europoe

4

Moses and the Burning Bush, Moses receives the Tablets of the LawMoses reading the TorahMoses at Mount Nebo - Dura-Europos synagogue, Syria, c. 244 CE. Tempera over plaster. One of the oldest synagogues in the world, the Dura-Europos synagogue preserves some of the most precious and unique examples of Jewish art in history. These four portraits of Moses are found on the center of the synagogue’s western wall, above the Torah niche. Note his depiction with a square halo.

Bust of Seleucus I Nicator (Europos ca 358 BC-Lisimacheia 281 BC), Macedonian general after Alexander the Great and founder of the Seleucid dynasty. bronze from the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum, Campania, Italy, 1st century BC.   http://hadrian6.tumblr.com

This Roman shield was found in the city of Dura Europos. The city is located several thousand kilometers from Rome and was a commercial enclave located in present-day Syria. It was founded by Greeks in the interior of the Persian territory, a few years after the passage of Alexander the Great, and later became part of Rome, perhaps because of its strategic location. During the Roman occupation, at the time of the high Roman Empire, some Roman soldier must have been forgotten this beautiful shield that happened to be the best preserved of this type that we have. It is impressive to see him in almost all his splendor and imagine that a soldier once carried him as part of his military supplies.

rampagehouse  asked:

1: Hungarians are Asian descendents, so Europe does just belong to Europeans. 2: so you're "American first", at the same time making a " #saveeurope". Make up your mind mate. Lol

Thanks to Pál Lipták’s researches it has been known for almost half a century that only 16.7 percent of 10th-century human bones belong to the Euro-Mongoloid and Mongoloid types. The European characteristics in the biological composition of the recent Hungarian population and the lack of Asian markers are not solely due to the thousand years of blending. Biologically, the population around 1000 AD in Hungary was made up almost exclusively of Europeans.

Neparaczki argues, based on new archaeogenetic results, that the Conqueror Hungarians were mostly a mixture of Hunnic, Slavic, and German tribes and this composite person evolved in the steppes of Eastern Europe between 400 and 1000 AD.[63][64] This research group also established that “genetic continuity can be detected between ancient and modern Hungarians”.

Another study on Y-Chromosome markers concluded that “modern Hungarian and Szekler populations are genetically closely related”, and that they “share similar components described for other Europeans, except for the presence of the haplogroup P*(xM173) in Szekler samples, which may reflect a Central Asian connection, and high frequency of haplogroup J in both Szeklers and Hungarians”.

According to Dreisziger, there were not genetic anthropological and linguistic connections between the conquerors of 895 and modern Hungarian population and Hungarian language.[67]

According to a 2008 study, the mitochondrial lines of the Hungarians are indistinct from that of neighboring Western Slavs, they are distinct from that of the ancient Hungarians (Magyars). Four 10th century skeletons from well-documented cemeteries in Hungary of ancient Magyar individuals were sampled.

Two of the four males belonged to Y-DNA Haplogroup N confirming their Uralic origin. None out of 100 sampled modern Hungarians carried the haplogroup, and just one of about 94 Székelyscarried it. The study also stated that it was possible that the more numerous pre-existing populations or substantial later migrations, mostly Avars and Slavs, accepted the Uralic language of the elite.[68]

An autosomal analysis, studying non-European admixture in Europeans, found 4.4% of an admixture of non-European and non-Middle Eastern origin among Hungarians, which was the strongest among sampled populations. It was found at 3.6% in Belarusians, 2.5% in Romanians, 2.3% in Bulgarians and Lithuanians, 1.9% in Poles and 0% in Greeks. The authors stated, “This signal might correspond to a small genetic legacy from invasions of peoples from the Asian steppes (e.g., the Huns, Magyars, and Bulgars) during the first millennium CE.”.

Compared to the European nations, Andrea Vágó-Zalán’s study determined that the Bulgarians were genetically the closest and the Estonians and Finns were among the furthest from the recent Hungarian population.

According to Pamjav Horolma’s study, which is based on 230 samples and expected to include 6-8% Gypsy peoples, the small Hungarian haplogroup distribution study from Hungary is as follows: 26% R1a, 20% I2a, 19% R1b, 7% I, 6% J2, 5% H, 5% G2a, 5% E1b1b1a1, 3% J1, <1% N, <1% R2. According to another study by Pamjav, the area of Bodrogköz suggested to be a population isolate found an elevated frequency of Haplogroup N: R1a-M458 (20.4%), I2a1-P37 (19%), R1a-Z280 (14.3%), and E1b-M78 (10.2%). Various R1b-M343 subgroups accounted for 15% of the Bodrogköz population. Haplogroup N1c-Tat covered 6.2% of the lineages, but most of it belonged to the N1c-VL29 subgroup, which is more frequent among Balto-Slavic speaking than Finno-Ugric speaking peoples. Other haplogroups had frequencies of less than 5%.

Among 100 Hungarian men, 90 of whom from the Great Hungarian Plain, the following haplogroups and frequencies are obtained: 30% R1a, 15% R1b, 13% I2a1, 13% J2, 9% E1b1b1a, 8% I1, 3% G2, 3% J1, 3% I*, 1% E*, 1% F*, 1% K*. The 97 Székelys belong to the following haplogroups: 20% R1b, 19% R1a, 17% I1, 11% J2, 10% J1, 8% E1b1b1a, 5% I2a1, 5% G2, 3% P*, 1% E*, 1% N.[74] It can be inferred that Szekelys have more significant German admixture. A study sampling 45 Palóc from Budapest and northern Hungary, found 60% R1a, 13% R1b, 11% I, 9% E, 2% G, 2% J2.

 A study estimating possible Inner Asian admixture among nearly 500 Hungarians based on paternal lineages only, estimated it at 5.1% in Hungary, at 7.4 in Székelys and at 6.3% at Csangos.

 It has boldly been noted that this is an upper limit by deep SNPs and that the main haplogroups responsible for that contribution are J2-M172 (negative M47, M67, L24, M12), J2-L24, R1a-Z93, Q-M242 and E-M78, the latter of which is typically European, while N is still negligible (1.7%). In an attempt to divide N into subgroups L1034 and L708, some Hungarian, Sekler, and Uzbek samples were found to be L1034 SNP positive, while all Mongolians, Buryats, Khanty, Finnish, and Roma samples showed a negative result for this marker. The 2500 years old SNP L1034 was found typical for Mansi and Hungarians, the closest linguistic relatives.

Anthropologically, the type of Magyars of the conquest phase shows similarity to that of the Andronovo people, in particular of the Sarmatian groups around the southern Urals. The Turanid (South-Siberian) and the Uralid types from the Europo-Mongoloids were dominant among the conquering Hungarians.Excavations of several Sarmatians showed that they belong to Haplogroup G2a, J1, J2 and R1a-Z93.

The following information is inferred from 433 Hungarian samples from the Hungarian Magyar Y-DNA Project in Family Tree (29 May 2017):[81]

26.1% R1a (15% Z280, 6.5% M458, 0.9% Z93=>S23201 “Altai/Tian Shan”, 3.7% unknown)
19.2% R1b (6% L11-P312/U106, 5.3% P312, 4.2% L23/Z2103, 3.7% U106)
16.9% I2 (15.2% CTS10228, 1.4% M223, 0.5% L38)
8.3% I1
8.1% J2 (5.3% M410, 2.8% M102)
6.9% E1b1b1 (6% V13, 0.3% V22, 0.3% M123, 0.3% M81)
6.9% G2a
3.2% N (1.4% Z9136 “Ugric/Proto-Magyar”, 0.5% M2019/VL67 “Siberia and Baykal”, 0.5% Y7310 “Central Europe”, 0.9% Z16981 “Baltic”)- note: only unrelated males are sampled
2.3% Q (1.2% YP789 “Huns/Turkmens”, 0.9% M346 “Siberia”, 0.2% M242 “Xiongnu”)
0.9% T
0.5% J1
0.2% L
0.2% C

#DefendEurope

#AmericaFirst

2

Carlo Scarpa, The Brion Cemetery in San Vito d'Altivole, Treviso, Italy, 1968-1978

Sol LeWitt, Double Negative Pyramid, Europos Parkas Open Air Museum, Lithuania, 1999,

Wall painting fragment showing female face A.D. 165-256 Paint on plaster Yale-French Excavations at Dura-Europos1929.353Culture: Dura-Europos (Syria)Period: Roman, 2nd or 3rd century A.D. Yale University Art Gallery