Our Juno spacecraft has just released some exciting new science from its first close flyby of Jupiter!
In case you don’t know, the Juno spacecraft entered orbit around the gas giant on July 4, 2016…about a year ago. Since then, it has been collecting data and images from this unique vantage point.
Juno is in a polar orbit around Jupiter, which means that the majority of each orbit is spent well away from the gas giant. But once every 53 days its trajectory approaches Jupiter from above its north pole, where it begins a close two-hour transit flying north to south with its eight science instruments collecting data and its JunoCam camera snapping pictures.
Space Fact: The download of six megabytes of data collected during the two-hour transit can take one-and-a-half days!
Juno and her cloud-piercing science instruments are helping us get a better understanding of the processes happening on Jupiter. These new results portray the planet as a complex, gigantic, turbulent world that we still need to study and unravel its mysteries.
So what did this first science flyby tell us? Let’s break it down…
1. Tumultuous Cyclones
Juno’s imager, JunoCam, has showed us that both of Jupiter’s poles are covered in tumultuous cyclones and anticyclone storms, densely clustered and rubbing together. Some of these storms as large as Earth!
These storms are still puzzling. We’re still not exactly sure how they formed or how they interact with each other. Future close flybys will help us better understand these mysterious cyclones.
Seen above, waves of clouds (at 37.8 degrees latitude) dominate this three-dimensional Jovian cloudscape. JunoCam obtained this enhanced-color picture on May 19, 2017, at 5:50 UTC from an altitude of 5,500 miles (8,900 kilometers). Details as small as 4 miles (6 kilometers) across can be identified in this image.
An even closer view of the same image shows small bright high clouds that are about 16 miles (25 kilometers) across and in some areas appear to form “squall lines” (a narrow band of high winds and storms associated with a cold front). On Jupiter, clouds this high are almost certainly comprised of water and/or ammonia ice.
2. Jupiter’s Atmosphere
Juno’s Microwave Radiometer is an instrument that samples the thermal microwave radiation from Jupiter’s atmosphere from the tops of the ammonia clouds to deep within its atmosphere.
Data from this instrument suggest that the ammonia is quite variable and continues to increase as far down as we can see with MWR, which is a few hundred kilometers. In the cut-out image below, orange signifies high ammonia abundance and blue signifies low ammonia abundance. Jupiter appears to have a band around its equator high in ammonia abundance, with a column shown in orange.
Why does this ammonia matter? Well, ammonia is a good tracer of other relatively rare gases and fluids in the atmosphere…like water. Understanding the relative abundances of these materials helps us have a better idea of how and when Jupiter formed in the early solar system.
This instrument has also given us more information about Jupiter’s iconic belts and zones. Data suggest that the belt near Jupiter’s equator penetrates all the way down, while the belts and zones at other latitudes seem to evolve to other structures.
3. Stronger-Than-Expected Magnetic Field
Prior to Juno, it was known that Jupiter had the most intense magnetic field in the solar system…but measurements from Juno’s magnetometer investigation (MAG) indicate that the gas giant’s magnetic field is even stronger than models expected, and more irregular in shape.
At 7.766 Gauss, it is about 10 times stronger than the strongest magnetic field found on Earth! What is Gauss? Magnetic field strengths are measured in units called Gauss or Teslas. A magnetic field with a strength of 10,000 Gauss also has a strength of 1 Tesla.
Juno is giving us a unique view of the magnetic field close to Jupiter that we’ve never had before. For example, data from the spacecraft (displayed in the graphic above) suggests that the planet’s magnetic field is “lumpy”, meaning its stronger in some places and weaker in others. This uneven distribution suggests that the field might be generated by dynamo action (where the motion of electrically conducting fluid creates a self-sustaining magnetic field) closer to the surface, above the layer of metallic hydrogen. Juno’s orbital track is illustrated with the black curve.
4. Sounds of Jupiter
Juno also observed plasma wave signals from Jupiter’s ionosphere. This movie shows results from Juno’s radio wave detector that were recorded while it passed close to Jupiter. Waves in the plasma (the charged gas) in the upper atmosphere of Jupiter have different frequencies that depend on the types of ions present, and their densities.
Mapping out these ions in the jovian system helps us understand how the upper atmosphere works including the aurora. Beyond the visual representation of the data, the data have been made into sounds where the frequencies and playback speed have been shifted to be audible to human ears.
5. Jovian “Southern Lights”
The complexity and richness of Jupiter’s “southern lights” (also known as auroras) are on display in this animation of false-color maps from our Juno spacecraft. Auroras result when energetic electrons from the magnetosphere crash into the molecular hydrogen in the Jovian upper atmosphere. The data for this animation were obtained by Juno’s Ultraviolet Spectrograph.
During Juno’s next flyby on July 11, the spacecraft will fly directly over one of the most iconic features in the entire solar system – one that every school kid knows – Jupiter’s Great Red Spot! If anybody is going to get to the bottom of what is going on below those mammoth swirling crimson cloud tops, it’s Juno.
“Gigi Hadid wasn’t the most popular person at her own fashion show”
At Tommy Hilfiger and Gigi Hadid’s TommyNow show at London Fashion Week on Tuesday, one would have expected the top model and designer to have been the most popular person there. And though Hadid did get deserved attention for her impressive Rock Circus-themed designs and runway stomping, all eyes were on Park Chan-yeol, otherwise known as Chanyeol. Even Hilfiger himself wanted a picture with the superstar.
But who is he? A model? Social media star? British socialite? None of the above. The South Korean singer and rapper is a member of K-Pop royalty EXO. And he sat front-row at the show. Vogue even stated that Chanyeol wore Tommy best at the event, and the brand claimed that his attendance brought TommyNow to the “next level.”
It’s no surprise that he was at the show — the dapper dude is one of the more stylish members of his band, and the K-Pop scene in general. He can often be seen in oversize sweaters or hoodies, a trench coat and ripped jeans, or a Vetements bomber jacket — and the color of his hair frequently changes.
The brand, Chanyeol’s fans, and people who had no idea who he is are freaking out about his appearance at the show.
Construction crews are erecting eight looming prototypes of President Trump’s border wall in a remote section of the San Diego borderlands. Four are solid concrete; four are made of steel and concrete; one is topped with spikes. They all approach 30 feet in height. The cost is $20 million, which Congress had set aside in its current budget. Crews in yellow hardhats working with cranes and forklifts are expected to complete the models by the end of the month.
On Tuesday, the president tweeted, “BORDER WALL prototypes underway!” above pictures of the sand-colored barriers. Sector Chief Roy Villareal declines to predict the future of the prototypes, or whether they are, in fact, a model for a wall to be ultimately constructed somewhere along the southern frontier.
Otabek had never planned to go into fashion photography, but as fate would have it, he has an eye for camera angles that fashion magazines highly favor. Now he’s done this so many times that it’s second nature.
He already has his cameras and lenses set up behind him, the preliminary camera in hand. He focuses the lens on the lights, on the background, on the people milling about, on the clothing that hangs on the racks around. Snaps a few pictures here and there. He likes having images of the setting for himself, to remember where he was, how he’s progressing and where he’s going.
As he clicks through the photos, he pauses to zoom in on the fabric. A wide variety of tacky, overdone animal prints. He grimaces. He’s seen some bad fashion in his time in the industry, but this one is definitely high on the list of things he’d never wear. How could anyone look good wearing what looks like dead, dyed animal skin?
With a sigh, he lowers the camera. A door opens off to the right and he hears one of the managers ushering the model in. Otabek tilts his head backs and hopes for a model who will listen, who will take his non-verbal queues and cooperate. He’s not a talkative photographer and works better when the models understand that.
“If you’ll just head over to the–”
“I know where the fuck to go.”Otabek grits his teeth. Great. A model with an attitude. He doesn’t think this shoot with last.
~Stan sat on the cliff at the quarry, dangling his legs over the rock and tracing pictures in the dirt. His shoulders felt heavy with the weight of what had happened just a few months ago. He sniffled and allowed his mouth to hang open a little as he stared down at the water. His front teeth tingled uncomfortably from the cold, he dragged them over his chapped lips. When he heard a small bird chirp, his eyes watered and he had to blink a few times. ‘This is ridiculous’ he scolded himself. But he was a child, he couldn’t help but let tears flow.
He hiccuped and attempted to collect himself, sliding his body back to lean on a rock. Only his ankle dangled over the edge now. He could hear Richie’s voice from when they were little echoing in his mind. ‘You’re such a stick in the mud, like a parent.’ Richie had meant that to be an insult but Stan had enjoyed that because it made him feel like he was above that childishness that Richie was still in.
He was self sufficient and enjoyed being that mini adult in his friend group. He didn’t need anyone’s help because he was the one doing the helping. Whether that meant holding Richie back from making stupid comments, or thinking things through in a logical way most kids his age didn’t even know about. Stan pursed his lips and sat up straight.
He wished he could feel like that again but that damn clown was haunting him in just about ever corner of his mind. He almost expected the models to creep out of their frame every time he passed by a painting. The worst part of it all was that he couldn’t seem to just shake the issue off.If he was honest, it felt like he was being eaten up inside. And he knew he needed help, ‘Just ask somebody, it’s not that hard Stanley.’ He scowled to himself.He just needed to know how everyone else was moving on without seeing it play again whenever they closed their eyes.
But if he asked, they’d know he was killing himself over this and he did not want anyone knowing that. He was Stan The Man Uris, he didn’t need help.
Bill had plopped down next to him shortly after he’d started thinking about other things. He gave him a small smile and started to casually throw pebbles into the water. Stan observed, Bill looked much better than he used to. He supposed it had something to do with closure. He sucked in his breath and started throwing pebbles too. They silently started a competition of ‘who can throw the farthest.’
When Bill was cheering himself for his amazing throw, Stan watched the water ripple out and turned his head. “How are you so happy?” He blurted and Bill furrowed his brows.
“W-Well I just beat you-”
“No, no I mean. In general? After everything-?” Stan stopped himself, thinking better of reminding Bill of it all.
Bill cocked his head to the side. “We b-b-beat IT, I guess I’m s-still riding that wave.” Bill chuckled and threw another pebble. Stan watched the water ripple out again and thought of the rippling effect he was feeling from their victory in defeating the creature.
He just didn’t want to feel like this anymore. “Bill?”
Bill glanced up and scooted closer to reassure Stan that he was going to listen.
“I think…I think I need help. I’m not moving on so easily.” Stan cringed as he spoke, Bill’s face cast him concern. “Just…could you help me get my feet back on the ground because right now, I don’t feel like I can do it.” Stan lowered his head.
“Anyway I c-can Stanley. I get it, s-s-sometimes I have nightmares so bad I don’t know what to do.” Bill reached over and clasped their hands together. Stan scooted closer.
“I’ll be there, w-w-whenever you need me. It’s ok to ask for help.” Bill nodded, he knew Stan too well by now. Stan sudden;y didn’t feel much like talking and just laid his head on Bill’s shoulder and they threw more pebbles down into the water.
Bill kissed the top of his head and Stan felt a little better.
Look who’s back! 5/10 of my Kacchako cosplay series! This time it’s meihem!
This was a bit harder to do than the previous. Blizzard knows how to pack some crazy strong detail in their character design. Also anime characters tend to be simpler because of industry expectations. 3D models however, can have a ton of tiny nuances that you just can’t ignore. I couldn’t even start working on it until like 4 days ago because LIFE, but I’m back and I plan to finish this series soon!
Most people scrunch up their nose at the thought of this pairing and honestly, idfk you guys it snuck up on me! Kinda like Kacchako did, and the reactions to both of these ships in their respective fandoms tend to be full of drama lol. The fanart for Meihem is so good though *sobs* and I really like the idea of Mei not being scared or intimidated by Junkrat and basically telling him to fuck right off, and him having this very new desire to win her over and prove he’s not so bad. He’d be “going legit” as he’d say. Basically, I don’t think that first impressions should always be lasting ones :) I feel like they come from two different worlds and that should be considered. And I like the way the fandom writes their banter, and how Jamison learns compassion and loyalty while Mei learns to let loose and be a bit reckless sometimes. I believe in second chances and character growth on both sides, so pairs like this always intrigue me!