europe today

Concept

Dan and Phil letting me live for a sec

Merry Christmas! Happy Hanukkah! Happy Holidays!

I want to wish everyone a lot of happiness and strenght in the end of this crazy year. Even if you don’t celebrate anything today, make yourself some hot dring, get in a blanket and watch something nice, make a happy nice day. :) And have some holiday cuteness! :D 

@wiishu,  Glædelig Jul! from someone deep in central europe celebrating today as well :D

@therealjacksepticeye Merry christmas, man. Thanks for another awesome year!

Chemists have a species of powder out of which they can make marble, but it must have time to become solid.
— 

Napoleon Bonaparte, on why he fought so hard to ensure his reign lasted long enough to have his policies cemented in time. Indeed, Napoleon’s policies are felt throughout Europe even today.

Also, on a personal note, it serves as a thought as to why, even if you’re smart, you need time to let ideas coalesce. Don’t do things last minute. Ideas need to churn.

This public force exists in every state; it consists not merely of armed men, but also of material appendages, prisons and coercive institutions of all kinds, of which gentile society knew nothing. It may be very insignificant, practically negligible, in societies with still undeveloped class antagonisms and living in remote areas, as at times and in places in the United States of America. But it becomes stronger in proportion as the class antagonisms within the state become sharper and as adjoining states grow larger and more populous. It is enough to look at Europe today, where class struggle and rivalry in conquest have brought the public power to a pitch that it threatens to devour the whole of society and even the state itself.
—  Engels - Origins of the Family 1884
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HAVE A SAFE FLIGHT HOME @aozu ♡ I’LL MISS YOU 。゚(゚´Д`゚)゚。

My GIRL IS LANDING BACK FROM EUROPE TODAY AND I’M HYPE!!!

also, moving forward!: all of my album reviews & recommendations will be going through @fifteengallery & the fifteen.gallery website!!

make sure you give us a follow and if you want to see reviews, that’s where they’ll be along with my recommendations (maybe some not all) in the future :^)

there are no more nazis. there are neonazis. i know it may sound more impressive to yell about “LITERAL NAZIS” but the people we have around are not literal nazis, and it’s an important distinction. literal nazis are the people who killed much of my grandparents’ extended families in early 1900s Europe. neonazis are around today. calling them literal nazis as a rhetorical flourish to make them sounds scarier, even though they deserve to be demonized to all hell, to me at least feels like disrespecting the memory of everyone who was hurt by the original, actual nazis. please stop calling them nazis and start calling them neonazis.

October 29

It’s the last show of the 7/27 Tour!!

Fifth Harmony were in Antwerp, Belgium to end their tour which spanned 50 shows in North America, Mexico, and Europe.

Normani’s look today!


Ally’s Snapchat from backstage!

She jammed with Aleem.


Backstage with the tour crew!


It was a very emotional night!

Dinah did a little Q&A with her girls before singing Brave Honest Beautiful, where they reminisced about the best parts of the past 4 years they’ve been a group:


As a surprise to the fans, the girls also performed I’m In Love With A Monster as the encore song!

Of course, the last show wouldn’t be complete without the traditional 5H pranks!

Dinah pranked Aleem, and Lauren and Normani joined her in pranking Camryn.

The girls, in turn, got pranked onstage during IILWAM and Lauren got caked backstage!


Congratulations for an amazing tour, Fifth Harmony!


ICYMI, Lauren got a new tattoo near her left wrist! It’s the name of her late grandmother, Angelica.


Halloween is coming up! what will the girls be?

Video here.


Fifth Harmony is heading back to the US for some well-deserved rest! Until then, don’t forget to vote for the EMA’s and AMA’s!

ok so!! first day of Europe today!! we went to Milan and now we’re in cinque terre & im sad bc none of my snaps would post!!!! keep up w me on Instagram though & ill try my best to make the snaps work tomorrow

When Africans saved Europe

In the world today it would be correct to say that the perception of Africans and there capability to form formidable, long lasting and civilized societies has been so terribly tarnished as to make the title of this article surprising. However, that was not always the case.

It is well known that strong and prosperous empires existed in Africa  before the impressive Roman Empire such as Ancient Kemet(Ancient Egypt), The Aksumite Empire and The Nubian Empire just to name a few. The Roman Empire fell nonetheless and Europe was plunged into the dark middle ages full of war, ignorance and skepticism. Europe was in dire need of help. At this point Africans of Berber and Arabic origin known as Moors (a word used for centuries to mean black people or African) had converted to Islam and had a great curiosity and desire for learning.    

The Moors led by Tarik ibn Ziyad expanded into Spain and conquered most of the region easily overrunning the Visgothic kingdom of Roderick to beyond the Pyrenees in France only to be held back by Charles Martel of the Frankish kingdom effectively establishing Moorish rule over the region. A European scholar sympathetic to the Spaniards remembered the conquest in this way:

a. [T]he reins of their (Moors) horses were as fire, their faces black as pitch, their eyes shone like burning candles, their horses were swift as leopards and the riders fiercer than a wolf in a sheepfold at night … The noble Goths [the German rulers of Spain to whom Roderick belonged] were broken in an hour, quicker than tongue can tell. Oh luckless Spain! [i]

[i] Quoted in Edward Scobie, The Moors and Portugal’s Global Expansion, in Golden Age of the Moor, ed Ivan Van Sertima, US, Transaction Publishers, 1992, p.336

The Moors brought with them a myriad of benefits to the region throughout their over 700 year rule from 711 AD to 1492.

The intellectual achievements of the Moors in Spain had a lasting effect; education was universal in Moorish Spain, while in Christian Europe, 99 percent of the population was illiterate, and even kings could neither read nor write. At a time when Europe had only two universities, the Moors had seventeen, located in Almeria, Cordova, Granada, Juen, Malaga, Seville, and Toledo. In the 10th and 11th centuries, public libraries in Europe were non-existent, while Moorish Spain could boast of more than 70, including one in Cordova that housed hundreds of thousands of manuscripts. Universities in Paris and Oxford were established after visits by scholars to Moorish Spain. It was this system of education, taken to Europe by the Moors that seeded the European Renaissance.

In the 10th Century, Cordoba was not just the capital of Al Andalus (Moorish Spain) but also one of the most important cities in the world, rivaling Baghdad and Constantinople.  It boasted a population of 500,000 (200,000 more than now) and had street lighting, fifty hospitals with running water, three hundred public baths, five hundred mosques and seventy libraries – one of which held over 500,000 books. The Moorish achievement in hydraulic engineering was outstanding. They constructed an aqueduct which conveyed water from the mountains to the city through lead pipes. All of this, at a time when London had a largely illiterate population of around 20,000 and had forgotten the technical advances of the Romans some 600 hundred years before. Paved and lighted streets did not appear in London or Paris for hundreds of years later.

That is just but the tip of the ice berg as paper making was brought to Spain by the Moors, allowing the growth of libraries and, thereby, the accurate preservation and dispersal of knowledge – with Xativa, in Valencia, having the first paper factory in Europe. Polymath Ibn Firnas made the first scientific attempt to fly in a controlled manner, in 875 A.D.  His attempt evidently worked, although the landing was less successful. The “father of modern surgery,” Abu al-Quasim (Al Zahrawi), was a Moor who was born in Cordoba. During a practice that lasted fifty years, he developed a range of innovative and precise surgical instruments, while writing a text book that was to be a cornerstone of Western medical training for the next 500 years. In addition to this the Moors brought hygiene in form of soaps and deodorant influenced cuisine greatly and also taught the Europeans how to store grain for up to 100 years and built underground grain silos.

Unfortunately, after the triumph of Ferdinand and Isabella’s armies over the Moors effectively ending Moorish rule in Europe a systematic censorship and deletion of the glory of this empire began. Their irreplaceable role in Europe’s history was diminished leaving only Moorish art and architecture to bear testament to the greatness of the Moors whose contributions to Western Europe were incalculable.


Post by:  gicheruwagicheruposts