experts say yes

anonymous asked:

did t. rex's have feathers? i've been getting conflicting answers

I hate to have to tell you this, but the reason you are getting conflicting answers is because the answer itself is unresolved. But never fear, my friend, you came to the right place! I will gladly muddy the situation further by explaining why. No, no, don’t thank me. I am here to serve.

The main problem is that so far no large, fossilized skin impressions attributed to T. rex have been discovered, which is why we can’t say for certain if they were or were not covered in scales, feathers, or some ungodly mix of both.

Without direct evidence, reconstructions of T. rex are forced to rely on skin impressions and fossils from other dinosaurs, with the likelihood of similarities being based on how closely they’re related; whether or not the species is an ancestor or descendant of the tyrannosauroids; whether they are the same size, same environment, same niche… you get the idea. It’s complicated.

And we do have many skin impressions of dinosaurs that were definitively scaly. Stegosaurs, allosaurs, ankylosaurs and many other species have had soft tissue impressions found, all with scales. It is not completely unreasonable to say that T. rex could also have been entirely scaled.

Of course, this is all without taking into account Dilong and Yutyrannus. Dilong was a small, basal tyrannosaur - an ancestor to T. rex - and in 2004 a fossil was discovered with preserved filamentous protofeathers.

Then, in 2012, Yutyrannus huali was discovered, a tyrannosaur from the Early Cretaceous with definitive impressions of feathers. Also, much closer T. rex in both size and time.

At this point, even without significant soft tissue impressions from T. rex itself, it is becoming increasingly unlikely that T. rex was entirely scaled. It is surrounded on all sides, evolutionarily speaking, with feathery species of theropods. It is still possible, of course, since the feathers of its ancestors could have secondarily lost for any number of very valid reasons, but it is just as possible, if not more so, that it would have been covered in some kind of feathery integument.

Anyway, I hope this cleared absolutely nothing up for you, as it has for me. You’re welcome.

This is just a little something we’re experimenting with at the Museum of English Rural Life. We have a lot of fat cow paintings and few ways of interpreting them, but we’re thinking this may be one of many ways forward.

(and before any cow experts say anything, yes we know this is a bull and wouldn’t have been slaughtered for meat. We’re working on finding a nice bullock!)

The Wall Street Journal Article!

For those of you who maybe don’t follow Misophonia pages on Twitter or Facebook, you may have missed this article written by Elizabeth Bernstein for The Wall Street Journal. Unfortunately this is yet another case of people with misophonia being poorly represented in the media.

They say any publicity is good publicity, and sometimes this may be true. Unfortunately Bernstein’s article has caused quite the upset on Facebook and Twitter. Unfortunately, whenever confronted about her article or the research that went into it, we are met with this result:

Currently she is blocking or ignoring everyone who makes a comment publicly regarding her article. Although the entire tone of the article seems ignorant and facetious, not all of the offensive comments come from Bernstein herself. Some of the negative comments are also coming from Monica Wu, a clinical psychology graduate student who supposedly did a study on Misophonia in 2014. From researching the study, my own personal impression is that her quotes in the article have nothing to do with the actual results of the study, but rather come from her own misinformed opinion. 

The tone of her comments in the article come across as offensive and ignorant, whether they were meant to come across that way or not. Here are quotes from the article that I personally find the most offensive. 


If you can’t stand the sound of someone’s chewing, does that person need to close his or her mouth? Or do you? Experts say you do. Yes, some people have bad manners. But you can’t make everyone else change the way they eat just because it bothers you. What Experts? Who are you quoting? I find it difficult to believe that an “expert” on any subject revolving around mental health would say something sounding so arrogant.

The experts are clear: The person who is annoyed by the sounds is the one who needs to change and learn coping skills. If others accommodate you by changing the way they eat, they are only enabling you.You don’t think we try to learn coping skills? We spend our entire lives after getting misophonia developing coping skills. And by “enabling” do you mean “supporting” ?

It is never a good idea to tell someone else their chewing is bugging you.Because lying to everyone you care about it obviously the best way to handle misophonia instead of being open and honest with people and gaining their respect. Trust me, lying and staying silent doesn’t work out for you in the long run. 

Don’t run away. You should avoid “temporary Band-Aids,” says Ms. Wu, of the University of South Florida. If you always put on headphones or move to another room, you aren’t fully participating in the relationship. The idea is to learn to tolerate the symptoms.So when someone afflicted with misophonia is literally digging their own nails into their skin to stop from screaming or physically attacking the person triggering them it’s not okay to leave the room and calm down? Sounds perfectly logical to me. In addition, studies have proven that un-controlled exposure makes symptoms worse.

Tell yourself that it isn’t the other person’s fault. And that you want to be able to eat with your loved one, she says.Well that would be all fine and dandy if hearing a trigger didn’t immediately set off a fight or flight panic response in the body that makes it very difficult to think or focus on anything other than the effect the trigger has on you. Thanks for the advice! 


All of these comments, mixed with the general tone of the article come off as offensive, rude, and ignorant towards sufferers of misophonia. Unfortunately we may never know whether the article was meant to come across this way, or if it was simply distasteful writing. Bernstein blocks and ignores everyone attempting to learn more about the article or where she got her information. 

The key here is to spread truthful, informative, and empathetic information about misophonia to the general public so we can be better represented and understood instead of an article like this. I’m very sorry to see articles like this popping up. One would think that people are more empathetic and aware of their own ridiculously misinformed statements in 2015. 

For anybody wanting to get in contact with Elizabeth Bernstein, her email is:

You may also contact the Wall Street Journal or leave a comment directly on their website. We can’t keep letting things like this happen and get swept under the rug. It seems that whenever a major media outlet bashes misophonia or presents misinformation we never get an apology. If we don’t spread the truth about misophonia and stand up for ourselves, who will?

did u guys kno that sirius gets a tattoo of a moon that waxes and wanes with the real moon, its incredible, he loves his bf and wants to keep an eye on him, also that’s just a sick aesthetic choice, nice work

also it ends up being a way for him to track the passage of time in azkaban which helped him out a bunch probably.. anyways this is Canon