eupulmonata

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“Blue Slug” (Bielzia coerulans)

Also commonly known as the Carpathian Blue Slug, the blue slug is a large species of keelback slug (Limacidae) that is endemic to the Carpathian Mountains in Eastern Europe. B. coerulans typically inhabits both deciduous and coniferous forests in its range and is usually seen in leaf litter and under dead wood. Like other slugs blue slugs are generalists and will feed on mushrooms. lichens, and plant matter.

Classification

Animalia-Mollusca-Gastropoda-Heterobranchia-Euthyneura-Panpulmonata-Eupulmonata-Stylommatophora-Sigmurethra-Limacoidea-Limacidae-Limacinae-Bielzia-B. coerulans

Images: Alex Zelenko and Martian Vaculik

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Red Slug (Arion rufus)

Also known as the chocolate arion, large red slug or the European red slug, the reg slug is a species of “roundback slug” (Arionidae) that is though to be native to northwestern Europe. However, its distribution is unclear as it has bee widely introduced and is easily confused. For example despite being known as the red slug A. rufus also has a black morph and is almost indistinguishable from the Black slug A. aterRed slugs typically inhabit wooded areas and dry coastal habitats. Like many other slugs A. rufus is an omnivore and will feed on a wide variety of foods including carrion, fungi, and vegetation.

Classification

Animalia-Mollusca-Gastropoda-Heterobranchia-Euthyneura-Panpulmonata-Eupulmonata-Stylommatophora-Sigmurethra-Arionoidea-Arionidae-Arion-A. rufus

Images: Guilaume Brocker and Hans Hillewaert

Red Triangle Slug (Triboniophorus graeffei)

…a large species of terrestrial Athoracophorid slug which is endemic to eastern Australia, where it is often seen in numerous damp areas, like forests, woodlands, gardens, and shrubland. Like other species of slug, red triangle slugs feed mainly on algae which are grazed of the surface of trees and rocks. T. graeffei can be very variable in color, and research is currently being done to  determine if some variations are separate species/subspecies. 

Classification

Animalia-Mollusca-Gastropoda-Heterobranchia-Euthyneura-Panpulmonata-Eupulmonata-Stylommatophora-Elasmognatha-Athoracophoroidea-Athoracophoridae-Triboniophorus-T. graeffei

Image: Rus Runciman

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Rosy Wolfsnail (Euglandina rosea)

…also sometimes known as the “Cannibal Snail” the rosy wolfsnail is a large species of predatory spiraxid land snail that is native to tropical North America, but has been become invasive elsewhere. True to what its common name eludes to Euglandina rosea is a predator and will feed on other species of snails and slugs which are caught and ingested whole. Due to its habit as a voracious predator E. rosea has been purposely introduced in Hawaii in attempts to eliminate the invasive giant African land snail (Achatina fulcia), however E. rosea not only attacked A. fulcia but other species like Achatinella spp., hunting them to near extinction.

Classification

Animalia-Mollusca-Gastropoda-Heterobranchia-Euthyneura-Eupulmonata-Stylommatophora-Sigmurethra-Spiraxidae-Euglandina-E. rosea

Images: Dylan Parker and Tim Ross

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Sphincterochila boissieri 

…an interesting species of Sphicterochilid land snail that inhabits deserts in Israel and Egypt, specifically in the Negev and Sinai deserts. S. boissieri is one of the few gastropods (along with Xerocrassa seetzeni and others) to inhabit such a harsh environment and thus has evolved several adaptations to avoid desiccation. One of the first is a very thick shell with a reduced aperture, a thick epiphragm and slow body surface heat conduction.  Its shell also reflects around 90% of the visible and solar spectra During the summer S. boissieri will dig itself into the soil and begin to aestivate (a form of dormancy), while dormant S. boissieri can resist temperatures up to 50°C (122°F) and will experience water loss of only 0.5 mg per day, with a low oxygen consumption rate, which allows S. boissieri to survive droughts for years! When Sphincterochila boissieri is not dormant it feeds mainly on soil, mainly loess mud, lichen, soil algae and limestone. 

Classification

Animalia-Mollusca-Gastropoda-Heterobranchia-Euthyneura-Panpulmonata-Eupolmonata-Stylommatophora-Sigmurethra-Helicoidea-Sphincterochilidae-Sphincterochilinae-Sphincterochila-(Sphinchterochila)-S. boissieri

Image(s): Wilson44691

“Worm Slug” (Boettgerilla pallens)

…a species of terrestrial Boettgerillid slug which occurs in parts of Europe, including the SW flank of the Caucasus, and presumably the Crimean Mountains in Ukraine. It has also been introduced to many other areas in Europe. B. pallens occupies a wide range of habitats, including gardens, grassland, coniferous/deciduous woodlands and is very tolerant of a wide range of soil pH and calcium/water content. Like other slugs B. pallens is a omnivore and will feed on a range of items.

Classification

Animalia-Mollusca-Gastropoda-Heterobranchia-Euthyneura-Panpulmonata-Eupulmonata-Stylommatophora-Sigmurethra-Limacoidea-Boettgerillidae-Boettgerilla-B. pallens

Image: Jozef Grego

Fruticicola fruticum

…is a species of terrestrial pulmonate Bradybaenid snail which occurs in parts of Europe, including countries like Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia and Ukraine. Fruticicola fruticum is typically a whitish or brownish color and can reach a shell size of around 22 mm (0.9 inches)

Classification

Animalia-Mollusca-Gastropoda-Heterobranchia-Euthyneura-Panpulmonata-Eupulmonata-Stylommatophora-SIgmurethra-Helicoidea-Bradybaenidae-Fruticicola-F. fruticum

Image: Micheal Becker

Limax cinereoniger

…a large species of terrestrial keelback slug (Limacidae) which occurs throughout Europe, occurring almost everywhere in Scandinavia and in the extreme South. L. cineroniger is widely considered to be one of the largest species of land slugs, with individuals possessing lengths exceeding 20 centimeters! Like other slug species, L. cineroniger occurs in woodlands and feeds on a range of organic material.

Classification

Animalia-Mollusca-Gastropoda-Heterobranchia-Euthyneura-Panpulmonata-Eupulmonata-Stylommatophora-Sigmurethra-Limacoidea-Limacidae-Limacinae-Limax-L. cinereoniger

Image: H. Krisp

Discus rotundatus

Sometimes known as the “Rotund Disc” D. rotundatus is a species of disk snail (Discidae) that lives in Western and Central Europe, occurring in the Czech Republic, Poland, Ukraine, Slovakia, and Great Britain, Ireland, France, Italy and various other countries as well. It has been introduced to Canada and the US as well. Like other terrestrial gastropods D. rotundatus typically inhabits forests usually in dead wood, logs, and leaf/soil litter. Sometimes D. rotundatus will associate and form small colonies as well. 

Classification

Animalia-Mollusca-Gastropoda-Heterobranchia-Euthyneura-Panpulmonata-Eupulmonata-Stylommatophora-Sigmurethra-Punctoidea-Discidae-Discus-(Gonyodiscus)-D. rotundatus

Image: Francisco Welter Schultes

Decollate Snail (Rumina deccolata)

…is a species of terrestrial Subulinid snail that was originally native to the Mediterranean region (except for the south east), but has now been introduced into North America, and occasionally Great Britain. Decollate snails are voracious predators and will feed readily on other snails, slugs and their eggs. They will also eat plant matter, and other invertebrates such as annelids. This has caused them to be a serious pest in the US as they will consume native species.  

Classification

Animalia-Mollusca-Gastropoda-Heterobranchia-Euthyneura-Panpulmonata-Eupulmonata-Stylommatophora-Sigmurethra-Achatinoidea-Subulinidae-Rumininae-Rumina-R. decollata

Image: tato grasso

Hemphillia glandulosa

Sometimes known as the warty jumping-slug or the pygmy slug, Hemphilia glandulosa is a species of terrestrial gastropod in the family Arionidae. H. glandulosa is native to the Pacific Northwest of North America, mainly British Columbia and Washington. Like other terrestrial gastropods H. glandulosa inhabits both Coniferous and Deciduous forests and is typically found in leaf litter and under fallen logs.

H. glandulosa is known as the “warty jumping-slug” due to its habit of “jumping” by coiling up and straightening out repeatedly in rapid succession when threatened. 

Classification

Animalia-Mollusca-Gastropoda-Heterobranchia-Euthyneura-Panpulmonata-Eupulmonata-Stylommatophora-SIgmurethra-Arionoidea-Arionidae-Hemphilia-H. glandulosa

Image: Naturalmistic

Genus: Smeagol 

Smeagol is a genus of small air-breathing Otinoid molluscs which inhabit the gravel substrate in the upper intertidal zones of New Zealand and Australia. Smeagol is the sole genus in the monotypic family Smeagolidae, which contains only five species. Smeagol spp. are small (~10 mm) blind gastropods which lack tentacles and a shell. As you might have guessed Smeagol is totally named after gollum from Lord of the Rings. 

Classification

Animalia-Mollusca-Gastropoda-Heterobranchia-Euthyneura-Panpulmonata-Eupulmonata-Otinoidea-Smeagolidae-Smeagol

Image: Körger K. M., Stöger I., Kano Y., Fukuda H., Knebelsberger T. & Schrödl M

Lehmannia melitensis

…is a species of airbreathing keelback slug (Limacidae) which is distributed throughout the Mediterranean where it is known to occur  in Malta, Italy, the Aeolian Islands, Sicilia, Sardinia, and the Tuscan Archipelago. Like most slugs, Lehmannia melitensis occupies moist areas and feeds on a wide range of organic materials. 

Classification

Animalia-Mollusca-Gastropoda-Heterobranchia-Euthyneura-Panpulmonata-Eupulmonata-Stylommatophora-SIgmurethra-Limacoidea-Limacidae-Limacinae-Lehmannia-L. melitensis

Image: tato grasso

Limax dacampi

Sometimes known as “Limax dacampoi" Limax dacampi is a species of air-breathing keelback slug (Limacidae) which has been recorded in the northern Italian mainland and in southern Switzerland. Like many slugs, Limax dacampi is known from a variety of habitats, but it prefers moist and shady forests and bushland where it can feed on decaying organic matter. 

Classification

Animalia-Mollusca-Gastropoda-Heterobranchia-Euthyneura-Panpulmonata-Eupulmonata-Stylommatophora-Sigmurethra-Limacoidea-Limacidae-Limacinae-Limax-L. dacampi

Image: Hectonichus

Sphincterochila candidissima

…is a species of terrestrial air-breathing Sphincterochilid snail which is known to occur in Italy, Malta, and other surrounding areas. S. candidissima is fairly small with individuals only growing shell widths of ~16-25 mm ( 0.6 -0 .9 inches). Like other members of its family Sphincterochila candidissima is xerothermophilous, meaning it is well adapted to hotter/dryer places.

Classification

Animalia-Mollusca-Gastropoda-Heterobranchia-Euthyneura-Panpulmonata-Eupulmonata-Stylommatophora-Sigmurethra-Helicoidea-Sphincterochilidae-Sphincterochilinae-Sphincterochila-S. candidissima

Image: Xvazquez

Meridolum gulosum

…is a species of air-breathing terrestrial Camaenid gastropod mollusc which is endemic to Australia, where it is restricted to the rainforests and vine thickets of the Illawarra Escarpment, south of Sydney. Where it occurs from Bulli Pass south to Wollogong. Like most terrestrial gastropods M. gulosum is typically encountered among the leaf litter, and among fallen trees, rocks and bark.

Classification

Animalia-Mollusca-Gastropoda-Heterobranchia-Euthyneura-Panpulmonata-Eupulmonata-Stylommatophora-Sigmurethra-Helicoidea-Camaenidae-Meridolum-M. gulosum

Image: Peter Woodard