expanding bubble

A “matryoshka” in the interstellar medium

As if it were one of the known Russian dolls, a group of astronomers, led by researchers at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, (IAC) has found the first known case of three supernova remnants one inside the other. Using the programme BUBBLY, a method developed within the group for detecting huge expanding bubbles of gas in interstellar space, they were observing the galaxy M33 in our Local Group of galaxies and found example of a triple-bubble.

Credit: Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC)

One of the most striking things about snorkeling in the Galapagos was how loud it was underwater. There were hardly any boats nearby, but every time my ears dipped below the surface, I could hear a constant cacophony of sound. Some it came from waves against the sand, some of it was the sound of parrotfish nibbling on coral, but a lot of it was likely the work of a culprit I couldn’t see hidden in the sand: the pistol shrimp.

These small crustaceans hunt with an oversized claw capable of snapping shut at around 100 kph. When the two halves of the claw come together, they push out a high-speed jet of water. High velocity means low pressure - a low enough pressure, in fact, to drop nearby water below its vapor pressure, causing bubbles to form and expand. These cavitation bubbles collapse quickly under the hydrostatic pressure of the surrounding water, creating a distinctive pop that makes the pistol shrimp one of the loudest sea creatures around. (Image credit: BBC Earth Unplugged, source; research credit: M. Versluis et al.)

All week we’re celebrating the Galapagos Islands here on FYFD. Check out previous posts in the series here.

Recipe: Miner’s Treat

Description: This should keep your energy up. 

Game ingredients: Cave Carrot, Sugar, Milk

This recipe restores 125 energy and 56 health. It also gives a +3 Mining and +32 Magnetism bonus. It can be obtained after reaching Mining Level 3 and sells for 200g. 

Difficulty: Medium, about 2+ hours. Makes 7-8 lollipops, depending on size.

Disclaimer: I’ve made candy about once or twice before, a long time ago. I’m not overly skilled in candy-making, so please forgive my lack of experience. 

-2 cups white sugar
-½ cup corn syrup
-½ cup carrot juice or water
-¼ teaspoon cream of tartar
-Food colouring
-Flavouring-vanilla, mint, lemon, etc (optional)
-Margarine or butter
-Lollipop sticks

You will need a thermometer.
In a large saucepan, combine the sugar, corn syrup, water/carrot juice, and cream of tartar and stir well. The reason I put in carrot juice is because I like to try to follow the in-game ingredients as closely as possible. Milk is generally not used, but I figured I’d put in carrot juice for the Cave Carrot. 

Heat the mixture over high heat and place in the thermometer. You want it to reach 265°F, or 130°C. Even though there’s only about 3 cups worth of ingredients, the mixture will expand rapidly and bubble up, so you will need a large saucepan to contain it. 

Once the mixture has reached the required temperature, turn off the heat and pour the liquid into three or four separate bowls. Add your colours and flavours. I recommend about 1 teaspoon of colouring (I used more than that, so the colours are very bold) and ½ teaspoon of flavouring. If you’ve used carrot juice, the colours will be altered by the natural orange colour. 

Allow the candy to cool until it’s safe enough to handle, but still warm enough that it’s malleable. Before handling it, slather margarine all over your hands so the candy doesn’t stick to your skin. Take a large clump of the candy and knead it in your hands, stretching it and forming it continuously until it has a shiny sheen. Add more margarine to your hands as needed.

Next, you’ll need to turn the candy into “ropes”. Roll it between your hands and stretch it out, and then snip off pieces of the rope with scissors. The length of each rope piece is up to you, but I made mine between 6 and 7 inches. Place them on a greased cookie sheet and then repeat process with the other bowls.

Note: if you’re inexperienced like I am, it can take some time to knead and rope the candy. If one of your bowls of candy hardens during this time, microwave it for 10 seconds at a time, checking between each session. I made the mistake of putting one of the bowls in for a full minute, and re-boiling the mixture caused it to harden quickly and break off in pieces. You don’t want that. 

Once you’ve got all the candy into ropes, take one of each colour and coil them together, and then twist it tightly into a spiral. Push a lollipop stick into it, and then set it on the greased cookie sheet to dry. 

If your house is warm, you may find that you’ll have to put them in the fridge for a bit to fully set. 

A lot of the carrot flavour was cooked out during the boiling process, but if you’re like me and you’re not fond of carrot juice then I recommend using water and adding flavouring instead. Otherwise, the candy is sweet and vibrant, and the process (although kinda tedious) is pretty fun.


Happy. Happy?: Part 3

Originally posted by thearchitectwwe

Originally posted by prowrestlingnow

Part 2


@angelicvipbeauty @llowkeys @mimicthephoenix @fan-fiction-galore @ashleyvc88

@ilovesamizaynn @gelinas22 @helluvawriter @randyortonstattoos @hushothermuses

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Note: Thank you for the lovely messages and comments on this story! It seriously motivates me so much when I see that shit! So thank you for spreading the love! This part is where shit gets serious. It has been a slow burn so far but this chapter begins the angst train.

“Sweet love…”

“Love, ya gotta wake up now”

The sensation of Tyler moving pieces of my unruly hair out of my face caused me to slightly stir in my sleep. I could feel his hand moving from my hair to my left cheek as he started to caress it in a manner that made me feel like he was afraid I would break. However, it wasn’t until I felt his lips place a gentle kiss on my forehead that I started to open my eyes.

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June 12: Come Back, Be Here (Chapter One)

Title: Come Back, Be Here – Chapter One
Tags: Long distance relationship, getting together, fluff, angst,
Words: 1461
The five times Dan and Phil said goodbye in a train station, and the one time they didn’t.

Fun fact, I’ve been with my fiancé for 7 years, 5 of which (after uni) have been long distance. We exist on Skype calls and occasional visits. He is up north and I am down south. In 17 days we are closing the distance for good in our brand new house. My elation at that made me write this fic.

I’m going to post chapters of this each day for the rest of this week as it might be a bit longer than a simple one-shot.

FEDIJ Day: June 12

Previous Day | Masterlist of fics so far

[AO3 Link]

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physics in the 17th century: pretty neat how feathers and lead cannonballs fall to earth at the same speeds, right?

physics in the 19th century: we’re all made of atoms

physics in the 20th century: remember time? one of the things that literally defines the universe as we know it? it can go faster if you’re around something really fucking big. sorry if that disturbs you, would you like to come take a nice bath in the radium water?

physics in the 21st century: literally everything is just a disruption of quantum fields. mater is just fucked up energy. the force field that creates mass could just permanently changed out of nowhere and it would create an ever-expanding bubble that physically annihilates the rules of the universe as we know them. let’s smash the fundamental particles of the universe together at 75% of the speed of light underground in switzerland and see what happens.

A ‘matryoshka’ in the interstellar medium

As if it were one of the known Russian dolls, a group of astronomers, led by researchers at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, (IAC) has found the first known case of three supernova remnants one inside the other. Using the programme BUBBLY, a method developed within the group for detecting huge expanding bubbles of gas in interstellar space, they were observing the galaxy M33 in our Local Group of galaxies and found example of a triple-bubble. The results, which were published yesterday in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, help to understand the feedback phenomenon, a fundamental process of star formation and in the dissemination of metals produced in massive stars.

The group has been building up a data base of these superbubbles with observations of a number of galaxies and, using the very high resolution 2D spectrograph, GHaFaS (Galaxy Halpha Fabry-Perot System), on the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) of the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes (Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, La Palma), has been able to detect and measure these superbubbles, which range in size from a few light years to as big as a thousand light years across.

Superbubbles around large young star clusters are known to have a complex structure due to the effects of powerful stellar winds and supernova explosions of individual stars, whose separate bubbles may end up merging into a superbubble, but this is the first time that they, or any other observers, have found three concentric expanding supernova shells.

“This phenomenon -says John Beckman, one of the co-authors on the paper- allows to explore the interstellar medium in a unique way, we can measure how much matter there is in a shell, approximately a couple of hundred times the mass of the sun in each of the shells”. However, if it is known that a supernova expels only around ten times the mass of the sun, where do the second and third shells get their gas from if the first supernova sweeps up all the gas?

The answer to that must come from the surrounding gas and in the inhomogeneous interstellar medium. “It must be -says Artemi Camps Fariña, who is first author on the paper-, that the interstellar medium is not at all uniform, there must be dense clumps of gas, surrounded by space with gas at a much lower density. A supernova does not just sweep up gas, it evaporates the outsides of the clumps, leaving some dense gas behind which can make the second and the third shells”.

“The presence of the bubbles -adds Artemi- explains why star formation has been much slower than simple models of galaxy evolution predicted. These bubbles are part of a widespread feedback process in galaxy disc and if it were not for feedback, spiral galaxies would have very short lives, and our own existence would be improbable”, concludes. The idea of an inhomogeneous interstellar medium is not new, but the triple bubble gives a much clearer and quantitative view of the structure and the feedback process. The results will help theorists working on feedback to a better understanding of how this process works in all galaxy discs.

IronHawk (Part Seventeen)

Things are changing for our boys! Buckle up!

I combined two chapters into one long chapter again just to keep the plot flowing easily for you guys. I was originally going to post this chapter by chapter, but I think that makes it a little too choppy when you don’t get to read all the chapters at once, so hopefully nobody minds long updates lol

Catch up on Chapters 1-16 HERE

Enjoy :)

Clint woke up to Natasha sitting on his bed, cross legged, silently watching him.

“I feel like I’ve told you before how creepy this is.” He complained, rolling onto his back with a yawn.

“Mmm.” Natasha didn’t really reply, just continued sitting, hands folded non threateningly in her lap.

Clint sighed. “Come on then.” He held one arm and a wing out, making room on the bed and a quick smile flitted across her face before Natasha unfolded her frame, stretching out next to him, head on his bare chest.
Clint would never call the soft rumble coming from the other Alpha a purr, but Natasha was absolutely purring as she snuggled close.

Clint just closed his eyes again, more thankful for the physical contact than he would admit, and stroked a hand down her back.

It had been a long time since he’d woken up to Natasha wanting to sleep next to him. It had happened often in the beginning, after he had recruited her to SHIELD, when she was still fighting against the effects of her brainwashing, and needed someone else to keep her together. It had even happened once after she had first been assigned to Tony Stark by SHIELD. She had slipped into bed next to Clint and they had lay together all night. No questions asked, no answers needed.

Clint could barely see the outline of a bite mark that matched his teeth, there on the right side of her neck.
Once, back at the very beginning, Natasha had reverted back to her training, snapping from perfectly fine to almost completely feral, and had nearly killed two different SHIELD handlers, and tried her hardest to kill Clint before he had pinned her to the ground and bit her viciously.

While bonding bites were placed on the left, above the scent gland, he had bit her on the right side, growling low in his throat, demanding absolute obedience. Shocked into submission, Natasha had immediately stilled.

That had been the last time she had ever acted out with her handlers.

And the first night they ended up naked together, both fighting for dominance, nearly destroying his room in the process.

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There’s something wrong with that bubble though. When Bill first makes it, Mabel is surrounded in a flawless, perfect prison but he wraps it in chains

You don’t create a cage and wrap it in chains to keep things out, you do it to keep things in.

Not only that though, it looks like the bubble is cracking and Bill has added more chains as well as put the bubble where he can see it from the pyramid.

The purple is all Bill’s bubble but the pink glow is coming from Mabel in that first picture. So why are there cracks? Why are the lines so jagged now?

And why are Bill’s friends so afraid of someone messing with it?

8-Ball knows her by name. They call her “Mabel”, not shooting star, not that “kid” but Mabel even though the shooting star is stamped across the front so the whole world can see. 

They’re worried about Dipper (who they do call “Pine Tree”) messing with “her bubble”.

Gideon is tasked to protect it and Bill has so much faith that Gideon’s obsession with Mabel will never turn his “warden” against him (another bit of evidence of how human emotions will be Bill’s downfall).

The people of Gravity Falls can see it from their town and Mabel is displayed like a trophy. Villains only do this to their greatest adversaries but Bill doesn’t care about Dipper. 8-Ball and Teeth are told they can eat him.

The Shooting Star even looks like it’s been patched together by something, but why? Why does the bubble look like it’s breaking?

What if the chains are the only thing keeping the bubble together? What if something from the inside is trying to break free and the bubble is expanding and cracking like something about to burst because of that?

Mabel’s imagination is infinite. There’s nothing on the planet that contain it. 

Not even Bill.

And, by the way he’s acting, she’s his worst nightmare.