european-community

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European court rules Russia’s gay propaganda rule violates freedom of expression

  • The European Court of Human Rights has ruled that Russia’s infamous gay propaganda law — which bans any materials promoting homosexuality to minors, and has been used to stifle gay pride marches and arrest members of the LGBTQ community — violates European treaty rules, Reuters reported. 
  • The court ruled that the law violates people’s freedom of expression and discriminates against LGBTQ Russians.
  • Though the law aimed to protect minors, the court said in a statement that “the limits of those laws had not been clearly defined and their application had been arbitrary,” Reuters reports. Read more (6/20/17)
IMPORTANT EVENTS AND THEIR DATES IN MODERN EUROPEAN HISTORY

1453  Constantinople is sacked by Muslim forces

1488  Bartolomeu Diaz rounds the Cape of Good Hope

1492  Columbus encounters the Americas (God, Glory and Gold.)

1517  Martin Luther’s posting of the 95 Theses

1520  Diet of Worms declares Martin Luther an outlaw

1524-1525  The Peasants’ Revolt takes place in Germany

1534  Act of Supremacy passed in England → Henry VIII becomes head of the Anglican Church

1545  Council of Trent begins The Counter Reformation

1555  Peace of Augsburg (cuius regio, eius religio →whose region, his religion)

1585-1589  War of the Three Henries in France

1588  Spanish Armada destroyed by the English and “The Protestant Wind”

1603  Elizabeth I Dies → Tudor Dynasty Ends and the Stuart Dynasty Begins

1618-1648  The Thirty Years War (Treaty of Westphalia ends the war in 1648)

1642-1646  English Civil War (Roundheads vs. the Cavaliers)

1649  Charles I is executed → Oliver Cromwell begins his rule

1660  Stuart Restoration in England through Charles II

1688-1689  Glorious Revolution in England→ William and Mary of Orange replace James II and sign the English Bill of Rights

1643-1715  Era of Louis XIV  The Sun King (l’etat c’est moi)

1689-1725  Reign of Peter the Great in Russia

1756-1763  The Seven Years War

1789-1799  Era of the French Revolution (Radical Stage → late 1792-1795)

1799  Napoleon comes to power

1805-1815  Napoleonic Wars are waged

1814-1815  The Congress of Vienna meets (Main principles: Legitimacy, Conservatism, Compensation & Balance of Power)

1819  Peterloo Massacre in England

1830  Belgian Independence

1832  Reform Bill in England Passed

1848  Revolutions break out across Western Europe (France, Austria, Italy and Germany)

1861  Serfs emancipated in Russia under Alexander II

1870-1871  Germany and Italy Unification

1884-1885  Berlin Conference is held (“Scramble for Africa”)

1894  Tsar Nicholas II comes to power in Russia (the last of the Romanovs)

1905  Sunday Bloody Revolution in Russia → “The Dress Rehearsal”

1914  Archduke Franz Ferdinand is assassinated → WWI starts

1917  March and November (Bolshevik) Revolutions in Russia

1918  Treaty of Brest-Litovsk is signed →Russia withdraws from war

1918  WWI ends

1919  Treaty of Versailles is signed

1918-1921  Russian Civil War (Reds vs. Whites)

1922  Mussolini comes to power in Italy and establishes the 1st Fascist government

1922  Russia officially becomes known as the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) → The Soviet Union

1923  Adolf Hitler leads the Beer Hall Putsch in Germany

1924  Lenin dies

1928  Stalin is firmly entrenched as the leader of the Soviet Union → begins the first of several 5 year plans

1929  Stock Market Crash in the US → The Great Depression begins

1933  Hitler comes to power in Germany

1938  Munich Conference (Peace in our time→Neville Chamberlain)

1939  World War II starts with Germany’s invasion of Poland

1945  World War II ends (V-E Day → May 8, 1945 and V-J Day → August 15, 1945)

1945  First session of the United Nations is held

1945-1989  Cold War (U.S. vs. S.U. begins and begins to end in Poland)

POST WW II  Decolonization → European colonies become independent

1946  Winston Churchill gives the “Iron Curtain” speech

1948-1949 Operation Vittles→the Berlin Airlift

1949  USSR successfully tests first atomic bomb

1951  European Coal and Steel Community formed (sounds like the Zollverein)

1953  Stalin dies and is succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev → destalinization begins

1954  French forces defeated in French-Indochina at Dien Bien Phu

1956  Hungarian revolt against the Soviet Union → it is crushed by the Soviets

1957  Rome Treaty is signed → The European Economic Community (EEC) is created = Common Market

1957  Sputnik is launched by the Soviet Union → the first space satellite

1958  The fifth Republic is born in France and Charles de Gaulle becomes President

1961  Berlin Wall built → dividing East and West Berlin

1961  Soviet Yuri Gagarin becomes the first man in space

1962  Cuban Missile Crisis → 90 miles off the coast of Florida

1963  Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique is published

1964  Leonid Brezhnev becomes leader of the Soviet Union

1966  Under President Charles de Gaulle, France withdraws from the common NATO military command

1968  “Prague Spring” occurs in Czechoslovakia → it is crushed by the Soviets

1968  Student revolt in France (Paris)

1978  Pole Karol Wojtyla elected Pope → Pope John Paul II → 1st non-Italian in 455 years

1979  Margaret Thatcher becomes the first female Prime Minister of England (“The Iron Lady”) (Mags loathes no one more than this heinous twat)

1979  The Soviet Union invades Afghanistan (eventually becomes their own “little Vietnam”)

1980  1st independent labor union in the Soviet Bloc formed  “Solidarity” led by Lech Walesa of Poland

1980  Ronald Reagan elected President of the US (calls the Soviet Union an “evil empire”)

1985  Gorbachev becomes Soviet leader (implements policies of perestroika and glasnost)

1986  Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in the Soviet Union (specifically the Ukraine)

1989  Berlin Wall comes down

1989  The “Velvet Revolution” occurs in Czechoslovakia → Vaclav Havel becomes President

1989  The Soviet Union withdraws its forces from Afghanistan

1989  Romanian leader Nicolai Ceausescu is overthrown and killed

1990  Lech Walesa becomes President of Poland

1990  East Germany and West Germany reunify into one Germany

1990  The first McDonalds opens in Russia

1991  Attempted coup attempt in the Soviet Union → The Soviet Union begins to disintegrate

1991  Boris Yeltsin becomes President of Russia → former 15 republics of the Soviet Union form the Commonwealth of Independent States (C.I.S.)

1991  Yugoslavia begins to break apart

1992  Maastricht Treaty signed

1997  Tony Blair becomes Prime Minister of England → 1st Labor Party leader in 18 years

1999  Eurodollar becomes the single currency of the European Union (EU)

anonymous asked:

you helped me approach tumblr in a more critical way. I used to agree with everything Americans said on here, sometimes forgetting their views on race did not translate well into my reality. It felt like a cult. I felt like if I disagreed with anything then I was trash, a racist bigot. I was really shocked when tumblr was silent on the lufthansa crash in the alps, if it had been in the US that's all they'd talk about. They only seemed to care when they found out the pilot was a terrorist (haha)

Hi, I’m glad if I helped you feel better, I know that kind of stuff, constantly feeling like you are doing wrong, can be a really toxic mindset to be stuck into.

Also, to be frank it’s not that I care that they don’t talk about our issues per see. To be honest I’d rather they ignore them entirely than end up with what we end up. What bothers me is more the way they’re forcing them into an US-centric frame and only seem to care when they can use them as props to talk about themselves and what affects them - often brushing victims aside in the process.

It’s this talking over us and how European matters are never respectfully addressed when they are which annoys me. 

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February 7th 1992: Maastricht Treaty signed

On this day in 1992, the European Union was brought into being by the signing of the Maastricht Treaty. It was signed by the twelve member nations of the European Community -  a precursor to the EU. The treaty was named for the city in the Netherlands where it was drafted and signed. Maastricht became effective on November 1st 1993, and on that day the EU was formally established. It also provided for common security and foreign policy and gave the people of the signatory states European citizenship. Most importantly, Maastricht provided a blueprint for the later monetary union seen in the establishment of the common currency: the Euro. While the signing occurred without event, the ratification of the Maastricht Treaty was more contentious, with many states struggling to ratify it, including the British Parliament. Today, 25 years since the formation of the European Union, these contentions continue and its future is uncertain. The Euro is struggling financially, and, in 2016, the United Kingdom voted to leave the European Union.

anonymous asked:

Hi! I don't want you to take this as a personal attack but I couldn't help but notice your "obsession" with Finno-Ugric languages and languages outside of Europe. What do you have against IE languages? Why do you always advise people to learn non-IE languages? I feel like you hate most European languages for the mere fact of.. being spoken in Europe. And about "respecting everyone's language", weren't you the one who kept saying Slavic languages sounded ugly?So why do you want to learn them now?

Hi! Don’t worry, I don’t mind discussing this at all.

First of all, I would like to remind you that I am a native speaker of Finnish, which is a Finno-Ugric language. That might explain why the languages of that language family are so important to me and why I want to spread awareness of them and encourage people to learn them. I am proud of my linguistic background and I don’t see anything wrong with that.

I have no idea where you got the idea that I have something against Indo-European languages or that I advice people to not to learn them. That’s not true. Indo-European languages are rich and diverse and beautiful, I am learning a few of them, I am planning to learn several more, and I am so happy that there are so many other language enthusiasts who study and love them just as much as I do. 

Whenever someone asks me what language I would recommend them to learn, I advice them to learn the language they like, regardless of the language family it belongs to or the continent where it’s spoken. The world isn’t just limited to Europe and there are so many amazing, fascinating, and beautiful languages spoken outside of it. They just don’t get as much recognition in the langblr community as European languages do, which is why I said I would be happy if more people were learning them. 

And lastly, I have never said that Slavic languages sound ugly. I have only said that generally speaking they are not my cup of tea. However, I think knowing Russian would be useful considering that Russia is Finland’s neighbour country and a lot of native Russian speakers live in Finland, which is why I would like to learn it. As for Czech, I’m interested in because I met a really nice and cool guy from Czech Republic and when he spoke I really liked how the language sounded like. 

I hope this cleared things up. If you have any other questions feel free to message me!

anonymous asked:

What do you think of Donald Trump

lol this is an unexpected question

um i’m obviously not a politically-oriented blog but… i’m sorry you did ask. and am also assuming you’re not trolling here.

i think he is mentally unbalanced with a severe narcissism disorder who seemingly has a dangerous combination of a low attention threshold, a major intellectual deficit, coupled with an unstable desire to be loved and moreover to be in power. i think he is a tragic yet self-conflicted consequence for the US, and now laughable and also an increasingly dangerous figure in the fragile world arena. at the rate he is going, we will see the fall of the american empire (and the rise of the western european community and asia) shockingly soon.

his denial or inability to understand climate change, the concept of multiculturalism, equality and representation, but most importantly his dishonesty and corruption, is collectively abhorrent. we all know we are witnessing something unprecedented in history - that did not happen in a vacuum; trump is in fact the result of many profound changes in the way society operates and communicates. i just wish this moment would implode and end soon without taking us all with it. 

ack sorry. couldn’t help myself. i think he is a scourge, tbh.

xx

Magical Properties of Trees and Specific Woods

ALDER

Masculine Energy. Alder is a sacred tree of Celtic Astrology 18 March to 14 April. Druids associated this tree with the fox. The diety Bran considers this tree to be sacred.

Magical Properties: Alder wands are used for witchcraft magick rituals concerning with charisma, journeys, self confidence, bravery, supervision skills, and spiritual growth. Also used in shielding the astral self from unwanted intrusion from other realms.
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APPLE

Female energy. The apple wand is symbolic of fertility, peace, plenty and joy. A tree that is sacred to Venus and the Celtic Goddess Rhiannon. Apple is a staple food of the elven and fairie realm.

Magical Properties: This is a powerful wood of choice for the witch when working with the fairie magick. Apple is a good wood for aiding in the propagation of skills, often used in love magick. Apple wood promotes peace and harmony, magick of light and the divine, and promotes visions.
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ASH

Female and Effeminate Male energy are present in Ash 18 February to 17 March. Ash is closely aligned to the elemental Earth. Ash is a sacred tree of Celtic Astrology. Greeks associated this tree with Neptune and Mercury. The Druids associated this tree with the adder. The Nords held this tree sacred to Woden (Odin), the Nordic World Tree, Yggdrasil, is an Ash tree and is considered to be the father of all trees. The Welsh associated this tree with the God Gwydion.

Magical Properties: The Ash wand is an excellent wood for promoting brain power, aids in communication, intelligence, wisdom, and promotes curiosity. Use this wood to remove mental blockages and aid in the promotion of word use and understanding. It is the wood of the writer, poet, and scholar. Promotes spiritual love and health. Protects against unwanted change. Brings balance to the mind. It is said that warts rubbed on the bark will be absorbed into the tree. Use for protection from drowning, magickal effectiveness, sea power, and healing. Ash is also used for protection, finding special roots, horse magick, enhances skills of arts and crafts, justice, weather magick, and for working with the magick of cave and wells.
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BASSWOOD

Basswood is sacred to the Greek Goddess Aprhodite and the Celtic Goddess Arianrhod, Goddess of the Stars and Queen of Heaven. Some associate this with the Celtic Tree of Life. Basswood is related with the element of Air.

Magical Properties: Basswood wands are used for creative endeavors, star magick, enlightenment, love, attraction, healing, and enchantments.
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BEECH

Male Energy and because it produces nuts it is closely related to the Oak. Associated with the Greek God Apollo and the Elves Sun Lord Obraash. The Celts used the nut of this tree to fodder the sacred swine. Norse tradition says that tablets of Beech were used to make the very first writing tablets for the runes, strong magick for working with the Nordic runes.

Magical Properties: Beech wands are used in the magick of divination. Reduces swellings and skin inflammations. Helps to balance mental health. Aspiration, desire, and victory are all key elements of this wood. Used while working with ancestors, old wisdom, and magickal research. Beech is a sacred wood of the summer solstice.
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BIRCH

Female energy. Birch is a sacred tree of Celtic Astrology 24 December to 20 January. One of the first trees to naturally establish in cleared forests. It is a tree of new beginnings and establishments. Closely aligned with the element of water. The Druids associated this wood with the white stag.


Magical Properties: The Birch wand is used in many cleansing rituals. Birch is a symbol of rebirth, renewal, and diligence. Some use this wood to aid in the calming of emotions. The bark helps to heal wounds and burns. Many European communities use or have used, birch twigs to expel evil spirits. Some cultures utilize birch rods in rituals designed to drive out spirits of the old year. Controlled by Moon influences to include; birth, Lunar spells, healing, and protection. Birch by tradition has been linked to youth and new beginnings. Use in rituals that signify a new start of any endeavor.
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CEDAR

Associated with the Greek Goddess Persephone during her detainment in the Underworld. Also associated with the Celt Goddess Sezh that watches over the realm of fertility, herbs, and trees. Used by King Solomon, one of the greatest mystics of all time, in the building of the temple in Jerusalem.

Magical Properties: Cedar wands cleanses negative atmospheres. Used for the creation of sacred spaces. Related to longevity, protection, and preservation.
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CHERRY

Both feminine and masculine energies. Artemis, Morrigan, Tyr, Mars, Aries, Herne, and Ambash all consider this wood sacred. Associated with the elemental Earth.

Magical properties: Cherry wands are very centered and has very grounded energy. Earth energy is very well grounded, unwavering, and solid. Cherry is used in ritual to stabilize and focus. Cherry is often used for intuitive and insight and to overcome obstacles. This is an excellent choice for divination or medium work, as well as healing and love magic. Cherry is suited for use in hunting magick, working with animals and familiars, eroticism, unification of covens and groups, spells of detection, and amplifying spell work.
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ELDER

Feminine energy. Elder is a sacred tree of Celtic Astrology 25 November to 23 December. The Elder is also said to be the tree used in the crucifixion of Christ. Associated with the Celt Goddess Cailleach Beara and the Raven. Some have considered this tree to be unlucky due to its association with the crucifixion, or it may one of those nasty rumors started by the church in order to combat belief systems outside their on scope of a limited belief system.

Magical Properties: Elder wands are most often used in Faerie Magic, banishment, magical arts, protection from evil, imagination, change, and healing.
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ELM

Feminine energy. Often referred to as the home of the fairies. It is known to for its ability to ward away lightening. Associated with the Great Goddess in crone stage. Relative to the elements of both Earth and Air.

Magical Properties: Use of the Elm wands is strong in magic used concerning endurance, fertility, horticulture, passage thru death and phases of life, rebirth, and invocation of the Goddess. Elm adds stability, grounding, and focus to spell working.
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HAWTHORN

Masculine energy. Hawthorn is a sacred tree of Celtic Astrology 13 May to 9 June. Considered sacred by the Celtic summer flower maiden Olwen, also associated with the owl. This tree is also sacred to Aquarius and the windlord Vashaan. It was often planted in the parameters of a cottage for protection. It is believed that fairies live in the hedges of Hawthorn especially if near ash or oak. Associated with the element of Air.

Magical Properties: Hawthorn wands open insight, provides psychic protection, encourages creativity, used to make charms, aids in the development of self confidence, purification, develops patience, detects magic since it is deeply magical from outer realms, used in weather working, banishment of evil spirits, concealing magic, chastity, male potency, and fairy magick.
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HAZEL

Feminine energy. Hazel is a sacred tree of Celtic Astrology 5 August to 1 September. Associated with the elements of Fire, Air, and Water. Manannan Mac Lir, the Celtic Sea God, considered the wood to be sacred. Druids associated with the fish Salmon. Aligned with the Greek Goddess Aphrodite and the Celtic Goddess Danu, known by the elves and Arianrhod.

Magical Properties: Artistic ability, magical knowledge, and optimism are provided by the enchanting use of Hazel. The energy of hazel wands promoted love and creativity allowing a person to move beyond self-serving modes of existence. Hazel is the bringer of change. Hazel also promotes creative expression, eloquence, and art of all types. This was the most common wood used to create wands in the ancient Celtic traditions. Also used in magic spells for wisdom, creativity, intelligence, navigation, inspiration, and wrath.
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HICKORY

Masculine energy. Hickory is sacred to the Celtic God Lugh and the Greek God Apollo. Hickory is closely related to the oak and many of those properties apply.

Magical Properties: Use this wand in magic that seeks direction, abundance, wholeness, and general acquisitions. It can be a source for developing leadership skill and creating an influence of presence.
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HONEY LOCUST

Loved by the fairy because of its thorns that protects fairy clearings.

Magical Properties: A mighty wand of protection and bindings. Use while working with the fairy realm. Some use this wood with spells that deal with beauty and physical appearances.
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HOLLY

Feminine energy. Holly is a sacred tree of Celtic Astrology 8 July to 4 August. The sacred spear of Odin was made of Holly. The Roman god Mars rules over this mighty wood. Related to the elemental Earth. Associated by Druidic tradition to the grand majesty of the Unicorn. The Smith God Govannon considers this wood to be sacred.

Magical Properties: Purity, strength, logic, power transfer, protection. Holly wands are often used in magic concerning sleep. It is said that a man who carries the leaves and berries of holly is irresistible to women. Since the story of the ruler ship of the Holly King and the Oak King deal with cycles and rebirth, it is often used in magic to ease the loss of loved ones to death. It also carries properties of the sacred, material advance, physical revenge, and beauty.
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IVY

Masculine energy. Persephone considers this wood to be sacred. Druids related this to the Butterfly. Guinevere the fairy bride rules over this wood.

Magical Properties: Determination, strength, optimism, spiritual growth. Ivy is a fine wand for protection, good against wayward spirits and angry elementals, ensures success in business and all new endeavors.
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LILAC

A favorite of the forest nymphs and where they are surely Pan is close. Lilac is sacred to the Greek Twins Gemini. Associated with the element of Air.

Magical Properties: Lilac wands are good for magic dealing with romance, love, and passion. Superb when utilizing magics for the realm of intellect, communication, mental concentration. Enhances sexual pleasure. Lilac provides protection during travel. When dealing with illusion magic, this wood is very adequate, as with the divining arts.
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MAPLE

Maple has both Feminine and Masculine energy. Libra and Virgo consider this tree to be sacred. Associated with the elements of Spirit and Water. The great horned owl is the sacred bird of this tree.

Magical Properties: Some cultures primarily use Maple wands for spiritual healing. Maple is a traveler’s wood. It enhances intellectual pursuits, acquiring knowledge, and communication. Spells concerning art, beauty, binding, and abundance should consider using this wood. The gypsies believe Maple brings gold and that eating the seeds draws love.
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OAK

Strong Masculine energy. Oak is a sacred tree of Celtic Astrology 10 June to 7 July. The Druids associated the oak with the Wren. Closely aligned with the elements Earth, Water, and Spirit . The Oak is considered to be the most powerful and the most sacred to the Druids. Wizards consider this the most amplified wood to use to in spells that work with time and counter spells. Sacred to the Irish God Dagda.

Magical Properties: Truth, steadfast knowledge, protection. Oak wands bring vitality and long life. To the ancient Celtic people, oak was the protector, provider, benevolent king of the trees. Utilized as a healing wood, and very will grounded considering its strong connection to the earth. This wood helps center the mind, allowing it to focus on the task at hand and ignore distractions. Oak help promote both observation and intuition. Oak magic inspires bravery, presence, leadership skills, prosperity, and strength.
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OSAGE ORANGE

Masculine energy. Associated with the elements of Spirit, Earth, and Fire. Named after the Osage tribe of the Great Plains region.

Magical properties: This wood is famous for its ability to repel household pests and resist rot. Recommended to use this wand in magicks dealing with astral healing, spirit guides, and animal guides. This wood aides in the pursuit of goals and passions.
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POPLAR

Masculine energy. Plato makes a reference to the use of Black popular and Silver Fir as an aid in divination. Aligned with the elements of Spirit, Water, and Fire. Influenced by the power of Venus.

Magical properties: Poplar wands have an incredibly diverse energy, allowing it to be an all-purpose wood for magickal workings. The diversity of the energy in this wood makes it useful for evocation as well as banishment rituals. It is also strong with the elements of hope, rebirth, and divinations.
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SASSAFRAS

Native Americans and early settlers considered sassafras to be a cure all for all sorts of ailments. The root bark was once believed to be a curative, capable of treating everything from headaches to malaria, fever, liver problems, stomachaches and colds. In addition, the wand was believed to increase hunger. The wood, which continues to be used in furniture, was often used in flooring and bedsteads because people believed the sassafras fragrance would drive away bedbugs and other pesky insects.

Magical properties: Early settlers also believed that beds made from sassafras would drive away evil spirits and give people restful sleep. Eases problems with the digestive system. Burying money near the roots of a Sassafras tree brings prosperity.
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VINEWOOD

Masculine and feminine energies are present in Vinewood. Vine is a sacred tree of Celtic Astrology 2 September to 29 September. Druids associated this wood with the Swan. Considered sacred by the Tuatha De Danaan Gods of Irish Mythology.

Magical Properties: Vinewood wands encourage spiritual initiation, faerie work, joy spells, excitement, rebirth., sacred knowledge, and authority.
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BLACK WALNUT

Feminine and Masculine energies are present in Black Walnut. Closely aligned with the elements of Earth and Spirit. Walnut is sacred to the Gods Vashaan, Zues, Jupiter, Thor, and Vishnu.

Magical properties: Black walnut wands are well used in magics of teleportation, astral travel, weather working, averting lightening, powers of the wind and breath, and motivation.
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WILLOW

Feminine energy. Willow is a sacred tree of Celtic Astrology 15 April to 12 May. Willow is strongly aligned with the element of water and associated with the element of spirit. The Druids associated this tree with the hare. Diana, Hecate, Astarte, Ceridwen, Arianrhod, Rhiannon, and Omulan all consider this to be a very sacred tree.

Magical Properties: Willow wands are strong in the cycles of life dealing with death and rebirth, change, the will. It is a very emotional wood. Willow can add vital energy to the sick and elderly. Some say that burning willow can soothe and guide the souls of the recently deceased. Willow wood is the very essence of magick, not just the mere making a tool into a magical one, willow makes the tool magickal. Willow will align itself to the inner will of the party that shares its energy. The stronger the will, the more effective the wood. Willow is extremely useful in healing. It is also good for love spells and rituals involving emotion. It strengthens the third eye, and is a great tool for divination as well.

But if the natives are already agriculturalists, then why not simply incorporate their productivity into the colonial economy? At this point, we begin to get closer to the question of just who it is (or, more to the point, who they are) that settler colonialism strives to eliminate—and, accordingly, closer to an understanding of the relationship between settler colonialism and genocide. To stay with the Cherokee removal: when it came to it, the factor that most antagonized the Georgia state government (with the at-least-tacit support of Andrew Jackson’s federal administration) was not actually the recalcitrant savagery of which Indians were routinely accused, but the Cherokee’s unmistakable aptitude for civilization. Indeed, they and their Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw and Seminole neighbours, who were also targeted for removal, figured revealingly as the “Five Civilized Tribes” in Euroamerican parlance. In the Cherokee’s case, two dimensions of their civility were particularly salient. They had become successful agriculturalists on the White model, with a number of them owning substantial holdings of Black slaves, and they had introduced a written national constitution that bore more than a passing resemblance to the US one. Why should genteel Georgians wish to rid themselves of such cultivated neighbours? The reason why the Cherokee’s constitution and their agricultural prowess stood out as such singular provocations to the officials and legislators of the state of Georgia—and this is attested over and over again in their public statements and correspondence—is that the Cherokee’s farms, plantations, slaves and written constitution all signified permanence. The first thing the rabble did, let us remember, was burn their houses. Brutal and murderous though the removals of the Five Civilized Tribes generally were, they did not affect each member equally. This was not simply a matter of wealth or status. Principal Cherokee chief John Ross, for example, lost not only his plantation after setting off on the Trail of Tears. On that trail, one deathly cold Little Rock, Arkansas day in February 1839, he also lost his wife, Qatie, who died after giving her blanket to a freezing child. Ross’s fortunes differed sharply from those of the principal Choctaw chief Greenwood LeFlore, who, unlike Ross, signed a removal treaty on behalf of his people, only to stay behind himself, accept US citizenship, and go on to a distinguished career in Mississippi politics. But it was not just his chiefly rank that enabled LeFlore to stay behind. Indeed, he was by no means the only one to do so. As Ronald Satz has commented, Andrew Jackson was taken by surprise when “thousands of Choctaws decided to take advantage of the allotment provisions [in the treaty LeFlore had signed] and become homesteaders and American citizens in Mississippi.” In addition to being principal chiefs, Ross and LeFlore both had White fathers and light skin. Both were wealthy, educated and well connected in Euroamerican society. Many of the thousands of compatriots who stayed behind with LeFlore lacked any of these qualifications. There was nothing special about the Choctaw to make them particularly congenial to White society—most of them got removed like Ross and the Cherokee. The reason that the remaining Choctaw were acceptable had nothing to do with their being Choctaw. On the contrary, it had to do with their not (or, at least, no longer) being Choctaw. They had become “homesteaders and American citizens.” In a word, they had become individuals. What distinguished Ross and the removing Choctaw from those who stayed behind was collectivity. Tribal land was tribally owned—tribes and private property did not mix. Indians were the original communist menace. As homesteaders, by contrast, the Choctaw who stayed became individual proprietors, each to his own, of separately allotted fragments of what had previously been the tribal estate, theirs to sell to White people if they chose to. Without the tribe, though, for all practical purposes they were no longer Indians (this is the citizenship part). Here, in essence, is assimilation’s Faustian bargain— have our settler world, but lose your Indigenous soul. Beyond any doubt, this is a kind of death. Assimilationists recognized this very clearly. On the face of it, one might not expect there to be much in common between Captain Richard Pratt, founder of the Carlisle boarding school for Indian youth and leading light of the philanthropic “Friends of the Indian” group, and General Phil Sheridan, scourge of the Plains and author of the deathless maxim, “The only good Indian is a dead Indian.” Given the training in individualism that Pratt provided at his school, however, the tribe could disappear while its members stayed behind, a metaphysical variant on the Choctaw scenario. This would offer a solution to reformers’ disquiet over the national discredit attaching to the Vanishing Indian. In a paper for the 1892 Charities and Correction Conference held in Denver, Pratt explicitly endorsed Sheridan’s maxim, “but only in this: that all the Indian there is in the race should be dead. Kill the Indian in him and save the man.”
— 

Patrick Wolfe, Settler Colonialism and the Elimination of the Native

anti-Communism has been part of the European soul since before Communism was a thing

On This Day: May 28

Downfall of the Derg Day (Ehtiopia)

  • 1830: Anarchist Louise Michel was born in Vroncourt-la-Côte, France. She was a school teacher, medical worker, and important figure in the Paris Commune.
  • 1835: Ladies Shoe binders Society formed in New York.
  • 1864: Anti-militarist Alphonse Gallaud de la Pérouse, aka Zo d'Axa, was born in Paris. He was founder of the magazines L'EnDehors and La Feuille.
  • 1871: French socialist and syndicalist, Eugène Varlin, is executed for his leading role in the Paris Commune .
  • 1871: The end of the Paris Commune as last hold-out in Père-Lachaise cemetery captured and defenders massacred.
  • 1879: First US law prohibiting women’s employment passed to keep them from working in Illinois coal mines.
  • 1897: Henry Bauer and Carl Nold were released from prison after having been convicted of aiding and abetting Alexander Berkman’s attempted assassination of Henry Clay Frick.
  • 1897: Camillo Berneri was born in Lodi, Italy.
  • 1909: A lecture by Emma Goldman was ordered canceled by the Brooklyn Chief of Police.
  • 1912: Fifteen women sacked at Curtis Publishing Co, Philadelphia, for dancing the Turkey Trot on lunch break. Management thought it too racy.
  • 1937: The headquarters of the Friends of Durruti Group in Barcelona were shut down by the government.
  • 1937: Petroleum workers strike in Mexico.
  • 1942: In revenge for the the assassination of Reinhard Heydrich, the Nazis in Czechoslovakia kill over 1,800 people.
  • 1946: General strike shuts down Rochester, New York, in support of municipal workers who had been fired for forming a union.
  • 1956: The Tallahassee, Florida bus boycott begins.
  • 1958: Fidel Castro’s 26 July movement captures an army post in El Uvero during the Cuban Revolution.
  • 1958: Christian anarchist Ammon Hennacy ended a 40-day fast against nuclear weapons.
  • 1961: Peter Benenson’s article The Forgotten Prisoners published in several newspapers - led to founding of Amnesty International.
  • 1963: Black and white civil rights activists attacked at a Woolworth’s lunch counter sit in, Jackson, Mississippi.
  • 1994: An Anti-Nazi League Carnival “Rocks Against Racism” in Brockwell Park, London.
  • 2004: The Guadalajara Riots: A series of public protests in Guadalajara’s city centre while the city hosted the Third Summit of Heads of State and Governments from Latin America, the Caribbean and the European Union.

“Harry Potter can’t be indian! His name is english!”

BWAAAAMP, WRONG

Potter is a modernized version of the name “Peverell,” which is what his family was known as in older times. Peverell is a name that IRL was heavily debated IRT the etymology of the name; it could be a Latin root name (in which case it would have meaning similar to “the small boy”) or a French root name (where it could be a name meaning “pepper” or “temperamental”). 

Why does that matter? 

Because if we’re thinking of Harry in the context of him being of indian descent, then we have to consider the origins of his name, and where the Peverell line may have come from. If we consider that the Peverells were an old and respected Indian wizarding family, then we have to consider two other things: why would they have ties to the european wizarding community, and where did their wealth come from (which should be touched on more often anyways? james obviously didn’t do anything to earn more money himself, being that he was a rebel soldier in a magical war.). They have one of the deeper and older Gringotts vaults. Their money is old and Harry could spend ludicrous amounts and never put a dent in it.

I believe the Peverells were originally in the business of magical trading- probably merchants of spices and other goods that couldn’t be easily be obtained in wizarding Europe. This would have made them highly in demand, and also given them immense wealth and power throughout the wizarding world at large- another reason for them to be so influential in the older days, and still so respected even up until the last of the “line” was killed out by Voldemort. 

Again, why does that matter? 

Because if the Peverell wealth came from being a family of merchant moguls, then their name may have, too. Keep in mind, one of the potential roots for “Peverell” is identical for the French word for “pepper.” Suddenly, with that in mind, and the theory that the family was spice traders, we arrive at the conclusion that they were colloquially referred to as the Peverells because they were the family of spices and peppers.

Of course, this would have been centuries in the past of the Potter family, but Wizarding money, like blood, lasts forever and is closely guarded. And they certainly wouldn’t be the only merchant family to trade with Europe (and even if you want to claim that such in depth and long lasting trading wouldn’t have been possible hundreds of years ago, not only are you wrong on a historical level, you’re wrong because they were fucking wizards, there’s more than enough reason for us to believe they had the ability to just fly to conduct trades).

So there. If your only argument against Harry being of Indian descent is that it “doesn’t make sense in the narrative,” there’s the reasoning, which is 100% in line with the universe of Harry Potter as a whole. Congratulations, there’s no reason to shit on this headcanon because accepting this headcanon makes many things, including the Potter’s ancient wealth and status in the community, make so much more sense.

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An Intimate Look Inside The Lithuanian Disco Scene

From 2000–2010 Andrew Miksys photographed youth in village clubs along the back roads of Lithuania. Most of the venues Miksys explored are located in Soviet-era Houses of Culture where he sometimes found gas masks, Lenin paintings and other discarded remnants of the Soviet Union. As a Lithuanian-American from Seattle, he was intrigued by the history of the discos and the teenage culture in these European post-war communities. The images portray a new hopeful generation in a swirl of uncertainty, fog, and disco lights.

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