stare before quickly flicking his eyes down at his fingers disappearing into my heat. 

“Come on, baby,” He whispers as he leans in beside my ear, “Am i doing you good?”

He harshly tugs at my left thigh, forcing my legs apart. He continues to plunge his two fingers into my walls. The feeling in my lower stomach becoming so intensely sore, beginning to tighten up.

“Justi-n,” I whine, my voice sounding more high pitched than normal. 

I glance down to see his hand deep in my shorts, moving at a fast pace. I feel my stomach tighten to the max, the sudden buildup letting go. I shut my eyes close as I grip the sheets tightly, letting my orgasm wash over me. I peer open my eyes to see Justin’s pupils looking straight into my face. 

“I love it when you let go for me,” he says as he licks over his plump bottom lip, his eyes examining my after sex phase. 

He keeps his harsh stare as he brings his two fingers between his pink lips, that I wanted to kiss so badly. His fingers dripped with my juices. He cleans them up, taking his time before taking them out. The sight so memorising but also the feeling strangely hitting straight to my core.

I smile hazily at him, barely able to keep my eyes open. My eyes begin to drift off too sleep all to sudden for me. My presence finally giving up on me.

Justin POV-

She was breathtaking. I saw her when she first walked through that door. The way she would smile and greet the birthday boy with such an innocent smile. She came along with Tessa. She did look slightly lost, as if she did not really knowing her way around parties. But the way her hips would move made me think otherwise. 

The clothes she wore gave me more than enough skin to tease me, for my eyes to touch as her soft glowy skin shone when she danced. God she did look sexy. The way her body responded to my fingers made me instantly want to pleasure her to the max, to she show her what i’m really made of. But I knew I couldn’t continue it because of her drunken state and didn’t want her to wake up and regret it. 

The high pitched moans from her sweet lips and the noises she would make every time I thrusted my fingers into her made my mind go crazy. The feeling of her wet tight core clenching my fingers nearly made me want to flip her over and fuck her continuously with my shaft deep inside her heat. 

“Justin,” a voice awakes me from my daydream, “are you ok bro?” 

I shot open my eyes to realise Darren still next to me as we sat on the couch. 

“Sorry,” I mutter, stretching my arms from the back of my head and bringing them to rub my tired eyes. 

“what time is it?” I mumble, my mouth feeling a bit dry. 

The air seems almost dark, despite all of the lights still on. I spin my head around to find no one present, the crowd of teenagers all gone. The only thing left as a reminder of this lame ass party was the mess they left behind. The whole house looked like a pigsty, cups and rubbish thrown around. God, why did I even let Darren host his birthday party at my house. 

I raise my hands to roughly rub the sides of my head. A headache racing into the insides of my brain. The stinging making my head want to explode into a million of pieces. I groan angrily, the pain taking me by surprise. I force myself off the couch, slumping my way up the stairs to my room. Every step was a struggle. I finally push my way into my room. I hastily grab the pills off my bedside table, popping two in my mouth and swallowing once. The relief instantly taking over me, calming my state. 

My eyes spot a red cup from last night. My eyes linger on the cup for a moment. The flashbacks of last night hitting me straight in the face like a bullet train. The moments so vividly clear, almost knocking me off my feet. 

I sit back onto the perfectly made bed. Y/N was here, it wasn’t a dream.

This is the exposed vascular structure of an oak tree. A lovely matrix of spiraling vessels that transport water from the roots to the rest of the tree. This tree is forming a scar that will eventually seal this spot back up. Oak trees are hardy, and can last many years with large cavities and scars. They become more and more gnarled and asymmetrical with age, which only adds to their beauty. -Spores&More

End Game Bonus Drabbles

I couldn’t possibly resist writing something for the @txf-fic-chicks Post-Ep/Missing Scenes Challenge. ;) So here is a small collection of drabbles from End Game.

“He’s going to make it.”


He crashes twice more before they finally get him anywhere close to stabilized. Hypothermia and the retrovirus have mounted a two-front attack; staying ahead of both threats is nearly impossible.


Every time the other doctor wants to throw in the towel, she is right there to push back, to demand another intervention. He’s well within his rights to file a complaint about her when all is said and done, but she couldn’t care less. She will never stop fighting for Mulder.

“We’ve got a stable sinus rhythm,” a nurse says at last.

Blowing out a weary breath, Scully nods.


“He’s going to make it” becomes a mantra, or maybe a prayer. Probably both.

Blood thinners and antiviral medications can only help so much; he needs at least one complete transfusion, possibly several. She wouldn’t hesitate to open her own veins for him if only their blood types matched.

(He’s O-negative. If their circumstances were reversed, he could donate to her, but she can’t return the favor. It doesn’t seem fair.)

She watches the drip of the IV bag, listens to the steady wheeze and flow of the respirator. She can’t remember how long it’s been since she last slept.


“I really didn’t think he would make it,” the doctor says, and Scully bites her tongue.

He flips through Mulder’s chart and shakes his head. “We got the cell cultures back on his bloodwork. The lab could not identify the viral agent your partner was exposed to. Its structure and function are unlike anything we have ever seen.”

She’s too tired to say, “I told you so,” and simply nods.

“When he does eventually wake up, he’ll have you to thank for it.” He addresses the clipboard, doesn’t meet her eyes. “He would absolutely have died if not for you.”


“I hear he’s going to make it after all,” Skinner says when he calls.

“Yes, sir. He’s responding well to the course of treatment, and he should be breathing on his own again within a day or so.”

“That’s good to hear. He’s got plenty to answer for.”

Scully has no difficulty imagining the scowl undoubtedly on his face right now. She also knows that despite his gruffness, their boss is just as glad as she is that Mulder’s going to be okay.

“Sir, as soon as he’s in any condition to provide those answers, I’ll be first in line.”


He’s still not out of the woods, so to speak, but the day they take him off artificial ventilation, Scully breathes a sigh of relief; he’s made it.

She hasn’t slept more than a couple hours at a time since she got to Alaska, power naps on the doctors’ lounge sofa. After half a day of steady vitals, she’s finally willing to leave Mulder’s side long enough to sleep for real.

“Come wake me if there are any changes to his condition, especially if he regains consciousness.” She repeats the instruction to three different staff members, just to be sure.

Homes: Former Potato Barns Converted By Houben & Van Mierlo Architecten
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Former Potato Barns Converted By Houben & Van Mierlo Architecten

Houben & Van Mierlo Architecten has transformed a pair of former barns in Amsterdam into residences that combine original features with nods to their industrial past.

The two neighbouring buildings are located in Amsterdam Noord – an upcoming neighbourhood to the north of the IJ river.

Eindhoven-based Houben & Van Mierlo Architecten was asked to create two modern homes – including one for photographers Maurice Scheltens and Liesbeth Abbenes, who requested a studio space in their property.

The buildings are both from different periods, and were constructed using different methods.

The first was erected around the time of the second world war using a hybrid construction, while the second dates from the 1960s and features a steel frame, wooden floors and a concrete facade.

Several extensions added during the intervening years were removed and the buildings were stripped back to their basic shells at the beginning of the renovation process.

The architects chose to maintain the resulting open-plan rooms. They adapted them to accommodate loft-like living and working spaces featuring high, exposed ceilings.

Materials introduced for structural, technical or aesthetic purposes are chosen to complement the industrial feel of the interiors.

Black steel columns and beams brace the walls and support upper storeys slotted in beneath the pitched roofs. Whitewashed brick walls and exposed venting add to the raw aesthetic.

The photographic studio created for Scheltens and Abbenes has double-height ceilings, plus clerestory windows providing natural light.

The dramatic space also features an exposed pitched roof and is overlooked by a window set in the wall of the master bedroom on the first floor.

Next to the studio, an office is housed in a single-storey flat-roofed volume between the two buildings. The other half of this structure contains a dining area connected to the open-plan kitchen and living room.

A corner between the lounge and dining space contains large glass surfaces, with integrated doors leading out onto a terrace and the garden beyond.

A guest room situated off the main living space features a tiled wash area and glazed doors that open onto a small patio.

Much of the furniture, lighting, hardware, paint finishes and wall tiles in the photographers’ home was provided by companies the duo has collaborated with, including Farrow & Ball, Scholten & Baijings and Muller Van Severen.

Source: Dezeen

In short, the family is the best way to advance capitalism, as the
base unit through which capitalism distributes benefits. Through our reliance on the marital family structure, emphasized and valorized by the push for gay marriage, we allow the state to mandate that only some relationships and some forms of social networks count. If you are married, you get health care. If you are not, go and die on your sad and lonely deathbed by yourself; even the state will not take care of you. If you are married, you get to be the good immigrant and bring over your immediate and extended family to set up a family business and send your children to the best schools after years of perseverance and hard work (at least theoretically). If you are not, you can be deported and imprisoned at the slightest infraction and not one of the kinship networks that you are a part of will count in the eyes of the state. In other words, a queer radical critique of the family is not simply the celebration of an outsider status, although it is often that, but an economic critique. A queer radical critique of gay marriage exposes how capitalism structures our notion of “family” and the privatization of the social relationships we depend on to survive.
—  Yasmin Nair, Against Equality, Against Marriage
Don’t Burn the Coffee - Ch. 3

Originally posted by meanyoongis

It was just going to be one of those days…until Suga walked in. 

Chapter 1 | Chapter 2 | Chapter 3

Word Count: 2,289

“Sorry, one second, I have to send an email,” I say, pulling out my phone as I remember I haven’t contacted work. A wave of panic hits me, and I put it aside as I send the message, letting people know I’m sick and can’t come in but they should let me know if they need anything if I can do it from home. Apology, apology. Send.

I look up at Suga. He’s been staring, at my phone I suppose, and now he looks at my eyes and holds his gaze there, turning his body to follow his line of sight as he leans against the wall by the elevators.

“You get this face,” he says, tilting his head.

“Wait, what? What face?”

He smiles slightly. “When you’re nervous or anxious or thinking hard. It’s like a wide-eyed scowl.”

“Oh, well, that sounds terrifying.”

His chuckle shakes his shoulders as he smiles, looking at the ground and then raising his eyes back to look at me. “It’s not terrifying, it’s funny. And cute.”

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ask-ridley  asked:


Nightmare is actually a very vulnerable creature, which is why it has to stay firmly locked inside its suit. There’s only one Nightmare because all of the others died at some point during development, and the surviving one has a melting face in Fusion because it’s body is barely hanging together. Even the X infecting it struggle to maintain structure. If exposed to the environment, it is infected by environmental microbes pretty quickly, and can’t effectively fight them off.

Nightmare is pretty intelligent, comparable to an ape or dolphin. It is paranoid by design, however, and must be contained carefully because it perceives almost anything that moves as a threat. It totally destroyed several of the BSL station’s BOX robots after it broke out, not even leaving anything for the X to infect. The damage it took from the BOXes created an opening in its suit which allowed the X to infect it instead. BOX number 5 lived a little longer because it went after Samus Aran instead.