evolution mechanisms

Posting this week’s update early in celebration of Pokemon Day!  Happy Birthday @pokemon, and here’s to many more!  Here’s everybody’s favorite Pokemon poster child, Pikachu and its family~

Part of the reason I chose to do the Johto regional Pokedex is because the Johto Pokemon are pretty inseparable from the Kanto Pokemon.  The Johto region brought new pre-evolutions (along with breeding mechanics) as well as new evolutions (with new evolutionary stones, day/night mechanics etc.).  It’s why in my opinion Johto felt so fresh while also refreshing some old Pokemon.

Also I’m a big fan of how chubby and cute some Pokemon were in their old GBC sprites that have been slimmed-down and stream-lined in recent years.  Raichu and Pikachu used to be such fat little beans and I’ll always have a soft spot for their original pudgy designs.

If you want to see more Pokemon, check out my Johtodex tag!

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The Strandbeest: Art and Engineering.

Created by Dutch artist Theo Jansen, the Strandbeest is created by rudimentary objects such as PVC piping, wood and sails and contains no electrical or motorised parts; it is instead powered by the wind. 

The Strandbeest has steadily evolved into more complex working structures. Some even having the ability to store wind power in the absence of a breeze, being able to nail pins into the sand when wind power becomes too great, and even sensing when they have entered the water or encountered an object so they can then avoid the obstruction. 

Theo Jansen is ever improving and changing these creatures, and does have a final plan for them saying: “over time, these skeletons have become increasingly better at surviving the elements such as storms and water, and eventually I want to put these animals out in herds on the beaches, so they will live their own lives”.

(Youtube)

Mirroring flowers, from bees to genes

If asked to draw a flower, most people will draw a simple flower with a round centre and a few petals, but bilateral symmetric flower would be rare. The so-called zygomorphic flowers can be found in a lot of different plant groups, but are still understudied. Botanists and evolutionary biologists wanted to figure out what might be the reason plants have evolved to grow mirroring flowers and what genes might play a role in this process. This is a study of botanical evolution and development at its finest.

In extant plants we find zygomorphic flowers predominantly in the families of the legumes (Fabaceae), mints and allies (Lamiaceae) and the most stunning examples in the orchids (Orchidaceae). Opinions on why these plants have evolved to have such interesting flowers might differ from scientist to scientist, so let’s focus on the most accepted idea. First of all it’s worth mentioning that the first flowering plants in prehistoric times were actinomorphic (so radial symmetric), so all zygomorphy is evolved from this form. It is also pretty much taken for granted that flowers evolved together with insect pollinators.

A possible explanation of the first case of zygomorphy can be traced back to an ancestral plant that had, like many plants we know now, horizontal branches. The flowers of these plants would have to be subjected to gravity, bending the stamens (the male reproductive organs) and style (the female productive organ) slightly downwards. While the organs were not easily accessible to bee pollinators, the flowers had to come up with a different kind of way to attract pollinators. A landing platform, or botanically called a “lip”, was formed in the plants. In addition to this mechanical evolution between pollinators and plants, bees are apparently more attracted to bilateral symmetric objects than to radial symmetric objects.

In the Fabaceae and Lamiaceae, the constant co-evolution with bees has lead to a specific type of zygomorphic flower. The legumes have developed a flower with five petals, of which two make up the lower lip, designed for the bees to land on. The stamen and style have evolved as well: they make up some sort of spring-loaded pollination-system that only heavy bees can trigger. The Lamiaceae have developed a similar system, but with the reproductive organs on the upper side. Orchids are more famous for their pollinator-specific flowers, think for example of the Darwin orchid, only pollinated by a specific hawk-moth with an extremely long proboscis.

The genes for zygomorphic flowers were studied in the common snapdragon - Antirrhinum majus. They found out that there are a few gene families operating the flower symmetry, especially in the top and bottom half of the flower. By mutations, Evo-Devo scientists could get plants in which the genes that code for the upper half didn’t work. What they saw was that the flowers grew radial symmetric flowers instead of their original mirrored flowers. In other plants of the same family this system is similar, but in other families the gene family differs quite much. In completely different groups like the orchids we still don’t know what happens genetically. As for now, we are still looking for the mystery genes of flower symmetry.

-Werner

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There is one who studies the Forbidden Major openly, who wooed the Fair Folk with talk of the wonder that comes from understanding a thing, who wove new myths of gods of sun and evolution and quantum mechanics, fresh-spun scripture for a digital age.

He spoke very, very quickly.

Now he labours quicker still, fever-quick at a schedule that fills more hours than there are in the day, interviewing a dozen handfuls of Gentry who wear his fingers down to the bone with note-taking. For days he has worn gloves with their tips stained red, for his patrons are impatient to see him graduate. They want to see this new flower blossom, and they care not if that means cracking his mind open like an egg.

He already stumbles back and forth across the edge of hysteria, and there is a morbid betting pool among other students over when he will finally snap under the pressure of so much Attention.

When, not if.

[x]

3

Diver Keri WIlk has been one of the few people to observe a strange sperm whale trait, described as a “poonado”.

This is thought to be a rarely used defence mechanism, which is different to when the whales defecate before their descent into deeper waters. The whale released an unusual amount of faeces, turned on its side and used its flipper to propel the excrement in a huge 30 metre arc.

This could be the first time this mechanism has been photographically documented, but has been observed in the wild previously.

(Via Daily Mail)

Bonded Strength, Boundless Power - Mega Evolution

Mega Evolution; it is a transformation a Pokemon can go through to gain immense strength by drawing on the power of their bond with their trainer. Mega Evolution can only be achieved by certain species of Pokemon, when both it and the trainer have possession of its species-specific Mega Stone, and a Key Stone, respectively.

It is said that the first Pokemon to Mega Evolve were a Lucario, and Rayquaza himself.

Long ago, a Lucario and it’s trainer garnered such a close bond that they were able to achieve this transformation.

Rayquaza could perform this feat itself, and did so when it needed to resolve the growing issues between Primal Groudon and Primal Kyogre in ancient times.


Mega Evolution, at it’s core, is an exercise in sharing your strength with your partner Pokemon, to allow them to surpass their limits and gain access to greater strength in a form they otherwise would be unable to reach.

This can be easily applied when one is working with a Pokemon spirit.

If you were to encounter a Pokemon spirit, and develop a close bond with it, you could potentially share your own energy with it, to allow it to gain its Mega Evolution form, if a additional strength ever arose; To defend you from something else, for example.

One could use a pair of stones as substitutes for a Key Stone and Mega Stone, if you so desired, but they would not be necessary, if you’re bond and ability to share your energies was developed enough.

Mega Evolution is a relatively simple concept in practice, compared to vast wealth of knowledge one can derive from the Pokemon World, but for a concept so simple, the results could be incredible. All it would take is dedication, practice, and bond between you and a Pokemon of your own.

youtube

Evrim mekanizmalarını anlatan güzel bir animasyon. (Türkçe alt yazı seçeneği mevcut ^^)

Hidden Mind

Originally posted by imustnotfearfearisthemindkiller

Just what is going on here?

Well, the situation is far more bizarre than anyone probably realizes.  And likely what’s led the way into this non-realization is actually in part due to language.  I’m not going to throw language out the window here, but just look at how many human languages their are to begin with!  Not to mention mathematical and computational languages. Each of them come with their own assumptions, paradoxes, and contradictions—so you’re always building upon or towards one phantom or another.  Each of them have their own rules and each of them point to entirely different kinds of perception.  English is a far cry from Japanese which is further still cry from Hopi or Egyptian Hieroglyphs.  

So, what I’m getting at is all language has an obfuscating effect that makes us believe in the most basic, pure, existential, and immediate level that we actually know something.  The simplest claims like, “We know we are human beings in the primate family.  We know we are on a planet.  The planet orbits a star.  That star is but one of many in an ecosystem of stars.  Stars are flying through space.  All of this is happening, depending on your point of reference, at tremendous speed.”  Every noun in these examples kind of deadens perception in its tracks.  We don’t really know what is this life process that we are.  We don’t know what livingness is.  We actually experience it indirectly because “human being” as a thoughtform, an assumption, has stolen the show.  It actually obscures the totality and both the awe to be existing and the awe of how very much in the dark we are about all of it.

Take atoms.  We have a vision of the atomic scale as a hurly burly of packets of energies that may or may not exist in the classic sense of existing.  And some how these things supposedly building up into elements, animals, and consciousness (depending on your bent regarding consciousness).  

So when people offer speculative glimpses of the future, like cyberpunk, I don’t really think it’s going to look like that.  And if it does it will only be a flash in the pan.  The big breakthroughs, and there will be more than we can culturally digest, absorb, and keep up with are going to be tabloid news in comparison to what happens when we smash the barrier between our waking ego, and by that I mean what we entirely IMAGINE ourselves to be, and what we ACTUALLY are.

What we actually are is probably going to be so tectonic in its universal effect for the “homo sapien” population of this planet that we will look back at the history we created while assuming that we were in fact all along just “human beings”, that it will be like a color-morphing octopus looking back at a clam.  They joke for generations afterward will be “Can you believe what we did back when we thought we were humans?”

And not either “alien”, mind you.  Even that’s not quite the most helpful word for it.  In fact what we really are we still don’t have a word for yet.  Neither “magician”, “soul”, nor “godling” strikes the emotional chord that still waits to be struck, that will bring down the house of cards that has always ever been just the monkey mind trying out and trying on tunes to dance to: be they math or poetry.  

What the real future is that’s just around the corner of, say “post-transhumanism” to borrow the cultural line for it, is actually the, let’s say not remotely human, not remotely alien, and not remotely machine.  What we will become is tied closely to what we truly are just beyond the veil of “man”.  

What’s just beyond the veil of man

Is what dwells just under, just within

the pumping sinew of the hand.

What we REALLY are is at base part of some kind of technology that is not at all like the technology we create.  The technology we are exists in multiple dimension at once—at least two: one on terra firma and one on occulta animam, the hidden mind.

The mind is precisely hidden because we don’t dive in.  We skate upon an ice sheet surface of our consciousness.  And it’s how we employ language conventionally that brings us to a total halt.  Because this language makes us believe that we already know.

So the way to get under the ice is actually first to embrace our total ignorance.  After that, the ice around us starts to melt.  And as it melts we gain more and more access to the hidden mind.  This hidden mind, I maintain, is an unknown cosmos.  There is the marco cosmos of galactic filaments, the micro cosmos of the quantum, and the hidden cosmos that rests in your very hand and the very essence that moves it and moulds both these seemingly micro and macro universes with it.  

The hidden cosmos, obfuscated by the assumed knowing mechanisms of language, is, as the cliche goes, the true “final frontier.”  

  • what I say: I'm fine.
  • what I mean: Hugh Darrow was in constant chronic pain from the time he was a young man and dealt with the physical and mental strain of being a member of the Illuminati (by blood) and a businessman and inventor on top of it. He created a way to boost the chain of human evolution through mechanical augmentation which was more than revolutionary, only to find out that he was one of a rare few who could never use the technology due to his genetic makeup. He mentored a man for thirty years who went on and on about how augmentation was the future and anyone who didn't get augmented would be left behind. Eventually he let his bitterness and petty jealousy get the best of him and convinced himself that instead of these motivations, it was a desire to save mankind that led to his destruction of the augmented dream and an event that caused the deaths of nine million people.

aftermarketradio  asked:

I think it's cool when you evolve a mechanic over the course of a block. For example, in Amonkhet, Exert meant you only got a boost when you attacked. In Hour of Devastation, you've expanded that definition and you can now Exert with tap activations. With the elimination of small sets going forward, how will these sort of mechanical evolutions be implemented? Will we get both types of Exert in the same set, or would you save the latter for a future set?

You will sometimes see them in the same set and sometimes when the mechanic returns.

Quantum Marveling

From Plato’s Forms to Christianity’s concept of the soul, traditional wisdom has told us that everything has its own unique essence. When we explore the tiniest of tiniest scales, however, it seems that traditional wisdom has gotten it utterly and profoundly wrong on this front. The only way to distinguish anything from anything else in the quantum world is through qualities like charge, mass, and spin; and the only way for these qualities to be acquired is through interactions with ubiquitous fields. The difference between you and everything you’ve ever seen reduces to the chaotic dance of fields and forces. You, your family and friends, that asshole who cut you off on the highway, that spider you killed in the shower, the bacteria residing in your gut, the piece of technology you’re using to read this, the air exhaling out of your lungs, the sunlight sustaining your survival, the known cosmos in its entirety—everything and all of its differences may boil down to nothing more than infinitesimal two-steps, evanescent jitters. Although this isn’t entirely accurate either, since these labels are mere metaphors for what’s really going on. In the fuzzy, dynamic universe of quanta, the concept of labels entirely breaks down. We are left only with mathematical abstractions and probabilities. No matter how you slice it, identity vanishes as a coherent concept in the universe inside of us.

Some find this unacceptable, even frightening. To me, it is a romantic and awe-inspiring aspect of reality. It satisfies many of the ‘new age’ desires for interconnectedness without appealing to pseudoscience, and it speaks to the homogeneous and limitless makeup of our beings. Despite this, the quantum world is often deemed irrelevant since it has no consequence on our perceived experiences. What do I care what’s happening on such a small scale if it has nothing to do with my day-to-day reality? To hold this opinion is to deny the import of the pursuit of truth, as the quantum scale, though far removed from our perceptions, is nonetheless fundamental to reality, fundamental to truth. Attempting to grasp the inner-workings of the cosmos is a noble pursuit in and of itself, but it’s also a quick path to enriching our day-to-day lives. It offers a peek at just how lucky we are to be alive and, particularly, to have consciousness. Traditional cosmologies explain consciousness as something bestowed upon us from on high or as existing in its essence forever and always; quantum cosmology, on the other hand, speaks to how fortunate we are that nature was ever able to transcend its singularity, its state of complete identity-less uniformity, and give rise to the unique experiences of personality, emotion, creativity, love—in short, identity. How marvelously privileged we all are to get a precious slice of spacetime for reaping these gifts of cosmic evolution.

شروحات مبسطة لحقيقة التطور

D

1 – التطور Evolution
goo.gl/688g59

2 – Species and genus
goo.gl/uhD3z2

3 – Family tree
goo.gl/i4fpKX

4 - phylogenies
goo.gl/RjNTmF

5 – Pattern of phylogeny
goo.gl/LWf8At

6 - Homologies and analogies
goo.gl/XCMNhP

7 - آلية تطور الكائنات Mechanism of evolution
goo.gl/s99mJu

8 – الطفرات Mutation
goo.gl/wGJFYE

9 - Gene flow
goo.gl/xQVT9i

10 – الجنس Sex
goo.gl/phnxb8

11 – Development
goo.gl/F5Cq0i

12 - الأنتخاب الطبيعي Natural selection
goo.gl/NTr97E

13 - الأنتخاب الجنسي sexual selection
goo.gl/SEJdS3

14 - تطور مُشترك Coevolution
goo.gl/vUSosQ

15 – Microevolution
goo.gl/9TgNaN

16 – الأستنواع speciation
goo.gl/3re7AN

17 - Cospeciation
الجزء الأول .. goo.gl/vuBw4d
الجزء الثاني .. goo.gl/kla8uw

18 – Ring species
goo.gl/rOhqZP

19 – Darwinism and neo-darwinism
goo.gl/c8XyBO

20 – Genotype and gene freq.
goo.gl/hrXi4T

21 – Mendle and natural selection
goo.gl/48kAcv

Umbreon:

  • Introduced to showcase a new type (Dark type in gen 2) that was invented to balance a previously overpowered type (psychic in gen 1)
  • Showed off new evolution mechanics (day/night cycle)
  • Paired with corresponding eeveelution of the type being nerfed, against which it has type advantage (Espeon)

Sylveon:

  • Introduced to showcase a new type (Fairy type in gen 6) that was invented to balance a previously overpowered type (dragon in gens 2-5)
  • Showed off new evolution mechanics (Pokemon Amie)
  • Paired with ???????? nothing

What i’m saying is where the FUCK is my dragon-type eeveelution 

Proof of God?

by Saṃsāran

Are spiritual/religious systems nothing more than an evolutionary coping mechanism developed by the mind to nullify the understanding that we are going to die someday?

I often wondered about this. Then as I learned more about the universe and pondered the question of consciousness I came to the understanding that consciousness was not merely a product of the brain. Consciousness is present in even the most rudimentary living things. Even a virus is self-aware. In fact, even the molecular machines within our cells are aware and act with direction and purpose. Moreover, when we look at the mechanism of evolution it is pretty obvious that evolution is not the Darwinian paradigm of “random chance mutation + time” we thought it was. Random mutation and natural selection is certainly one mechanism but evolution works far too fast for it to be the only mechanism.

There is within the DNA a series of stored adaptations which can be switched on or off as external circumstances change. Proof of God? No. Proof of PURPOSE, yes. Add to this the idea that our universe is tweaked within tiny tolerances for the formation of stars, then that our solar system is perfectly configured for protecting the inner planets and that the inner planets are spaced in such a way as to provide a series of stepping stones for life then it becomes even more outlandishly improbable that this was just pure random chance. Then the existence of DNA itself is further proof of purpose. Not design mind you but purpose. Life creates its own environment. Our oceans, our atmosphere are all shaped BY life FOR life. This planet was as deadly to life as Venus is now when life first took hold.

Consciousness is a force of nature just as are matter and energy. It is intrinsic to life. Life itself then is a force of nature. Consciousness, like matter or energy, can neither be created nor destroyed. Thus, we can never be created or destroyed.

The universe is seeking to “experience” itself. That is what we do. Mankind is not special except that we are part of the ongoing refining of consciousness. Our self is just our conscious mind. Our conscious waking mind only controls our brain for a small portion of our day. It is that part of which finds food, shelter, and a mate. The rest of the time our complex brains are doing something else. Something of which we understand very little. Buddhism doesn’t say that you. This part of your waking mind will go on forever. Rather, there is a part of you which has always existed and always will. So, the idea that it is a way of forgetting death does not apply to Buddhism. There is no heaven, no hell, no God nor angels. There is only the ever rising tide of consciousness. That which was one became many and will become one once again. Sam.

Pokémon in our Biomes pt. 9: Coral Reefs

“I’ve recently decided to make a series of posts with hypothetical thinking and analyzing of what Pokémon species could potentially be found in the world’s biomes. Not at all relative to the games, I will be focusing primarily of the elements, design, and relativity to real life flora and fauna of Pokémon to depict where different species would roam on our big blue marble.”

This Pokémon in our Biomes post will feature coral reefs.  There are four main types of coral reefs: fringing, barrier, atolls and patch reefs. Fringing reefs grow around coastlines of islands and continents, and are separated from the shore by narrow lagoons, and are considered the most common type of reef. Barrier reefs are like fringing reefs but are separated by wider, deeper lagoons, and at their shallowest point can even reach out of the water forming a barrier to naval navigation. Atolls form protected lagoons from the uprising of undersea volcanoes, and patch reefs are small isolated reefs that grow from the open bottom of an island platform or continental shelf. 

The map above is a satellite mapping of coral reefs done by NASA.

Coral reefs are an amazingly diverse environment, teeming with thousands of different species. Usually found in warmer tropical waters (though recently a coral reef was discovered on the Atlantic coast of Norway,) to allow for higher algae growth, coral is actually made up of tons of small animals from the phylum Cnideria, which also contain jellyfish and anemones. 

I am really interested in this post. Water Pokémon are one of the most common types of Pokémon, and there certainly isn’t a lack of species found in the reefs to relate the Pokémon to. There are many examples of symbiosis, evolution, defense mechanisms, and tons of biological features all around in the reefs. I may in fact have to make this post in two parts like the rainforest posts! It may be difficult however, to mention all the Pokémon that come to mind, as I will be doing a beach and kelp forest biome separately. 

Let’s get started!

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