european religion

How To Start A War On Accident

Did you know that the Thirty Years’ War – one of the longest and most destructive wars in Europe, a war so bad that Europe never fought again over religion – was started by three men being thrown out of a window?

The men were the Catholic regents of the Catholic emperor of Bohemia. Under the rules governing the Holy Roman Empire which Bohemia was part of, individual princes could choose what religion their subjects followed. Religious freedom, yay! As you may have guessed the Bohemians were ordered to be Catholic. This did not sit well with Protestant nobles in Prague. When the Bohemian authorities started cracking down on their Protestant churches, they called an assembly at Prague Castle, and demanded the four regents answer for their actions.

After some talking, two regents were let go. But two were held back. After a nice little speech about their tyranny, both men were thrown out the third-story window. Then their secretary, for good measure. It goes down in history as “The Defenestration of Prague.”

All three were badly hurt, but survived. “A miracle!” claimed the Catholics, “They fell in a dung-heap!” claimed the Protestants. Within days, troops were being mobilized, and within months Bohemia was ablaze. Most of central Europe would catch fire. And millions would die because of the actions of a handful of noblemen in Prague.

sometimes i feel there’s a tendency to forget that Christianity is a religion that was born in the Middle East…not a religion founded by Europe. Many people in the MENA were Christian when Europe was still worshipping its pagan gods and polytheistic pantheons. yes, it is important to wrestle with how Europeans, after they converted to Christianity due to Roman imperialism, used it themselves as a tool for their own imperialism. but conflating the history of Christianity with whiteness comes off to me as actually a reproduction of white supremacy itself. like we’re attributing things to Europeans/whiteness again, and forgetting its Middle-Eastern roots. Eurocentric history, no?

this is actively harmful when it leads to the notion that Christians everywhere = privileged. they are not- MENA Christians are facing genocidal violence at the hands of ISIS right now, for instance. these people are not white or Westerners who can escape from this via Western privilege. If we go further back in time, the Ottoman Empire’s genocide was targeted at Armenians, Assyrians and Greeks, who were Christian minorities in what’s now modern Turkey. 


The oldest depiction of the universe

This is one of the most important archaeological finds of the 20th Century and the oldest depiction of the universe so far. Called the Nebra sky disc, named for the town where it was found in 1999, the artifact has been dated back to 1600 BC. It was buried about 3,600 years ago but could be much older. It has been associated with the European Bronze Age Unetice culture.

When it was first crafted, it would have been golden brown because the disc itself is made from bronze. Over time, the it corroded to green. Fortunately, the symbols are made of gold and thanks to them we know it was possibly an astronomical instrument.
There’s Sun, a central to northern European Bronze Age religion and the crescent moon (in ancient times, the moon was used to represent time). The clump between the sun and moon are thought to be the Pleiades constellation, which was an imporant constellation for Bronze Age farmers because it appeared and disappeared in important farming times. So the Nebra disc could have told people the right time to plant and harvest.

What’s more, astronomer Wolfhard Schlosser, at the University of Hamburg, found that if you draw a line from the center of the disc to the top and bottom end of the right arc, the angle between the two ends measures exactly 82 degrees. And it’s the same value for the left golden arc. This number is very important for only a small group of people who live at the same latitude as the current German town of Nebra since it’s the angle between where the sun sets on the horizon in mid-winter and mid-summer.

The bronze disc combines an extraordinary comprehension of astronomical phenomena enabling to peak into the early knowledge of the heavens. It’s   shocking it was almost lost to the black market.

Die Burg Hohenzollern. The House of Hohenzollern is a dynasty of former princes, electors, kings, and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania. The family arose in the area around the town of Hechingen in Swabia during the 11th century; their first ancestor was mentioned in 1061. They may have derived from the Burchardinger dynasty. The Hohenzollerns split into 2 branches, the Catholic Swabian branch and the Protestant Franconian branch, which later became the Brandenburg-Prussian branch. The Swabian branch ruled the principalities of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen until 1849, it also ruled Romania from 1866-1947. Members of the Franconian branch became Margrave of Brandenburg in 1415 and Duke of Prussia in 1525.

Jean-Baptiste Greuze (1725-1805)
“Votive Offering to Cupid” (1767)
Oil paint

A votive offering is one or more objects displayed or deposited, without the intention of recovery or use, in a sacred place for broadly religious purposes.

Balkanic Islam is ignored and misunderstood, perhaps because it is an integrated Islam, compatible with the cultural picture , with the formative values of the countries of the old Europe  and therefore there is no need for any special protection.
These choices have the effect of depriving the entire memory of the community, of misunderstanding values and experiences of longevity elaboration, delivering to the ranks of the “reborn” of Islam - and hence to fundamentalism - individuals and groups that have developed instead an experience of secularization of religious and cultural values of considerable interest in Europe. It is not alien  to this policy the need to enhance the so-called Jewish-Christian roots of Europe to the detriment of the competition of other cultural components and religious backgrounds that have also fueled cultural richness overall of the continent and have made it a privileged place to development of scientific thought.
—  G. Cimbalo: The Islamic experience of Eastern Europe as a contribution to a shared regulation of religious freedom in Italy

“In the recorded cosmic or Midgard concepts of the Indo-Europeans, man has his proper place in the great scheme of ordered life, but he is not enchained to it as are the oriental religions, with their star worship and priestly prophesies of the future — the study of entrails and the flight of birds, practised by the Babylonians, Etruscans and others. He appears in a trusting relationship with his God, whose nature itself is connected with the world order, and he joins with this God on a national scale in the struggle against all powers hostile to man and God, against chaos, against Utgard. The Indo-European recognises Midgard, the earth-space, as the field in which he may fulfil his destiny, cherishing life as a cultivator or farmer, where plants, animals and men are each called to grow and ripen into powerful forces asserting themselves within the timeless order. Guilt in man — not sin — arises wherever an individual defies or threatens this order and attempts through short-sighted obstinacy to oppose the divine universal order in life. For such a crime an individual incurs guilt. By such a crime, his people are threatened with the danger of decline and degeneration, and the world order with confusion and distortion.“

~   Hans F. K. Guenther,  The Religious Attitudes of the Indo-Europeans

Trier (Luxembourgish: Tréier; Italian: Treviri, French: Trèves) in Rheinland-Pfalz, Southwestern Germany lies on the river Mosel in a valley between vine-covered hills, near the border with Luxembourg in an important wine-growing region. Founded by the Romans in the 1st century BC as Augusta Treverorum, it may be the oldest city in Germany. It’s also the oldest seat of a bishop north of the Alps. In the Middle Ages, the Archbishop of Trier was important as he controlled land from the French border to the Rhein. He also had great significance as 1 of the 7 electors of the Holy Roman Empire. With a population of 105,000, Trier is now the 4th-largest city in its state after Mainz, Ludwigshafen, and Koblenz. The nearest major cities are Luxembourg (50 km), Saarbrücken (80 km), and Koblenz (100 km). Trier is home to the University of Trier, founded in 1473, closed in 1796 and restarted in 1970. The city also has the Trier University of Applied Sciences. Apart from the local wines and beers (local Löwenbräu, or Gaffel Kölsch & Bitburger), one should definitely try Viez or Viez/Limo. It’s an apple wine, often served with a splash of lemonade.


:Yore: : The Abyss of Darkness: 

1. Hearing I ask | from the holy races,
From Heimdall’s sons, | both high and low;
Thou wilt, Valfather, | that well I relate
Old tales I remember | of men long ago.

2. I remember yet | the giants of yore,
Who gave me bread | in the days gone by;
Nine worlds I knew, | the nine in the tree
With mighty roots | beneath the mold.

3. Of old was the age | when Ymir lived;
Sea nor cool waves | nor sand there were;
Earth had not been, | nor heaven above,
But a yawning gap, | and grass nowhere.

4. Then Bur’s sons lifted | the level land,
Mithgarth the mighty | there they made;
The sun from the south | warmed the stones of earth,
And green was the ground | with growing leeks.

5. The sun, the sister | of the moon, from the south
Her right hand cast | over heaven’s rim;
No knowledge she had | where her home should be,
The moon knew not | what might was his,
The stars knew not | where their stations were


Describing the Signs in AP European References

Aries: You’re as fierce than the Byzantine Empire as it swept it’s way through the Mediterranean and conquered land

Taurus: You’re as stubborn than the first estate in France in the 1800′s refusing that they were in debt from all the wars they fought and lost

Gemini: You’re as happy as Great Britain was during the Victorian Era, where science and industrial breakthrough’s took place

Cancer: You’re as caring as the servants were to the Renaissance children, and tried to keep them alive past the age of 20

Leo: You’re as bold as the Rebellions of 1848, where several European countries rebelled against their monarchial government in favor of more liberal ideals. 

Virgo: You’re as rebellious as Galileo was, promoting the sciences against Church wishes

Libra: You’re like Queen Isabella of Castlie and King Ferdinand of Aragon, trying to promote peace by uniting their Spanish nation under one Catholic religion, but ending up really problematic because they put in place the Spanish Inquisition converting or killing anyone who wasn’t Catholic

Scorpio: You’re as underrated as the Golden of Age of the Dutch, as their citizens lived in peace, established the first national bank, and unanimously promoted Protestantism

Sagittarius: You’re as go getter as the European States were during the Age of Imperialism, conquering land but refusing to deal with the consequences

Capricorn: You were broken, but now fixed like the Italian States in 1830 when Garibaldi unified North and South Italy 

Aquarius: You’re as innovative as Otto Von Bismark of Prussia as he ruled with an Iron First and helped gain territory and unite with Germany

Pisces: You’re as sensitive as the Catholics and Protestants were to each other, igniting the thirty years war

Character sheets (part two)

Okay, his class. “Hunter-vampire”. Dude, don’t suck blood. Suck dick. HUEHUEHUEHUE.

I’m okay with the first point but DUDE the second one is also a lie. Why is everyone lying? He’s totally bisexual, you can’t deny it. Proof:

(s13e7) He’s gay with Kevin, don’t lie. He’s putting his head on his shoulder.

His alignment is neutral, he’s the first one I’m able to believe with that.

His religion is Catholicism, I have nothing against that but I don’t think they’re okay with you sucking blood from strangers? xD

His power source is blood… Idky but I’m confused with that, but everything is clear am I really that dumb? Yes I am.

HIS KRYPTONITE ARE THE RAISINS GIRLS?! CLYDE I WANNA PUNISH YOU FOR WRITING THAT DOWN YOU PERVERT. He’s like a BABY in my eyes but he isn’t? He’s an asshole and like you can see he’s a pervert? But I think he’s cute and childish and idk? Why am I like this? Why does my heart hurt?

Tweek is the third avatar. I’m so weak.

Like you see, here’s the second gay. He wears similar clothes like his boyfriend Craig Tucker, to express their love and that they’re a team. And like you see, if you look at me, here’s an inner-emotional (yes that exists) bitch who is dying rn.

His alignment is lawful, TWEEK YOU’RE PERFECT I LOVE YOU. Craig and Tweek are literary Ying and Yang, you can’t deny it.

I was shocked as I saw that he’s a Buddhist. He was catholic, so I think he converted. I didn’t expected that, but it fits him. That cute lil cutie.

Again, his power source is love. So cheesy and gay.

His caffeine addiction is his kryptonite BUT his solo ulti is him, drinking a full can of coffee and being strong afterwards? Or do I just misunderstand that? Because, like I understand, coffee makes him strong, so why should his addiction be fatal?

I love Jimmy, he’s so cute look at that picture. And it’s so cute that he’s the flash with crutches. Like his dream came true? I’m so soft when I see fastpass.

But he’s a human cyborg? Where’s he cyborg? Because his crutches?

His sex/gender is “yes please”… here’s a post about that.


His religion is speed. Yes okay, baby. I just let this here, uncommented.

His power source are bionic implants I WANT TO CRY. He deserves being healthy, I want this bean to be happy. He’s so cute with everything he does. Look at that cute smile. Or his urge to make others laugh. HE’S AN ANGEL.

I don’t want him to have a kryptonite because he doesn’t deserve one, but he has. Friction. Why? Because he’s so fast and fast plus friction could cause a fire? Aww, he’s so intelligent.

Stan, my babe. I love him. But altered human? Because his tools? South Park got me there, second time, that’s funny. xD

It was clear that he’s straight, and he’s straight, but I want him to be biromantic and homosexual. But he isn’t. Sigh.

HOW IS HE LAWFUL AND WENDY ISN’T I DON’T UNDERSTAND. But I bet he just follows Kyle. Lol.

His religion is metric system? Stan you European nerd. His religion are metres. Wtf dude. I know you’re with tools and that you’re an altered human but you don’t have to be SO altered.

220V is his power source, Stan waddup.

His kryptonite is dust and corrosion. Why not rust? Lol.

The best for last. That pic looks cool tho.

His race/ethnicity is unknown? Okay I’m curious now. I mean, he’s immortal. But he’s as Kenny McCormick too. Maybe he’s not even a human? I really want to know rn.

Straight? HAHAHAHA WTF. That’s a big fat lie, fatter than Cartman’s ass and THAT MEANS SOMETHING. He’s something ‘uncommon’ like Wendy, polysexual or pansexual. But not straight. HAHAHA

He’s lawful, that fits him. He wants justice that’s why he stared the freedom pals. I love Ken. c:

His religion is fatalism, it fits him. I don’t think that he believes in the 'common god’, more in a higher force.

His power source is cthulhu. Idk but I imagine cthulhu sending Ken power in a ball-form, and he screams “MORREEE I NEEEEDD MOOORREE”. Don’t be a pervert, I’m just a boring girl who imagines innocent stuff.

His kryptonite is poverty, DON’T TOUCH ME. I WANT KENNY TO BE HAPPY. But it fits, I mean, he’s like batman and batman is rich? But still, I want Kenny having a good life.

That was the second part. I need that game, I’m so hyped. Goodbye.

German Folklore

German folklore is the folk tradition which has naturally developed in Germany over the centuries. It shares many characteristics with Scandinavian and English folklore due to their origins in Germanic mythology, reflecting a similar mix of influences: a pre-Christian pantheon and other beings equivalent to those of Norse mythology; magical characters (often pre-Christian) associated with Christian festivals, and various regional stories. 

As in Scandinavia, when belief in the old gods disappeared, remnants of the mythos persisted: Holda, a supernatural patron of spinning; the Lorelei, a dangerous Rhein siren derived from 19th century literature; the spirit Berchta (aka Perchta); the Weisse Frauen, a water spirit said to protect children; the Wild Hunt (in German folklore preceded by an old man, Honest Eckart, who warns others of its approach); the giant Rübezahl; changeling legends; and many more generic entities such as the elf, dwarf, kobold, and erlking.

Popular holiday-related folklore includes Krampus and Knecht Ruprecht, a rough companion to Santa Claus; the Lutzelfrau, a Yule witch who must be appeased with small presents, the Osterhase (the original Easter Bunny), and Walpurgisnacht, a spring festival derived from Pagan customs. Character folklore includes the stories of Pied Piper of Hameln, the trickster hero Till Eulenspiegel, the Town Musicians of Bremen, and Faust.

Documentation and preservation of folklore in the German states was initially fostered in the 18th and 19th centuries. The Saxon author Johann Karl August Musäus was an early collector; study was further promoted by Prussian poet and philosopher Johann Gottfried von Herder. His belief in the role of folklore in ethnic nationalism - a folklore of Germany as a nation rather than of disunited German-speaking peoples - inspired the Brothers Grimm, Goethe and others. Folklore elements, such as the Rhine Maidens and the Grimms’ The Story of a Boy Who Went Forth to Learn Fear, formed part of the source material for Richard Wagner’s opera cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen. Some of the works of Washington Irving - notably Rip van Winkle and The Legend of Sleepy Hollow - are based on German folktales.

Within Germany, the nationalistic aspect was further emphasized during the National Socialist era. Folklore studies, Volkskunde, were co-opted as a political tool to seek out traditional customs in order to support the idea of historical continuity within a Germanic culture.