european trade

Besides, trying to find some primordially authentic culture can be like peeling an onion. The textiles most people think of as traditional West African cloths are known as Java prints; they arrived in the 19th century with the Javanese batiks sold, and often milled, by the Dutch. The traditional garb of Herero women in Namibia derives from the attire of 19th-century German missionaries, though it is still unmistakably Herero, not least because the fabrics used have a distinctly un-Lutheran range of colors. And so with our kente cloth: the silk was always imported, traded by Europeans, produced in Asia. This tradition was once an innovation. Should we reject it for that reason as untraditional? How far back must one go? Should we condemn the young men and women of the University of Science and Technology, a few miles outside Kumasi, who wear European-style gowns for graduation, lined with kente strips (as they do now at Howard and Morehouse, too)? Cultures are made of continuities and changes, and the identity of a society can survive through these changes. Societies without change aren’t authentic; they’re just dead.
—  Kwame Anthony Appiah, The Case for Contamination
Before the 1450s, Europeans considered Africans exotic but not necessarily inferior. As more and more nations joined the slave trade, Europeans came to characterize Africans as stupid, backward, and uncivilized. Amnesia set in; Europe gradually found it convenient to forget that Moors from Africa had brought Spain and Italy much of the learning that led to the Renaissance. Europeans had known that Timbuktu, with its renowned university and library, was a center of learning. Now, forgetting Timbuktu, Europe and European Americans percieved Africa as the “dark continent”. By the 1850s many white Americans, including some Northerners, claimed that black people were so hopelessly inferior that slavery was a proper form of education for them; it also removed them physically from the alleged barbarism of the “dark continent”.
—  Lies My Teacher Told Me by James W. Loewen

#Melanin #WarOnMelanin 

The Aeta (Ayta, pronounced eye-tə), or Agta, are an indigenous people who live in scattered, isolated mountainous parts of the island of Luzon, the Philippines.

These peoples are considered to be Negritos, whose skin ranges from dark to very dark brown, and possessing features such as a small stature and frame; hair of a curly to kinky texture and a higher frequency of naturally lighter colour (blondism) relative to the general population; small nose; and dark brown eyes. They are thought to be among the earliest inhabitants of the Philippines, preceding the Austronesian migrations. The earliest inhabitants of the Philippines lived some 40,000 years ago.

The Aeta were included in the group of people termed “Negrito” during Spanish Era. Various Aeta groups in northern Luzon are known as Pugut or Pugot, an Ilocano term that also means “goblin” or “forest spirit”, and is the colloquial term for people with darker complexions. These names are mostly considered inappropriate or derogatory by fellow Negritos of northern Luzon.


The Aeta are the indigenous people of the Philippines. The pale skin Eurasians you see there today are Mongoloid – not Negrito. The Mongoloids are invaders to the islands. Those they could not kill they have tried to breed out. The Aeta have been dealing with genocide longer than the Australian aborigine, and long before any Europeans set foot on the island. Most people suffer some sort of cognitive dissonance around this issue. It is inconceivable that Asians are killing black people and Asians have been killing black people and stealing their land for ‘thousands’ of years. There is no stigma like that of the European slave trade. The Arabs and the Mongols have essentially gotten away with the mass murder of hundreds of millions of black lives. Most see the people of India as a race and not genocide. To be clear – Indian is a nationality not a race. People are not aware of truly how much suffering black people on this earth have had to endure. 800 years before the transatlantic slave trade there was the Arab slave trade. The Arab slave trade was still going on when the European slave trade began and has never quite ended. It is said that the Arab slave trade was equal to the European slave trade if not worse. Before the Arab slave trade the Mongols killed upwards of 40 million people (some estimates are as high as 80 million). At this early time in human history that is almost half of what would have been the worlds known population. The Mongol Empire eventually stretched from Central Europe to the Sea of Japan. The black people in China and Japan were genocided out of history (some say they still remain in pockets). The black people of Thailand(the Mani), Cambodia (the Khmer) and Vietnam (the Champa) are all still there despite the genocide. In India the black people there have been under attack for 3500 years. Today black people in India are extremely confused about their identity. Most people alive today still dont know how it is that black people came to have straight hair even though the science is there. This may come as a surprise but black people were even the first Hawaiians and Hebrews. Racism did not start in Europe. Racism started in the East and spread towards Europe, which explains why they were the last ones to take part in the enslavement of indigenous black people. What the Mongols couldn’t finish the Arabs took up and what the Arabs couldn’t finish the Europeans took up. WE HAVE HAD NO FRIENDS YET NO RACE COULD HAVE ENDURED WHAT THE BLACK RACE HAS ENDURED AND STILL BE ALIVE TO TELL ABOUT IT. WE ARE THE TRUE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE OF ALL TROPICAL LAND ON THIS EARTH AND WE ARE STILL HERE…

[Message for the racists that commented on this post]

I know exactly what I’m talking about.


None of our scholars used the word “colorism” because none of them saw the need to. It has only been popular for a couple years now and already I have seen this word used to cover up anti-black racism a thousand times over. Even when a situation is clearly anti-black racism rearing its ugly head people will say “colorism exists everywhere”… Even when all points are indicating that it’s black genocide and erasure, people are saying “colorism exists everywhere”…
All you hair revolutionaries and social services revolutionaries need to take a seat, and/or read a book.      

“Shadeism” was a popular term long before colorism, and still is. Do your research. Pigmentocracry is also another term you should all get familiar with.
Those terms do not apply to this image, and neither does colorism.

Just in case you missed it: Those terms do not apply to this image, and neither does colorism.    

It’s messed up that only one non-black person accurately saw this image for what it is. She wrote “98% sure that last girl is actually African and her white counterpart is….welll. not filipino”. The way the word colorism is being used is not serving our best interests. It should find its place among ethnic white people – where it belongs.


Black people fought to no longer be called “coloured”. As soon as we rid ourselves of that term – here comes “colorism”… I found that very coincidental, and suspect.  

The word “colorism” may have some place (most likely among ethnic white groups) but as it stands it only serves to confuse the narrative. How many times did you hear Master Teacher MLK or Malcolm X use the word “colorism”? How many times did Master Teacher Dr. John Henrik Clarke or Dr. Yosef Ben-Jochannan use the word? Were you ever once confused by the words our black scholars used? What about the rest of our African historians? Did they too lack the intelligence? Do you think they lacked the proper vocabulary to express themselves? Could you dare think such a thing?


The struggle for black people is real. The Black Holocaust is real. Black Genocide is real. Anti-Black Racism is real. Black Erasure is real. Fix your lips and call this what it is. “Colorism” is a nice soft word like “colonialism” that white people use to make themselves feel better about what is happening and what has happened. They are two very watered-down definitions that mask the brutality and continual injustice and unjust circumstance black people are now dealing with.  





Can white people say BLACK LOVE MATTERS?












The Rise and Fall of the Wassoulou (Mandinka) Empire, West Africa

The Wassoulou Empire was an African Empire that existed between 1294 and 1315 AH (1878-1898 CE) in modern Mali, Guinea, Cote d’Ivoire and Sierra Leone.

The story of the rise and fall of the Wassoulou state is also the story of the rise and fall of its first and only ruler, a remarkable man named Samori Touré. Born to a Dyula Mandé family in the town of Mayambaladugu, in the year 1245 AH (1830 CE), he was the son of a fairly well-to-do merchant. Touré grew up in an African world that had long been aware of the European presence. Slave trading on the coasts had been going on for generations, though Europeans were yet to penetrate too far inland, and many still relied on their protectorates for extracting the wealth of Africa. Touré’s father probably had significant relationships with a variety of Europeans, both officials and civilians, as a merchant, and as a result, Touré had a familiarity with their ways of life, and particularly, their ways of bureaucracy, organization, and martial tradition, since many of the outposts and expeditions in the area would have been armed and defended by troops brought in from overseas.

In 1264 AH (1848 CE), an event happened that would change his life forever. At the time, Mayambaladugu and most of the surrounding Mandé and Fulani groups had just been subjugated by the authority of the Tocouleur Empire, often as client chiefdoms or states, and these vassal entities continued to fight intermittent wars with one another, often for loot, including slaves, and access to natural resources that could buy guns and equipment from Europeans, or influence at the new Tocouleur court. When he was eighteen, a man and probably taking some responsibility in his family’s mercantile business, his mother was seized in one of these raids by the powerful Cissé, another Mandé group. Determined to get her back, Samori Touré traveled deep into Cissé territory, to confront a man tradition names Séré-Burlay. In return for his mother’s safety, he struck an agreement with his mother’s captor: he would serve the Cissé as a warrior, so long as she remained safe. It is unkown how long Touré served in this capacity, though some traditions say for more than seven years, but however long he did, he was most likely an experienced veteran by the time he ended his service to the Cissé by escaping with his mother.

Seeking safety from the roused and potentially vengeful Cissé, Touré traveled to the towns of the Bérété Mandé, a group who had been longtime rivals of his former masters. There, again, he became a warrior, though now he began to rise through the ranks, charismatic and brave as he was, and with an extensive knowledge of his enemies and years of combat experience under his belt. By 1280 AH (1864 CE), he had a significant amount of men under his command, and was fighting for the Bérété somewhere along one of the Niger’s tributaries, probably the Milo River.

A final note on Touré’s early life, before the founding of the Wassoulou Empire is discussed: Touré was not born a Muslim, but converted sometime as a young man, possibly during his time with the Cissé, but it is impossible to be sure. Even African sources disagree on the exact dates, or how/why he converted. Regardless, by 1280 AH (1864 CE), he was a devout Sunni Muslim, and possibly a member of a Sufi brotherhood.

In 1280 AH (1864 CE), the Tocouleur Empire, which had conquered and subsumed the Mandé and Fulani states of Touré’s youth the year his mother had been kidnapped, collapsed. El Hadj Omar Tal, the Fulani founder and only ruler of the Tocouleur state, died, and though his heirs managed to hold onto some of the territory, their subjects proved entirely too powerful and eager for the potential spoils left by the great man’s death for their control. Dozens of factions broke off, and the region dissolved into chaos. As mentioned above, Touré was on what was probably the Milo River, and, as the Empire disintegrated around him, Touré took advantage of the situation to accomplish two things. The first was the testing of his warriors in serious battle. Trained with his own version of European military standards, adapted from the experiences and memories of his youth, and armed with firearms and the skill to use them, Touré was eager to see if his own theories about war would hold up in a conflict so much larger and more intense than the small-scale strife of his youth. The second goal was the creation of a new Sunni Muslim state, with Touré as the ruler.

Touré quickly won victories. His men were well-disciplined, and, as the war progressed, more and more heavily armed. In addition to captured weapons and a variety of improvised and locally-manufactured equipment, Touré also began to deal with the British in Sierra Leone, where they refused to offer him status as a full protectorate kingdom, but agreed to supply him with weapons in exchange for a promise not to deal with other colonial powers, particularly the French. Though the British did not supply him with heavy weapons or artillery, they did provide breach-loading weapons, and the know-how to repair them, as well as an enormous supply of ammunition. So armed and now with a veteran army at his back, Touré seized the Buré gold mines, on the Malian border, and with the hard currency and extensive territory his victories had won him, proclaimed himself Faama (Emir, roughly), of a new Wassoulou Empire, named after region on the modern Guinea-Mali border. The capitol was moved to the large town of Bissandugu in 1294 AH (1878 CE).

The next chapter of the Wassoulou Empire was marked by wars of conquest against weaker neighbors, rather than the earlier wars for survival in the cutthroat political climate left behind by the Tocouleur collapse. A major success came in 1297 AH (1881 CE), when Kankan, a major Dyula trading post on the Milo River fell, and the Empire reached its geographical zenith. Smaller states, particularly animist/indigenous African states, fell as well in the same period, and though, like many African rulers, Touré allowed many indigenous civil customs to continue unmolested, he began to style himself with Islamic titles, and likely sought out more formal religious training from Sufi’s and Marabouts, local Sunni leaders, during this period. Finally, he managed to secure alliances, with himself as the power-brokering party, with the Fulani states to the North, where Islam was the state religion.

In 1299 AH (1882 CE), Samori Touré launched a new campaign, this time dispatching his troops South, toward Cote d’Ivoire. There, they besieged the city of Keriera, hoping to use it as the launching point for a campaign as far as the coast. However, another major imperial power was operating to the south, and moving northwards from the Ivory Coast: France. In fact, the first contact between the Wassoulou Empire and the French was a brief engagement outside of Keriera, where a French force drove off Touré’s surprised troops, and then effectively replaced them, occupying the city. Touré, concerned but not desperate, renewed relations with the British and sent new emissaries to Liberia, where he hoped to strike another arms deal. He got what he was looking for in 1300 AH (1882-3 CE), purchasing repeating rifles from the British and Liberians, and setting up a corridor on which to move supplies between the coast and his interior centers of power, should the emerging conflict with the French escalate.

They did escalate. Skirmishes and Wassoulou raiding colored the next few years, and French colonial authorities, disturbed by what they perceived as a grave threat to ventures in the area, dispatched a Colonel Combes with an expeditionary force to take Buré, one of the main sources of cash for Touré and his Empire. However, the force was too small, and Combés was unfamiliar with the terrain and his enemy, and they were soundly defeated by the crack African forces, many of the leaders veterans of decades of campaigning. In Shawwal, 1308 AH (1891 CE), another French force was dispatched, this time to Kankan and lead by Louis Archinárd, another French Colonel. Touré, realizing he could not hold the walls against heavy French artillery, abandoned the city, but took his men into the field, hoping to defeat the French in the open. Though Touré managed to drive a few French columns back in 1308 AH (1891 CE), he was unable to significantly halt their advances, especially as more and more French troops were assigned to the region, transferred for the campaigns organized to destroy Touré and his neighbors. Another blow had come with the signing of the Brussels Conference Act of 1890, in which Europeans agreed to stop selling weapons to African rulers or armies, cutting Touré off from a valuable source of weapons.

In 1309 AH (1892 CE), French Colonel Húmbért attacked, seized and occupied Bissandugu and Buré, though Touré and his troops were, again, in the field, and, though defeated, the Faama was able to keep his troops intact, retreating across the Niger. Along the path of his retreat, Touré burned crops and destroyed as much of the infrastructure as he could, hoping to stall the French and possibly allow African disease to have some weakining effect on the advancing columns, though this strategy only bought a few seasons. The clashes with the French, from the first engagement with Colonel Combés to the seizure of Buré and Touré’s capital at Bissandugu, constitute what is now known as the First and Second Mandingo Wars. The third, and the deciding moment for the Wassoulou Empire, loomed, though it was delayed by the French conflicts with rulers in Mali and back along their tenuous zones of control to the coast.

However, by 1315 AH (1898 CE), Babemba Traoré, the ruler of the collapsing Kénédougou Empire to the North in Mali proper, was defeated by the French, who proceeded to incorporate most of Mali into the expanding territory of French West Africa. Touré, cut off from supplies in Liberia and Sierra Leone, now found himself virtually alone against the French, who moved their victorious armies back toward Wassoulou and the border, preparing for a final offensive, across the Niger and into what had once been the far Eastern edge of Touré’s Empire, now its only remaining area. Within a few months of the outbreak of hostilities in the Third Mandingo War, Touré was captured when a French unit attacked his troops, and was imprisoned. The French quickly moved in to the remaining Wassoulou towns, and formally dissolved the Empire in the ensuing months. Touré remained imprisoned by local French troops until the 23rd of Jumada al-Ula, 1317 CE (29 September 1899), when he was moved to exile in Gabon. He died of pneumonia there, at 70, in Safar, 1318 AH (June 1900 CE), and was buried at the Grand Masjid in Conakry, Guinea. Touré’s great-grandson, Ahmed Sékou Touré, would later become Guinea’s first President, when the country became independent of France more than half a century later.

Confronting Anti-Black Racism in The Arab World (Important Read)

In response to an essay I wrote recently regarding the “essential blackness” of the Palestinian struggle, I received this reaction, among others: “What about Arab anti-black racism? Or the Arab slave trade?”

The Arab slave trade is a fact of history and anti-black racism is a fact of current reality, a shameful thing that must be confronted in Arab societies. Though I claim no expertise on the subject, I think that applying notions of racism as it exists in the US will preclude a real understanding of the subject in the Arab world.

I spent much of much of my youth in the Arab world and I do not recall having a race consciousness until I came to the United States at the age of 13. My knowledge of Arab anti-black racism comes predominantly from Arab Americans. Like other immigrant communities, they adopt the prevailing racist sentiments of the power structure in the US, which decidedly holds African-Americans in contempt.

This attitude is also becoming more prevalent in Arab countries for various reasons, but mostly because Arab governments, particularly those that import foreign labour from Africa and Southeast Asia, have failed to implement or enforce anti-discrimination and anti-exploitation laws.

In many Arab nations, including Kuwait where I was born, workers are lured into menial jobs where their passports are confiscated upon arrival and they are forced into humiliating and often inhuman working conditions. They have little to no protection under the law and are particularly vulnerable to exploitation, including extraordinarily long working hours, withholding of salaries, sexual, mental, and physical abuse, and denial of travel.

The recent case of Alem Dechesa brought to light the horrors faced by migrant workers in Lebanon. Dechesa, a domestic worker from Ethiopia, committed suicide after suffering terrible mental and physical abuse at the hands of her Lebanese employers, whose savage beating of her in front of the Ethiopian Consulate went viral last year.

Defining beauty

An extension to Arab anti-black racism is an aspiration to all that our former - and current - colonisers possess. Individuals aspire to what is powerful and rich, and the images of that power and wealth have light skin, straight hair, small noses, ruddy cheeks and tall, skinny bodies. That image rejects melanin-rich skin, coiled hair, broad or pointy noses, short stature, broad hips and big legs. So we, too, reject these features, despising them in others and in ourselves as symbols of inferiority, laziness, and poverty. That’s why the anglicising industries of skin bleaching and hair straightening are so profitable.

And yet, when Palestine went to the UN for recognition of statehood, the vast majority of nations who voted yes were southern nations. The same is true when Palestine asked for admission to UNESCO. In fact, when the US cut off funding to UNESCO in response to its members’ democratic vote to admit Palestine, it was the African nation of Gabon that immediately stepped up with a $2m donation to UNESCO to help offset the loss of income.

It was not Saudi Arabia, or Kuwait, or Qatar, or Lebanon, or Sweden, or France. It was Gabon. How many Palestinians know that, much less expressed gratitude for it?

So concerned are Palestinians with what the European Union and the United States think of us. So engrossed are we in grovelling for their favour and handouts as they support a system of Jewish supremacy pushing our ancient society into extinction. We dance like clowns any time a European leader spares us a thought. Have we no sense of history? No sense of pride? No comprehension of who is truly standing with us and who is sabotaging us?

In a world order that peddles notions of entire continents or regions as irreducible monoliths, the conversation among Arabs becomes a dichotomous “Arab” versus “African”, ignoring millennia of shared histories ranging from extensive trade and commerce, to the horrors of the Arab slave trade, to the solidarity of African-Arab anti-colonial unity, to the current state of ignorance that does not know history and cannot connect the dots when it comes to national liberation struggles.

Arab slave trade

When I was researching the subject of the Arab slave trade, I came upon a veritable treasure of a website established by The African Holocaust Society, or Mafaa [Swahili for “holocaust”], a non-profit organisation of scholars, artists, filmmakers, academics, and activists dedicated to reclaiming the narratives of African histories, cultures, and identities. Included in this great body of scholarly works is a comprehensive section on the Arab slave trade, as well as the Jewish slave trade, African-Arab relations over the centuries, and more, by Owen Alik Shahadah, an activist, scholar and filmmaker.

Reading this part of our shared history, we can see how a large proportion of Arabs, including those among us who harbour anti-black racism, are the sons and daughters of African women, who were kidnapped from Eastern African nations as sex slaves.

Unlike the European slave trade, the Arab slave trade was not an important feature of Arab economies and it predominantly targeted women, who became members of harems and whose children were full heirs to their father’s names, legacies and fortunes, without regard to their physical features. The enslaved were not bought and sold as chattel the way we understand the slave trade here, but were captured in warfare, or kidnapped outright and hauled across the Sahara.

Race was not a defining line and enslaved peoples were not locked into a single fate, but had opportunity for upward mobility though various means, including bearing children or conversion to Islam. No-one knows the true numbers of how many African women were enslaved by Arabs, but one need only look at ourselves to see the shadows of these African mothers who gave birth to us and lost their African identities.

But while African scholars at the Mafaa Society make important distinctions between the Arab and European slave trades, enslavement of human beings is a horror of incomprehensible proportions by any standard, and that’s what it was in the Arab world as it was - or is - anywhere. There are some who argue that the Arab slave traders were themselves indistinguishable from those whom they enslaved because the word “Arab” had cultural relevance, not racial.

One-way street

This argument goes hand-in-hand with the discredited excuse that Africans themselves were involved in the slave trade, with warring tribes capturing and selling each other. But no matter how you look at it, the slave trade was a one-way street, with Africans always the enslaved victims. I know of no African tribe that kidnapped Europeans and put them in bondage for generations; nor do I know of an African tribe that captured Arab women for centuries and made them sex slaves.

I think humanity has truly never known a holocaust of greater magnitude, savagery, or longevity than that perpetrated against the peoples of Africa. This Mafaa has never been fully acknowledged and certainly never atoned for - not that the wounds or enduring legacies of turning human beings into chattel for centuries can ever be fully comprehended or atoned for. But one must try, because just as we inherit privilege from our ancestors, so do we inherit their sins and the responsibility for those sins.

Gaddafi’s role

The late Colonel Muammar Gaddafi understood this and he used his power and wealth to try to redeem our shared history. He was the first Arab leader to apologise on behalf of Arab peoples to our African brothers and sisters for the Arab slave trade and the Arab role in the European slave trade.

He funnelled money into the African Union and used Libya’s wealth to empower the African continent and promote pan-Africanism. He was a force of reconciliation, socialism, and empowerment for both African and Arab peoples. Gaddafi’s actions threatened to renew African-Arab reconciliation and alliances similar to that which occurred at the height of the Non-Aligned Movement during the presidencies of Jamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt and Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana.  

Thus, NATO’s urgency to prevent “massacres” and “slaughter” in Libya was manufactured and sold wholesale. The fear of African-Arab solidarity can be seen in the way the US-backed Libyan insurgency spread rumours that “black African” mercenaries were committing atrocities against Libyans. Gaddafi became an even bigger threat when an agreement was reached with the great anti-imperialist force in South America, Hugo Chavez, to mediate a solution to the uprising in Libya.

Now both of these champions of their people are gone, and the so-called Libyan revolutionaries are executing “black Africans” throughout the country. Gone, too, is NATO’s worry about slaughter in Libya, and another high-functioning Arab nation lies in ruin, waste and civil strife - primed for rampant corporate looting.

I wrote previously that the Palestinian struggle against the erasure of our existence, history and identity was spiritually and politically black in nature. So, too, are other struggles, like that of migrant workers throughout many Arab nations. These are our comrades. They are the wretched, exploited, robbed, and/or, at last, liberated.

I refer to Black as a political term, not necessarily a racial or ethnic descriptor. In the words of Owen Alik Shehadah: “Black People is a construction which articulates a recent social-political reality of people of colour (pigmented people). Black is not a racial family, an ethnic group or a super-ethnic group. Political Blackness is thus not an identity but moreover a social-political consequence of a world which after colonialism and slavery existed in those colour terms. The word "Black” has no historical or cultural association, it was a name born when Africans were broken down into transferable labour units and transported as chattel to the Americas.“

But that word has been reclaimed, redefined, and injected with all the power, love, defiance, and beauty that is Africa. For the rest of us, and without appropriating the word, "black” is a phenomenon of resistance, steadfastness - what we Palestinians call sumud - and the beauty of culture that is reborn out of bondage and oppression.

Right to look the other way

Finally, solidarity from Africans is not equivalent to that which comes from our European comrades, whose governments are responsible for the ongoing erasure of Palestine. African peoples have every reason to look the other way. Ethiopians have every reason to say: “You deserve what you get for the centuries of enslavement and neo-enslavement industry by your Arab neighbours.” African Americans have every reason to say: “Why should I show solidarity with Arabs who come here to treat us like white people do, and sometimes worse?”

Malcolm X once said: “If I was that [anti-American], I’d have a right to be that - after what America has done to us. This government should feel lucky that our people aren’t anti-American.”

We can substitute the word “Arab” for “American” in that sentence and it would be a valid statement. And yet, Africa is right there with us. African American intellectuals are the greatest champions of our struggle in the United States. The impact of solidarity from four particular individuals - Desmond Tutu, Alice Walker, Angela Davis and Cynthia McKinney - can never be overestimated.

Last month, the former South African ambassador to Israel refused a “certificate” from Israel confirming the planting of trees in his name. In his letter, he called Israel a racist, apartheid state and said the gift was an “offence to my dignity and integrity”. He added: “I was not a party to, and never will be, to the planting of ‘18 trees’, in my 'honour’, on expropriated and stolen land.”

I would like my countrymen to think long and hard about this until they truly comprehend the humbling beauty of this solidarity from people who have every reason to be anti-Arab. I wish my countrymen could look through my eyes. They would see that black is profoundly beautiful. They would see that Africa runs through our veins, too. Our enslaved African foremothers deserve to be honoured and loved by their Arab children. And it is for us to redeem their pain with the recognition and atonement long owed.

Arriving at this understanding is a good starting place for reciprocal solidarity with nations and peoples who are standing with us, in heart and in action.


Susan Abulhawa is a Palestinian writer and the author of the international bestselling novel, Mornings in Jenin (Bloomsbury 2010). She is also the founder of Playgrounds for Palestine, an NGO for children.

Follow her on Twitter: @sjabulhawa

Source: Al Jazeera 


The Arabic Slave Trade is something that is rarely spoken about and often goes unheard of. When we speak of the enslavement of Africans, many of us like to connect it with Europeans, which is fine, but we should never forget they were not the only ones. For over 900 years, Africans were enslaved by Arabic slave traders. They would take Africans from all over the continent including West, East, and North Africa forcing them to march thousands of miles to Slave Markets. The Men, Women, and Children were bound together by the waist and neck so that if one died the rest could drag him or her along. These walks became known as the “Death Marches” and an estimated 20 million Africans died on these walks alone. The Arabs believed it was God’s wish to see Africans enslaved and believed they were uncivilized animals. Sound Familiar? Slaves were beaten and abused regularly. Many African Women, young Girls, and Boys would be used as Sex slaves for their owners. Islamic Slave holders would stick their swords and other weapons into the Vagina’s of Black Women and cut off the penis of African Men. This was done because they believed Africans had an uncontrollable sex drive. Many Africans would be forced to convert to Islam believing if they shared the same religion, it would stop the abuse. Muslim slave traders would also promise them Freedom after conversion. This did not stop the abuse nor did it gain them their freedom. In Fact, one can argue it made them even more enslaved. When Europeans entered the slave industry, Muslim Slave traders would use the religion to exploit Islamic Africans to bring them other Africans. These Africans would then be sold to Europeans. Slavery in the holy city of Mecca would not be outlawed until 1966 and in all other Arabic countries until 1990. The Islamic Slave Trade began almost 500 years before the Europeans would come to Africa. It would be a catalyst for the dismantling of the continent and the massive expansion of the Religion. Had it not been for Islam, European Chattel Slavery may never have occurred. History is quite a teacher and once again as the late Dr. John Henrik Clarke once said, “Africa has no friends. If you want a friend, look in the mirror.”

Written by @KingKwajo - Via: SanCopha League

anonymous asked:

the japanese word pan actually came from portuguese, because the portuguese were the first europeans to start trade with japan and translate japanese into an european language, round the 16th century (and then the word even spread to taiwanese when taiwan was ruled by japan) so ye. universal pan

theloveofyou  asked:

Is this not all the same if a black african girl were to be dating someone from the Middle East? It's all the same stuff, isn't it?

I think this is a really interesting question actually, because it implicitly tries to compare and contrast the effects of the Arab slave trade with the trans-Atlantic slave trade. Are the power dynamics of a black African woman dating an Arab guy in the Middle East similar to that of a white guy in the US or Europe dating a black woman from their country?

(Image description: Egyptian slavemaster and Waswahili slave)

What we do know is that the Arab slave trade predated the European trans-Atlantic slave trade by several hundred years. We also know that there is a very long history of a complete denigration and dehumanization of black people in Arab countries. In Islam, it was illegal to enslave a member of faith. But black skin was so associated with slavery in the Arab world that these rules were regularly bypassed to enslave Muslim Africans anyway. Also, most of those enslaved were African women who were sold into sex slavery for Arab men.

The poetry and writings of Antarah ibn Shaddah, a black pre-Islamic folk hero confirm that antiblackness in some form or other in the Arab world is entrenched and goes back far more than a millenium. Born in 525 AD to a noble Arab tribesman and an Ethiopian slave woman, Antarah was subjected to regular humiliation, including the betrayal of his father who denied his paternity and considered him to be another slave living in his household. It was only much later in his adult life that his father acknowledged his paternity and liberated him from slavery. And the legacy of this dehumanizing antiblackness continues to this day in the Arab world. More than 200,000 South Sudanese were enslaved during the Second Sudanese war alone. 150,000 Ethiopians were just deported on a whim by the Saudi Arabian government. And black Africans are regularly subjected to dehumanizing treatment and brutality across the Arab world

(Image description: Arab captors with black Zanzibar workers)

In all it is estimated that at least 8 million Africans were subjected to the Arab slave trade. Other estimates range north of 20 million. These numbers are comparable to those of the trans-Atlantic slave trade depending on the scholars you read. There are large black communities in the Arab world today as a legacy of this slave trade and recent migration. Numbers of descendants from original slaves were limited by an incredibly high death rate and the fact that black African male slaves were regularly castrated and made into eunuchs for their Arab masters. Black people in the Arab world include former Egyptian president Anwar Sadat, who was of Egyptian and Sudanese Nubian ancestry

(Image description: Portrait of Egyptian president Anwar Sadat)

Sadat was regularly ridiculed as being “Nasser’s black poodle” and people insisted that he “did not look Egyptian enough.” All despite the fact that Arabs didn’t colonize Egypt until the 600s AD and so could be identity checked themselves by black Egyptians. 

If you would like to see more examples of the rampant antiblackness in the Arab world, see these tweets.

Within the Arab world today Arab supremacy is a basic fact of life with incredibly dehumanizing effects on black Africans and indigenous Amazigh peoples in particular. And especially when we consider the fact that the Arab slave trade targeted black African women especially for sex slavery, the parallels in the power dynamics between a black woman and white man in the West and a black African woman and an Arab man within the Arab world today are likely a lot more similar than one might realize at first glance.

Although the day is supposed to celebrate Mexican heritage, it has become Americanized — that is, hijacked into another excuse to party, eat, and drink, all while getting sweet discounts at some restaurants. (It is so Americanized, in fact, that it’s actually celebrated more in the US than in Mexico.)

The origins of the holiday go back to, as one would expect, Mexican history. But Cinco de Mayo is not Mexican Independence Day (September 16), as many people believe. It is, instead, a day commemorating an important battle after Mexican independence.

These details might not seem crucial to your partying needs. But the origins are an important part of the Mexican heritage many Americans are supposed to be celebrating today — and give some insight into why this uniquely Mexican-American holiday is now celebrated in the US.

Let’s be clear: Mexican Independence Day is September 16, 1810, the beginning of Mexico’s revolution against Spain. It is not Cinco de Mayo.

Cinco de Mayo does, however, have roots in Mexico’s struggle with another European power.

In 1861, Mexican President Benito Juárez declared that his country couldn’t afford to pay its debts. This, as one would expect, did not please the countries that had made loans to Mexico — and Britain, Spain, and France sent naval forces to Mexico to secure their debts.

Britain and Spain managed to negotiate the issue peacefully. But the French, ruled by Napoleon III, decided to invade, taking over the country and setting up a monarchy led by an Austrian archduke.

But before the French managed to take over the country for several years, Cinco de Mayo gave Mexicans a glimmer of hope: When the French approached the town of Puebla on May 5, 1862, their army lost to a badly outnumbered and out-armed group of Mexican soldiers.

The Mexican victory was short-lived, and France eventually advanced to the nation’s capital and took over. But the win still turned into a symbol of Mexican resistance, helping sustain an independence movement that would go on for the next few years.

Driven by the spirit of Cinco de Mayo and with American support, Mexicans eventually — in 1867 — toppled the French-installed government and put Juárez back in power.

So how did Cinco de Mayo go from celebrating a struggle for Mexican liberation to a US holiday?

It goes back to the US and Mexico’s close ties — linked by proximity, a struggle against European imperialism for independence, trade, and immigration. (There’s also the US’s imperialism in Mexico.)

These close ties were also real in 1862, the year of Cinco de Mayo and second year of the American Civil War.

Rainy Raschplatz in Hannover, Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony), Northern Germany. Hannover on the river Leine is the state’s capital and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hannoverian Kings of Great Britain under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the Elector of Hannover). At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, the Electorate was enlarged to become the capital of the Kingdom of Hannover. With a population of 518,000, Hannover today is a major center of Northern Germany and the country’s 13th-largest city. It hosts annual trade fairs such as the CeBit (world’s largest computer expo) and the Hannover Messe (world’s largest industrial fair). It also hosts the Schützenfest, the world’s largest marksmen’s festival, and the Oktoberfest Hannover, the 2nd-largest Oktoberfest in the world. In 2000, the city hosted the world fair Expo 2000. Hannover fairground is the largest in the world. The city also is of national importance because of its universities and medical school (MHH), its international airport, and its large zoo. It’s a major crossing point of railway lines and highways, connecting European main lines in both the east-west (Berlin–Ruhr) and north-south (Hamburg–Munich) directions. More Hannover posts here.

Especially in the 70s and probably still to some degree now there was this push for black people to covert to Islam as a way of “connecting to their African roots”, which is pretty weird to me considering Muslims pretty much instituted the African slave trade that saw so many Africans being shipped off to European countries. And sure you can argue that white Christians played a part in the European slave trade and you wouldn’t be completely off-base, but it definitely wasn’t the Christians that were selling them out of Africa.

Why do people act like Somalis aren’t liberators? Why do they choose to ignore our work in liberation and decolonizing our lands and minds? We were one of the first African Nations to not only be liberated, but to wage open War with Britain. We went to war with Italy, and Britain. And won.
We fought for our liberation, won, and turned around and fought for the liberation of other Africans.
We helped liberate Kenya, don’t act that didn’t happen without Somalis. We were one of the few nations vocal from the beginning of the liberation of South Africa, sad to know they still have their colonizers on their lands.
We fought for the liberation of Nigeria, and Algeria.
Even during the European slave trade we fought them on enslaving and shipping Africans off our port. We put our bodies and lives on the line for African liberation fronts.
We help protect our neighbors from European Colonizers.
During the Civil Rights movement and Liberation movements in American we were vocal about Black Americans Liberation. In fact we sent Somalis to America to learn and help Black Americans on their Liberation fronts. Somali Women held rallies and protest and did ground work on the campaign of freeing Angela Davis.
We also helped Liberate djibouti from France. We campaigned for them. Once they were liberated, we didn’t force them to rejoin Somalia, but let them chose their own fate for independence.

But majority of them are ethnically Somali tho…. Ayyy.

We were for heritage and culture preservations. We even Fought African Imperialists like Ethiopia. Fought for our peoples Liberation in Ogadenia. We have been vocal about the Liberation of Ogadenia and Oromiya.

We were one of the first African, and one First Nations to have Women Fighter pilots in the 70s. We had women in the military. We made equatable laws for women’s civil rights. We had equal pay for all genders. This is Somalia in the 70s, and 80s.

We fought American Imperialism in 90s while were going through a Civil War. And won. Think about that. We were fighting each other, going through a ravaging war, stopped to turn around and deal with America. Beat their ass, recorded it for the media to play around the world so these American Imperialists couldn’t pretend like it didn’t happen and went about our way without breaking a sweat. We did that it days, not weeks or months. But in days. Americans love to make us out to be savage Africans. But they were on our sovereign lands, and we had every right to treat them like an unwelcome enemy. Were we Brutal, sure. But brutality is served when brutality is received. Especially with an enemy that has no morals. They went home cry because they met a real adversary, and they weren’t gonna do us like they did to Iran, and later Iraq, Libya, Syria and Yemen.

We are ruthless with our enemies. Especially with western imperialists, and every time y'all are surprised by that.

Captain Phillips was bullshit. These so called, “Somali Pirates” fought against Imperialism, and against Capitalism. Those fisherman were fighting for their communities.
Westerns, Asian, and Arab nations were stealing from our Ocean, then dumping toxic materials into it, using our Ocean for military positions etc. All without our permission. They stole from our fishermen, and communities whose only sources of food was coming from the Somali sea. They starved those communities. Several towns Economy was tied to that Sea. When they dumped toxins and waste into our sea, our people got sick. People were being Poisoned, similar to what is STILL happening in Flint, Michigan. Many Somalis got cancer because of the toxins dumped in our sea. No one was doing anything about this.

So we took up arms against our enemies who refused our calls to cease what they were doing. They mad because we “pirated ships”, aka we took what was ours. They were making billions from our ocean, and we weren’t seeing any of that money. Of course, Western countries got mad as if we weren’t doing the same to them thieving Arabs and Asians. Like how dare we fight for ourselves.

That’s the thing about us we are willing to die for our people and lands. If we are defeated, a thousand more Somalis will take our place. We just about that life.

We’ve been saying Black Lives Matter for centuries. So y'all need to stop sleeping on Somalis, and many of y'all like to erase our blackness.

Learn the History in Africa, and the diaspora, then asks yourself this,
Where would African Liberation Movements be without Somalia in the 20s, 30s, 40s, 50s, 60s, 70s, 80s?
A lot of the movements in ending institutional racism in Europe, Canada, and Australia is done by a majority Somali community. Think on that.

However, we are also not free from anti blackness and colorism. For example the treatment and abuse Somali Bantus have endured for centuries is a cloud over Somalia’s history in fighting anti blackness.
Sadly, aside from white supremacy, a far greater supremacy affects us the most. Arab Supremacy, which is the root of modern Somalis anti blackness, and internalized racism.

Our Moto is:
We Somali first
African/Black second
Somali again
And then Muslim

anonymous asked:

29 or 39 for whamilton if you're still taking those requests?

(Sorry this is not sexy but I felt like a little longing.)

Lafayette is sitting in a long summit about the future of European trade when his phone lights up with a notification. It’s a text from George, an unusually direct one. 

[What are you wearing?]

Lafayette does the math and realizes it must be very late in America, well after two in the morning. George must have had a very long day, and not a good one if he’s willing to stay up a little longer to text to Lafayette. 

Glancing around to make sure no one is likely to notice him responding, Lafayette slips his phone down under the table and answers. [Honestly? A pale grey Italian suit with a green tie and my old black Ferragamo dress shoes because there is not much press here.] 

George doesn’t like to be pandered to. A moment another text appears. [Slim cut?]

Lafayette smiles. [Of course. Would not be caught dead in some baggy DC-style suit.]

[Send me a picture?] 

With a quiet sigh Lafayette admits he can’t. [Stuck in a summit. By the time I can send you one you will be asleep. Go to sleep.]

George is undeterred. [Send me one anyway.] Lafayette is typing out a coy response when George sends another text. [Missing you.] 

Lafayette deletes [With the suit or without?] and writes, [Miss you, too. I’m back on the 14th.]

The answer comes, [Still too long.] Then another text: [But I can wait.] 

[Go to sleep and it’ll be one day closer. And you’ll have pictures from me.]

Immediately George sends, [pictureS?]

Lafayette smiles again. [Yes. Plural. But only if you get some rest right now.]

[All right. Goodnight. Love you.]

As a final tease because George hates emojis Lafayette sends him about a dozen hearts back. 

@villa-kulla said:

My Native American history is patchy as hell but this was making me curious so I was googling how certain famous Native American historical figures learned English, and it usually seemed to be from trading with European settlers. I saw that the Comanche specifically traded horses a lot and supplied a lot to the California Gold Rush, during which Red would have been reeeeeeeally young. So maybe Red’s parents traded horses with lots of settlers and bright little Red picked up English that way,…

I was wondering if it might be linked to the ‘path is different’ idea: is Red being urged out into the white world because he speaks impressive English? ‘I’m hungry’ is surprisingly idiomatic, suggesting that he’s learnt to be fluent from someone; perhaps a captive or someone his camp took in? Did he discover an unusual talent for languages?

The Golden Age of Dutch and Flemish Paintings

The Dutch Golden Age painting is the painting of the Dutch Golden Age, a period in Dutch history generally spanning the 17th century, during and after the later part of the Eighty Years War (1568–1648) for Dutch independence. The new Dutch Republic was the most prosperous nation in Europe, and led European trade, science, and art. The northern Netherlandish provinces that made up the new state had traditionally been less important artistic centres than cities in Flanders in the south, and the upheavals and large-scale transfers of population of the war, and the sharp break with the old monarchist and Catholic cultural traditions, meant that Dutch art needed to reinvent itself entirely, a task in which it was very largely successful.

Although Dutch painting of the Golden Age comes in the general European period of Baroque painting, and often shows many of its characteristics, most lacks the idealization and love of splendour typical of much Baroque work, including that of neighbouring Flanders. Most work, including that for which the period is best known, reflects the traditions of detailed realism inherited from Early Netherlandish painting.

It is also a great time for Flemish Painters of the Baroque

Flemish Baroque painting refers to the art produced in the Southern Netherlands during Spanish control in the 16th and 17th centuries. The period roughly begins when the Dutch Republic was split from the Habsburg Spain regions to the south with the Spanish recapturing of Antwerp in 1585 and goes until about 1700, when Habsburg authority ended with the death of King Charles II. Antwerp, home to the prominent artists Peter Paul Rubens, Anthony van Dyck, and Jacob Jordaens, was the artistic nexus, while other notable cities include Brussels and Ghent.
Rubens, in particular, had a strong influence on seventeenth-century visual culture. His innovations helped define Antwerp as one of Europe’s major artistic cities, especially for Counter Reformation imagery, and his student Van Dyck was instrumental in establishing new directions in English portraiture. Other developments in Flemish Baroque painting are similar to those found in Dutch Golden Age painting, with artists specializing in such areas as history painting, portraiture, genre painting, landscape painting, and still life.

A distinctive feature of the period is the proliferation of distinct genres of paintings, with the majority of artists producing the bulk of their work within one of these. The full development of this specialization is seen from the late 1620s, and the period from then until the French invasion of 1672 is the core of Golden Age painting.

The term “genre” is much used in the history and criticism of visual art, but in art history has meanings that overlap rather confusingly.  Genre painting may also be used as a wider term covering genre painting proper, and other specialized types of paintings such as still-life, landscapes, marine paintings and animal paintings.

The concept of the “hierarchy of genres” was a powerful one in artistic theory, especially between the 17th and 19th centuries:

  • History painting, including narrative, religious, mythological and allegorical subjects
  • Portrait painting
  • Genre painting or scenes of everyday life
  • Landscape (landscapists were the “common footmen in the Army of Art” according to the Dutch theorist Samuel van Hoogstraten) and cityscape
  • Animal painting
  • Still life, flowers, etc.

History Painting (historical, biblical, mythical, allegory, battle scenes)

  • Denis van Alsloot
  • Dirck Van Baburen
  • Jacob Adriaensz. Backer
  • Abraham Bloemaert
  • Jan Boeckhorst
  • Ferdinand Bol
  • Paulus Bor
  • Leonaert Bramer
  • Salomon de Bray
  • Bartholomeus Breenbergh
  • Jan Brueghel the Elder
  • Jan Brueghel the Younger
  • Hendrick ter Brugghen
  • Abraham Van Calraet
  • Jacob van Campen
  • Hendrik de Clerck
  • Gaspar de Crayer
  • Benjamin Gerritsz. Cuyp
  • Willem Drost
  • Karel Dujardin
  • Caesar van Everdingen
  • Carel Fabritius
  • Govert Flinck
  • Ambrosius Francken
  • Frans Francken the Younger
  • Hieronymus Francken the Younger
  • Aert de Gelder
  • Hendrik Goltzius
  • Pieter de Grebber
  • Cornelis van Haarlem
  • Hendrik Heerschop
  • Pauwels van Hillegaert
  • Gerard Hoet
  • Cornelis Holsteyn
  • Gerrit van Honthorst
  • Samuel van Hoogstraten
  • Arnold Houbraken
  • Michael Angelo Immenraet
  • Pieter Isaacsz
  • Lambert Jacobsz
  • Jacob Jordaens
  • Nicolaes Knüpfer
  • Salomon Koninck
  • Gerard de Lairesse
  • Pieter Lastman
  • Jan Lievens
  • Johannes Lingelbach
  • Jacob van Loo
  • Karel van Mander
  • Claes Cornelisz.Moeyaert
  • Paulus Moreelse
  • Daniel Mijtens the Younger
  • Jan Baptist van Meunincxhove
  • Eglon van der Neer
  • Adriaen van Nieulandt
  • Abraham Janssens van Nuyssen
  • Jacob van Oost the Elder
  • Jacob van Oost the Younger
  • Palamedes Palamedesz
  • Cornelius van Poelenburgh
  • Willem de Poorter
  • Jacob Pynas
  • Jan Pynas
  • Erasmus Quellinus II
  • Nicolas Regnier
  • Pieter Cornelisz van Rijck
  • Rembrandt van Rijn
  • Peter Paul Rubens
  • David Rijckaert (III)
  • Cornelis Saftleven
  • Joris van Schooten
  • Pieter Snayers
  • Frans Snyders
  • Matthias Stom
  • Jacob van Swanenburg
  • Abraham van den Tempel
  • Jan Tengnagel
  • David Teniers the Elder
  • David Teniers the Younger
  • Theodoor van Thulden
  • Moses van Uyttenbroeck
  • Gillis van Valckenborch
  • Otto van Veen
  • Esaias van de Velde
  • Adriaen Pietersz van de Venne
  • Johannes Vermeer
  • Simon de Vos
  • Cornelis de Wael
  • Jan Baptist Weenix
  • Jan Weenix
  • Adriaen van der Werff
  • Pieter van der Werff
  • Thomas Willeboirts Bosschaert
  • Frans Wouters
  • Philips Wouwerman
  • Joachim Wtewael

Tronies, portrait, selfportrait, equestrian, groupsportrait, military

  • Pieter van Anraedt
  • Jan de Baen
  • David Bailly
  • Jan van Bijlert
  • Abraham van Blyenberch
  • Gerard ter Borch
  • Gesina ter Borch
  • Jan de Bray
  • Gonzales Coques
  • John de Critz the elder
  • Jacob Gerritszoon Cuyp
  • Jan Frans van Douven
  • Anthony van Dyck
  • Albert Eckhout
  • Wybrand de Geest
  • Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger
  • Frans Pietersz de Grebber
  • Johannes van Haensbergen
  • Frans Hals
  • Daniel Haringh
  • Bartholomeus van der Helst
  • Jan van den Hoecke
  • Ludolf Leendertsz de Jongh
  • Thomas de Keyser
  • Roelof Koets of Zwolle
  • Sir Peter Lely
  • Isaac Luttichuys
  • Frans Luycx
  • Jacob Levecq
  • Nicolaes Maes
  • Pieter Meert
  • Michel Jansz van Mierevelt
  • Jan van Mieris
  • Daniel Mytens the Elder
  • Caspar Netscher
  • David van der Plas
  • Pieter van der Plas
  • Hendrick Gerritsz Pot
  • Jan Antonisz. van Ravesteyn
  • Arnold van Ravesteyn
  • Jan Albertsz. Rotius
  • Dirck van Santvoort
  • Godfried Schalcken
  • Anthoon Schoonjans
  • Paul Van Somer
  • Pieter Claesz Soutman
  • Justus Sustermans
  • Wallerant Vaillant
  • Johanna Vergouwen
  • Jan Verkolje
  • Johannes Cornelisz. Verspronck
  • Jacob Ferdinand Voet
  • Ary de Vois
  • Cornelis de Vos
  • Willem Wissing

Genre, scenes of daily life, music

  • Cornelis Pietersz Bega
  • Charles Emmanuel Biset
  • Peter van Bloemen
  • Balthasar van den Bossche
  • Andries Both
  • Esaias Boursse
  • Adriaen Brouwer
  • Hendrick van der Burgh
  • Willem Pieterszoon Buytewech
  • Pieter Codde
  • Joos van Craesbeeck
  • Gerrit Dou
  • Joost Cornelisz Droochsloot
  • Jacob Duck
  • Willem Cornelisz Duyster
  • Dirck Hals
  • Pieter de Hooch
  • Pieter van Laer
  • Judith Leyster
  • Gabriel Metsu
  • Jan Miel
  • Jan Miense Molenaer
  • Frans van Mieris the Elder
  • Willem van Mieris
  • Adriaen vam Ostade
  • Anthonie Palamedesz
  • Theodoor Rombouts
  • Michael Sweerts
  • Jan Steen
  • Johannes Vermeer
  • Sebastian Vrancx
  • Thomas Wyck

Landscape, seascape, city scape, winter, night

  • Lucas Achtschellinck
  • Jacques d'Arthois
  • Jan Asselijn
  • Jan Abrahamsz Beerstraaten
  • Nicolaes Pietersz. Berchem
  • Paul and Mattheus Brill
  • Anthonie van Borssom
  • Jan Dirksz Both
  • Abraham Van Calraet
  • Gillis van Coninxloo
  • Albert Cuyp
  • Dirck Dalens the Elder
  • Guillam Dubois
  • Pieter Janssens Elinga
  • Allaert van Everdingen
  • Abraham Genoels
  • Jan van Goyen
  • Abel Grimmer
  • Joris van der Haagen
  • Jan Hackaert
  • Dirck Helmbreker
  • Jacob de Heusch
  • Willem de Heusch
  • Meindert Hobbema
  • Gillis d'Hondecoeter
  • Cornelis Huysmans
  • Philips Augustijn Immenraet
  • François van Knibbergen
  • Philip de Koninck
  • Govert van der Leeuw
  • Jean-François Millet (I)
  • Pieter de Molijn
  • Frederick de Moucheron
  • Isaac de Moucheron
  • Aert van der Neer
  • Pieter de Neyn
  • Jan van Nickelen
  • Bonaventura Peeters
  • Egbert Van Der Poel
  • Frans Post
  • Adam Pynacker
  • Roelant Roghman
  • Jacob Van Ruisdael
  • Salomon van Ruysdael
  • Marten Rijckaert
  • Pieter Rijsbraeck
  • Herman Saftleven
  • Jacob Savery the Elder
  • Willem Schellinks
  • Hercules Seghers
  • Adriaen van Stalbemt
  • Lucas van Uden
  • Lodewijk de Vadder
  • Adriaen van de Velde
  • Jan Vermeer of Haarlem
  • Daniel Vosmaer
  • Jan Wijnants
  • Jan Wildens
  • Matthias Withoos
  • Gaspar van Wittel
  • Pieter Wouwerman


  • Gerrit Berckheyde
  • Thomas Heeremans
  • Jan van der Heyden
  • Jan van Kessel of Amsterdam


  • Aert Anthonisz
  • Hendrick van Anthonissen
  • Ludolf Bakhuizen
  • Jan Theunisz Blanckerhoff
  • Jan van Capelle
  • Jeronymus van Diest
  • Willem van Diest
  • Andries van Eertvelt
  • Hendrik van Minderhout
  • Pieter Mulier the Elder
  • Reinier Nooms
  • Bonaventura Peeters
  • Jan Peeters I
  • Jan Porcellis
  • Julius Porcellis
  • Isaac Sailmaker
  • Willem van de Velde the Elder
  • Willem van de Velde the Younger
  • Lieve Pieterszoon Verschuier
  • Abraham de Verwer
  • Simon de Vlieger
  • Hendrick Cornelisz Vroom
  • Cornelis Claesz van Wieringen
  • Adam Willaerts

Animals, hunting

  • Jan Fyt
  • Melchior d’Hondecoeter
  • Paulus Potter
  • Roelant Savery
  • Paul de Vos

Still life, flowers, food, vanitas, Trompe l’oeil

  • Willem van Aelst
  • Balthasar van der Ast
  • Jan Anton van der Baren
  • Osias Beert
  • Martin Boelema de Stomme
  • Hans Bollongier
  • Ambrosius Bosschaert the Elder
  • Ambrosius Bosschaert II
  • Abraham Bosschaert
  • Johannes Bosschaert
  • Joseph de Bray
  • Elias van den Broeck
  • Pieter Claesz
  • Evert Collier
  • Adriaan Coorte
  • Alexander Coosemans
  • Andries Daniels
  • Cornelis Jacobsz. Delff
  • Isaac van Duynen
  • Floris van Dyck
  • Jan Baptist van Fornenburgh
  • Willem Gabron
  • Pieter Gallis
  • Jan Pauwel Gillemans
  • Nicolaes Gillis
  • Gerrit Willemsz Heda
  • Willem Claeszoon Heda
  • Cornelis de Heem
  • Jan Davidsz. de Heem
  • Jan Janszoon de Heem
  • Jacob van Hulsdonck
  • Willem Kalf
  • Jan van Kessel
  • Cornelis Kick
  • Roelof Koets
  • Nicolaes Lachtropius
  • Simon Luttichuys
  • Cornelis van der Meulen
  • Abraham Mignon
  • Maria van Oosterwijck
  • Clara Peeters
  • Pieter Gerritsz van Roestraten
  • Rachel Ruysch
  • Floris van Schooten
  • Otto Marseus van Schrieck
  • Harmen Steenwijck
  • Pieter Steenwijk
  • Christiaen Striep
  • Jan Philips van Thielen
  • Johannes Torrentius
  • Jan Jansz. Treck
  • Jan Jansz. den Uyl
  • Adriaen van Utrecht
  • Jan Jansz. van de Velde
  • Vincent Laurensz van der Vinne
  • Matthias Withoos
  • Catarina Ykens-Floquet
  • Frans Ykens

Others, interiors, skating

  • Hendrick Avercamp
  • Bartholomeus van Bassen
  • Job Berckheyde
  • Abraham Blooteling
  • Dirck van Delen
  • Pieter Janssens Elinga
  • Wilhelm Schubert van Ehrenberg
  • Jacob de Gheyn II
  • Gerard Houckgeest
  • Cornelis de Man
  • Pieter Neefs the Elder
  • Peeter Neeffs (II)
  • Pieter Jansz Saenredam
  • Jacobus Ferdinandus Saey
  • Hendrick van Steenwyck (II)
  • Hendrick Cornelisz van Vliet
  • Paul Vredeman de Vries
  • Emanuel de Witte

The enormous success of 17th-century Dutch painting overpowered the work of subsequent generations, and no Dutch painter of the 18th century—nor, arguably, a 19th-century one before Van Gogh—is well known outside the Netherlands. Already by the end of the period artists were complaining that buyers were more interested in dead than living artists.

If only because of the enormous quantities produced, Dutch Golden Age painting has always formed a significant part of collections of Old Master paintings, itself a term invented in the 18th century to describe Dutch Golden Age artists. Taking only Wouwerman paintings in old royal collections, there are more than 60 in Dresden and over 50 in the Hermitage. But the reputation of the period has shown many changes and shifts of emphasis. One nearly constant factor has been admiration for Rembrandt, especially since the Romantic period. Other artists have shown drastic shifts in critical fortune and market price; at the end of the period some of the active Leiden fijnschilders had enormous reputations, but since the mid-19th century realist works in various genres have been far more appreciated.
Brexit: British officials drop 'cake and eat it' approach to negotiations
Exclusive: insiders say ministers will have to choose between economic interests or sovereignty but Brexit department denies any change of mood
By Dan Roberts

“We have a problem in that really there are only two viable options,” one official told the Guardian. “One is a high-access, low-control arrangement which looks a bit like the EEA. The other is a low-access, high-control arrangement where you eventually end up looking like Ceta – a more classic free trade agreement, if you are lucky.

We’re NOT ‘gods’ chosen people


“I absolutely hate when folks say blacks are gods chosen people. It in no way possible. African have to experience hate from every other race. Arabs started the slave trade.. Europeans operated the slave trade for 17 centuries.. Asians despise us and still have black face on tv. Canadians let us starve… and Mexico killed the blacks off there… I could keep going.. but my point is the fact that are race still exist is a great thing I credit my ancestors not some mystical guy in the sky..”

This spice cellar, made to hold precious seasonings at the table, is of a typical northern European design. Major trade commodities in ancient and medieval times, salt and other spices were used both to preserve meat and to enhance the flavor of all types of food (often not very fresh). Some spices came from Asia and were very expensive. This whimsical container, in the form of a little ship on wheels, could be rolled from one guest to another.
ca. 1400

While Europeans targeted men in West Africa the Arab trade primarily targeted the women of East Africa to serve as domestic slaves, wet nannies and sex-slaves in the infamous harems and This trade trickled over millennia is estimated to have taken more than 10 million African via the Swahili coast to India, Saudi Arabia, China, and Turkey and also via the Trans-Saharan route to North Africa and the Mediterranean, where in slave markets such as Ceuta, Morocco Africans were purchased to work as domestic servants in Spain, Portugal and other Western European countries