enteric bacteria

anonymous asked:

Hi I just saw your post, could a UTI be treated without a trip to the doctor? I'm not on insurance and I still live at home and my parents don't know I'm having sex so it'll be awkward bringing it up, Thanks!

Unfortunately you will need to get something stronger than over the counter medication to combat a UTI. There are medications that you can pick up that will relieve the symptoms, but they will not cure the UTI.

I also want to be clear- people can get UTIs without having sex. A friend of mine used to get UTIs all the time when she was eight. The sex act itself isn’t what causes the infection, it’s the fecal bacteria entering your urethra that’s the problem. Maybe you just wiped the wrong way! Your parents don’t have to know.

I also want to point out that a UTI won’t just “go away” if left untreated. They can lead to a more serious and permanent problems, especially with your kidneys. If you are feeling any of the symptoms, please seek medical attention ASAP.


Why don’t i like using plastic containers for caged birds?
I hope the picture comparison is an obvious reason why.

As you can tell from the picture on the left, there is a clear, clean surface on the plastic. This is a new container.

The picture on the right shows a lining that makes the plastic container look cloudy, and have a whitish tinge called bio film.
This container is roughly 4 months old.
That lining is a major health hazard for your bird as it is full of bacterial growth.
Even after scrubbing and cleaning once daily, the bacteria still grows over time and can cause upsets with digestion as the bacteria enters from the water/food into the body causing a bacteria infection and most likely a trip to the vet.

Plastic surfaces are porous, a breeding ground trapping bacteria.
To keep a plastic container clean, soaking and through scrubbing in soapy hot water is the only way. Keeping them clean is certainly a challenge and don’t forget about getting those tight corners with a toothbrush.

This reason is why stainless steel and ceramic bowls are a better option for use as food containers - they are non porous.

Lou with his ceramic bowl

Louie has a cermaic bowl designed to hang in bird cages.
Providing the cage is spotless and clean enough to eat from the floor, you can use weighted ceramic bowls via placing them on ground level in a ‘no poop’ zone.
Placing a ‘dipping’ dish with water next to food will save your bird from climbing up and down to a from the water bowl.

Stainless steel bowls

Stainless steel bowls can come in hanging, screw on, or screw on coup holders.

*Important to note with metal bowls*
Do not use galvanised metal bowls as they are coated with zinc to provide a damage proof layer.
Zinc and Copper are heavy metal.
Heavy metals are toxic to birds

If they chew parts of metal cage wires, toys, bowls (even coins) made out of these materials, and the metal doesn’t pass throught the digestive tracts, the chewed pieces sit in their stomach toxins will leech in to the body.

Whatever you decide about which dishes you will use, before you give food or water to your birds, ask yourself, “Would I eat from this dish?”

Pussy Health 101

Here’s some tips to keep your pussy in tip top shape:
This is gonna make you smell, taste and even look better down there. It helps regulate your discharge and will make your pussy healthy from the inside out!
Only use a PH balanced soap for vaginas on the outside of your kitty with warm water and a wash cloth! Do not douche or put anything up inside you to clean yourself! Remember to wash under the clitoral hood and around your lips really well with water to get nice and clean!
Am STI free pussy is a healthy pussy! Also get check ups frequently just in case of a condom break or tear!
This will make you taste better and prevent UTIs! There isn’t actually a study saying that these help UTIs but lots of people say they help prevent and recover from UTIs so give it a try! You’ll end up tasting better in the long run anyways
This prevents bacteria from entering your urthrea after you just rode that dirty dick like a champ! Or any dick for that matter
Use a baby while after you go to the wash room to clean everything up really nice! Toilet paper just spread everything around and doesn’t get all the stuff off and you don’t want shit near your pussy
I love my diva menstrual cup because toxic shook syndrome is a real thing you can get from tampons. Please don’t wear pads unless your 12 because after a heavy flow you can smell that shit or if a dog is walking around it’s gonna stick its nose up ur vag and that’s embarrassing as fuck (just my personal opinion that pads are gross, you’re sitting in your period blood)! Your vag will not smell during a heavy flow and leaks are non existent! Just try it. I was skeptical but now I only use them.
This is a bacterial infection so go to a doctor and get some pills so it’ll stop happening!

Phalloplasty - Stage 2 Pre-op Appointment

March 6th, 2017

We’re less than 24 hours away from my second (and hopefully final) stage of phalloplasty! It’s unreal to think that this might be my final surgery. It’s been a long 5 years leading to this point and it’s especially tiring to think about the fact that this is my 3rd major surgery in less than a year. But here I am… so close to the finish line and so ready to be there. During this operation Dr. Chen will place my testicular implants, my erectile device (I opted for the semi-rigid rather than the inflatable), and perform a mons resection to lift my phallus to a slightly higher position.

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anonymous asked:

Hello! Hope you're feeling better by the time you get this message! I have a story set in ancient Rome and I have a character who got hit with an arrow to his thigh. It didn't hit a major artery and the medics managed to get it out in one piece. Would it still be plausible for him to use a crutch or get infections from the wound, or does this seem too outrageous?

Hey there! Your story could be quite interesting! (And I am most definitely feeling better; thanks so much for your concern!!)

The answer to your question is yes. Your character could very well need crutches, or even have an ongoing disability for the rest of his life.

The thing with flesh wounds in the leg, especially the thigh, is that the muscles involved are very large, very strong, and responsible for a LOT of movement. If the arrow severs a tendon or damages the femoral nerve, they may have difficulty using the distal leg or simply be unable to use the leg for the most part.

As for the question of infection, infections were very common in that time, especially with deep puncture wounds (or, in this case, most likely a perforation – a wound that goes all the way through). Bacteria could enter the wound with the arrow, or the wound could be exposed to dirt, dirty bandages, or a dirty hand grabbing at it or tending to it. Hand-washing was not a huge aspect of medicine for a long time after the gladiators ceased to fight. In any event, you don’t need to justify an infection either.

The wound could seep or ooze some pus or bloody fluid, be warm to the touch,and become extremely painful if it becomes infected. It could also smell foul indeed.

The question isn’t justifying their disability, it’s justifying their recovery. You may choose to have the character continue to limp or have this be their “weak leg” for the rest of their lives – which, in gladiatorial Rome, may be very short-lived indeed. They may, with luck and several weeks of rehab, gain full function of the leg back, but this could also end their career.

The power, as they say, is yours.

xoxo, Aunt Scripty


Microbiology Misconceptions Part Three!

1. “E. coli is dangerous!”

It depends. You have billions of E. coli bacteria in your gut right now and you seem to be doing just fine, right? 

Turns out that there are these things called serotypes, which are basically bacteria with slight variation. For instance, Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera, has 200 different serotypes (or variations) but only 2 are dangerous to humans. The same applies to E. coli. Most serotypes, including the ones commonly found in human guts, are harmless.

Occasionally we end up ingesting a virulent strain, such as E. coli O157:H7, which has variations in the proteins of the cell wall. But where do these pathogenic bacteria come from?

Cows! Cows are asymptomatic carriers of E. coli O157:H7 and shed it through their feces. Most people accidentally ingest it by consuming undercooked beef or from cross-contaminated kitchen utensils or surfaces. It can sometimes latch on to produce such as spinach when fields are fertilized with manure. 

You might ask, how does fecal bacteria end up in ground beef? I’ll let you figure that one out on your own! (source 1, 2 3)

2. “Avoid eating raw eggs or you’ll get Salmonella!”

Go ahead, eat the batter! 

The large increase in regulation of hen houses combined with new hygiene technology and vaccination has reduced the Salmonella infection rate in hens drastically. Even infected hens rarely lay contaminated eggs (0.012% eggs laid by infected hens have salmonella in them). Eggs only get internal contamination if the bacteria enters the hens ovaries, which is extremely uncommon.

If you happen to be really unlucky and ingest an infected raw egg, you’ll probably do just fine. Most people can fight off the salmonella bacteria as long as they have a healthy gut microbiome and don’t have any immune disorders.  (source)

4. “Urine is sterile”

Nope. Bacteria are basically everywhere. There’s a few harmless bacteria that hang around on your bladder and urethra and some of them end up getting washed away as you, well, do your business. No big deal! Also, some urinal tract bacteria can cause purple urine. Also harmless.

Hello Detective (Chapter 22)

Part 1   Part 2   Part 3   Part 4   Part 5   Part 6   Part 7   Part 8   Part 9   Part 10   Part 11   Part 12   Part 13   Part 14   Part 15   Part 16   Part 17   Part 18   Part 19   Part 20   Part 21   Part 22   Part 23   Part 24   Part 25   Part 26  Part 27  Part 28  Part 29  Part 30  Part 31  Part 32  Part 33  Part 34   Part 35   Part 36   Part 37   Part 38  Part 39   Part 40     Part 41   Part 42   Part 43   Part 44   Part 45   Part 46   Part 47   Part 48   Part 49   Part 50  Part 51  Part 52  Part 53  Part 54  Part 55   Part 56  Part 57 Part 58 Part 59 Part 60

Sherlock didn’t receive a text after he solved this one. No pips. Now we just had to wait. You decided to go home take a shower, and change. Once you got out Sherlock texted you that he and John were going to grab some lunch and he wanted you to come as well. You were a bit hungry, so you texted him back that you would meet him there.  

After a short cab ride you found the cafe Sherlock and John were at. You quickly texted Lestrade that we were still waiting to hear from the bomber again, but you would let him know when you did.

You sat down next to Sherlock, he had taken the liberty of ordering you something he knew you would like. You smiled as the food arrived when you sat down.

“I sounds like you have hardly stopped for breath since this thing started.” John said, clearly Sherlock had filled him in on the things he had missed. You nodded politely and smiled.

“Has it occurred to you…” John began before Sherlock cut him off.

“Probably.” Sherlock said. John rolled his eyes and continued.

“No, has it occurred to you that the bomber’s playing a game with you? The envelope, breaking into the other flat, the dead kid’s shoes, it’s all meant for you.” John said.

“Yes, I know.” Sherlock said.

“Is it him, then? Moriarty?” John asked.

“Perhaps.” Sherlock answered when the pink phone buzzed.

This time three pips and a photo of Connie Prince. She was like the British Oprah or Ellen, but with fashion.

“That could be anybody.” Sherlock said, confused.

“Could be, yeah. Lucky for you I’ve been more than a little unemployed.” John said.

You sent a text to Lestrade.

Three pips and a picture of Connie Prince.


“What do you mean?” Sherlock asked.

“Lucky for you, Mrs. Hudson and I watch far too much telly.” John said, getting out of his chair to change the telly in the cafe. He changed it to the news where they were showing clips of Connie’s show and announcing her death. Immediately as the channel clicked over to her the pink phone rang and you turned to Sherlock as he answered it.

“Hello.” He said, listening intently.

“Why are you doing this?” He asked. Then putting down the phone, clearly not happy with the answer he received.

Your own phone buzzed, it was a text from Greg.

Meet you at the morgue.


You looked up to Sherlock, who was already almost out the door.

The three of you met Lestrade at the morgue where Molly Hooper had laid her body out for us. He was reading from her file.

“Connie Prince, 54. She had one of those makeover shows on the telly. Did you see it?” Lestrade asked.

“No.” Sherlock answered, carefully beginning to examine the body.

“Very popular. She was going places.” Lestrade said.

“Not any more.” Sherlock retorted.

“Dead two days. According to one of her staff, Raoul de Santos, she cut her hand on a rusty nail in the garden.” You informed them.

“Nasty wound. Tetanus bacteria enters the bloodstream… Goodnight, Vienna.” Sherlock continued.

“I suppose.” John said, you were glad he was here, after all he was a doctor.

“Something’s wrong with this picture.” Sherlock said.

“Eh?” Lestrade asked.

“Can’t be as simple as it seems otherwise the bomber wouldn’t be directing us towards it. Something’s wrong.” Sherlock repeated. Sherlock began looking at her forehead where you noticed multiple Botox injection spots.

“John?” You asked.

“Hmm?” He answered.

“This is pretty deep. It would have bled a lot right?” You asked him.

“Yeah.” He answered.

“But the wound’s clean, very clean and fresh.” You pointed out. “How long would the bacteria have been incubating inside her?” Sherlock looked up to you and followed your train of thought.

“Oh, eight, ten days.” He answered, and you saw Sherlock smirk. You nodded.

“The cut was made later.” John followed.

“After she was dead?” Lestrade asked.

“Must have been.” Sherlock said, joining in. “The only question is how did the tetanus enter the dead woman’s system.”

“You want to help, right?” Sherlock asked John.

“Of course.” He answered.

“Connie Prince’s background, family history, everything. Get me data.” Sherlock told him. You noticed Sherlock stole another glance towards the Botox marks.

“Right.” John said, leaving the room.

“There’s something else that we haven’t thought of.” Lestrade said.

“Is there?” Sherlock asked.

“Yes. Why is he doing this, the bomber? If this woman’s death was suspicious, why point it up?” Lestrade asked.

“Good Samaritan.” Sherlock said, turning to leave.

“Who press-gangs suicide bombers?” Lestrade retorted.

“Bad Samaritan.” Sherlock corrected himself.

“I’m serious Sherlock. Listen, I’m cutting you slack here, I’m trusting you, but out there somewhere some poor bastard’s covered in Semtex and just waiting for you to solve the puzzle. So just tell me, what are we dealing with?” Lestrade asked, seriously. He had a point too.

“Something new.” Sherlock smirked and turned to walk out the door.

Lestrade joined you and Sherlock back at Baker St. where John had gathered some info for Sherlock and he had hung it above the couch.

“Connection, connection, connection. There must be a connection.” Sherlock muttered to himself, pacing in front of the couch.

“Carl Powers killed 20 years ago. The bomber knew him, admitted that he knew him. The bomber’s iPhone was in the stationery from the Czech Republic. The first hostage from Cornwall, the second from London, the third from Yorkshire, judging by her accent. What’s he doing? Working his way around the world, showing off?” Sherlock said angrily. Then the pink phone rang again. He put it on speaker this time and the voice of a frail old woman came out.

“You’re enjoying this aren’t you? Joining the dots. Three hours. Boom. Boom.” The call disconnected.

Something was still wrong, Sherlock had sent John out to Connie’s house. Sherlock likes to do everything himself. There was no way he would leave it up to John to solve… He was sending John on a wild goose chase. Meantime Sherlock was at home worrying about the connections between all the cases instead of solving this one… Unless, he had already solved it and instead of letting the bomber know, he was using this extra time to get ahead of him.

Mrs. Hudson entered the room and was looking at the pictures on the wall. Sherlock was on the phone.

“It’s a real shame, I liked her.” Mrs. Hudson began. “She taught you how to do your colours.”

“Colours?” Lestrade asked.

“You know, what goes best with what. I should never wear cerise, apparently. Drains me.” She answered. Sherlock ended his phone call and rejoined us in front of the couch.

“Who was that?” Lestrade asked.

“Home office.” He answered coolly.

“Home office?” Lestrade asked confused.

“Well, home secretary actually. Owes me a favour.” Sherlock said, stuffing his phone into his breast pocket.

“She’s a pretty girl, but she messed about with herself too much. They all do these days, people can hardly move their faces. It’s silly isn’t it.” Mrs. Hudson rambled, laughing. Lestrade smiled back politely.

“Did you ever see her show?” Mrs. Hudson asked Sherlock.

“Not until now.” Sherlock replied, pulling out his laptop and playing a clip.

“That’s her brother, now love loss there if you can believe the papers.” Mrs. Hudson explained.

“So I gather. I’ve just been having a very fruitful chat with people who love this show. Fan sites are indispensable for gossip.” Sherlock replied.

“Can I talk to you alone for a moment?” You asked Sherlock. He nodded and lead you to his bedroom and closed the door.

“What are you doing?” You asked him. He looked to you confused.

“Just closing the door, thought you might want some privacy.” He said.

“No, with John. You’re having him run about, trying to solve this case. You like to do everything yourself, you wouldn’t leave something this important up to John to solve.” You told him.

“So?” Sherlock asked, wanting you to continue.

“So, I saw the way you were looking at her face in the morgue. You’ve already solved this case. Why have John running all over town?” You asked.

“I needed to bomber to think we haven’t solved it. That we were still investigating.” He answered.

“So you have solved it then?” You confirmed.

“Of course.” He said.

“The Botox injections. The man that found her, Raoul de Santos, was the brother’s lover. Also the one who would have given Connie her Botox injections.” You answered. He smirked proudly, examining your face. You smiled up at him.

You were interrupted by Sherlock’s phone ringing. It was John summoning Sherlock off to Connie’s house to see the brother, he thinks he’s solved it.

You followed Sherlock out of the bedroom and back into the living room where he quickly ran out the door to meet John.

“What was that about?” Lestrade asked, pointing to Sherlock running out the door.

“You two get into a bit of a domestic?” Mrs. Hudson asked kindly.

“John called, he thinks he’s solved it but Sherlock had him running about so the bomber would think we were still working on the case.” You explained.

“But we are still working on the case.” Lestrade said.

“Sherlock’s had this one solved for a while, he’s been using the extra time to try and get ahead of the bomber.” You explained.

“Then how was it done?” Lestrade asked, you turned and sat down in Sherlock’s chair.

“The houseboy, Raoul did it for revenge. He was having an affair with the brother Kenny Prince who was the butt of his sister’s jokes week in, week out. A virtual bullying campaign. Finally he had enough, fell out with her badly. It’s all on the website.” You said, pointing to Sherlock’s laptop. “She threatened to disinherit Kenny, Raoul had grown accustomed to a certain lifestyle. A second autopsy showed that it wasn’t tetanus that killed her but botulinum toxin. Botox is a diluted form of botulinum. Among other things, Raoul de Santos was employed to give Connie her regular facial injections. Sherlock’s contact at the home office discovered that he’s been bulk-ordering Botox for months. Bided his time, then upped the strength to a fatal dose.”

“We better get back to the office, text Sherlock to meet us there.” Lestrade instructed you. You nodded.

When Sherlock and John meet us at the office you could tell Sherlock had just explained everything to John because he didn’t look too happy.

“How long have you known?” John asked Sherlock angrily.

“Well, this one was quite simple actually. Like I said, the bomber repeated himself. That was a mistake.” Sherlock answered.

“Yeah, but Sherlock, the hostage, the old woman, she’s been there all this time!” John yelled back.

“I knew I could save her. I also knew that the bomber had given us 12 hours. I solved the case quickly, that gave me time to get on with other things. Don’t you see? We’re one up on him.” Sherlock whispered.

Sherlock logged into his blog in Lestrade’s office and made a new post.

“Raoul de Santos, the house-boy, botox.” It read. Immediately the mobile rang. He answered it carefully.


“Tell us where you are. Address.” Sherlock insisted.

“No, no, no, no. Tell me nothing about him, nothing.” Suddenly Sherlock’s eyes opened wide.

“What happened?” you asked Sherlock, concern evident all over your face. He continued to stare straight ahead.

“Sherlock…” you said, placing a hand on his shoulder. He lowered the phone slowly, a almost disappointed look on his face. You knew what happened.

Sherlock and John left, leaving you and Lestrade in the office. After a couple minutes of silence you flipped on the television. It was already on the news that an explosion caused by a faulty gas main had killed 12 people, destroying a whole block of flats.

“I don’t understand, he solved the case.” Lestrade said, confused.

“You heard Sherlock, he said tell me nothing about him. Maybe she started to describe him, the bomber. Usually the bomber has the hostages read off from pagers. But Sherlock told me this one was blind, so she must have had an ear piece, he must have been speaking directly to her. He put himself in the firing line. Usually the bomber manages to stay above it all, he organizes these things, but she was the first one to have direct contact.” You explained.

“So, he arranged the Connie Prince murder? So people come to him, wanting their crimes fixed up like booking a holiday?” Lestrade asked.

“Hmm.” you murmured, thinking.

“So why is he playing this game with Sherlock, does he want to be caught?” Lestrade asked again.

“Sherlock told me once, on our first case, he said the brilliant ones are always so desperate to get caught. For appreciation, applause. He said, ‘That’s the frailty of genius, it needs an audience’.”

My favorite scene written by Dazai Osamu

“It’s a rather complicated tale. Crazy Legs had stored dried plums in a small Seto tea bowl. When it was time to eat, he took it from the lower shelf of his bed and poked at the dried plums. Unfortunately, mold had started to grow on them. Crazy Legs thought the container was bad. The lid of the bowl did not fit well and allowed bacteria to enter, and this led to mold. He was certain. Crazy Legs i the kind of person who likes hygiene. He’s quite interested in it. Even before this incident, Crazy Legs had been reflecting on what would make a good container. During breakfast yesterday, from the corner of his eye, Crazy Legs spied an empty pickled scallion jar that Stale Bread carried to each meal and thought it would be suitable. It had a wide mouth and could be tightly shut. Bacteria would be unable to infiltrate that jar. And since it was empty, Stale Bread should have no problem lending it to him. Although the idea of thanking Stale Bread irked him, that pickled scallion jar was required to ward off bacteria. Hygiene must be respected. So thought Crazy Legs. After he finished his meal, Crazy Legs apprehensively presented his offer to Stale Bread to borrow the empty jar.

“Stale Bread looked Crazy Legs in the face and asked, 'What are you doing to do with it?’

Keep reading

  1. Shrink a zit.  Ice reduces redness and swelling, allowing you to no longer be uncomfortable during an acne breakout.  Applying ice will also help shrink pores and reduce the production of excess oils, which will prevent bacteria from entering, helping to keep your face clear.
  2. De-puff eyes.  Wrapping an ice cube in a washcloth and rubbing it on your eyes will reduce early morning puffiness.  Also, rubbing ice over your eyes will reduce your stress after a long day and make you feel more refreshed.
  3. Prime skin.  Before applying makeup, rub an ice cube on your face to keep your make up fresh and in place for long hours.
  4. Scrub away.  Rubbing ice cubes on your face helps blood circulation and brings a healthy glow to your face.  Making a habit of it will actually help fight off wrinkles and premature aging too.
  5. Get rid of a tan.  Applying ice to a sunburn will of course sooth the burn and fight off the tan that follows.
  6. Painless plucking.  Rub an ice cube along your eye brow before plucking to temporarily numb the area.  Rub the ice cube on again afterwards to help prevent redness.
  7. Gum remover.  If you ever find chewing gum stuck either to your hair or clothes, rub an ice cube over it.  The ice will cause the gum to harden making it way easier to pick off or pull out.
  8. Remove wrinkles.  For a fast and easy way to get wrinkles out of your clothes,wrap an ice cube in a washcloth and rub it on your shirt.  Then iron that shirt.  Or throw your shirt in the dryer with a few ice cubes for the same results.


  • If you use an ice cube on your skin, use no more than two (2) ice cubes.  Using more than two (2) can cause new skin issues.
  • Never directly apply ice to your face.  Using ice cubes directly on your face can cause the delicate capillary under your skin to break.  Always wrap the ice in cloth.
The cause of [Shamu’s] death was pyometra, a hormonal imbalance that causes blood poisoning by allowing bacteria to enter the whale’s uterine lining. It is an illness that almost never infects orcas in the wild.
These were the open secrets of SeaWorld, the history everyone who worked there knew but very few cared to discuss out loud. They were inconvenient truths, the skeletons in the family closet. Nevertheless, Shamu’s name lives on in the signature spectacle of the theme park. More than just a captive whale, Shamu—nine years old, just a child really, when she died—had become a brand.
—  Beneath the Surface, John Hargrove (2015)
Bad Boy BTS- Shades of Grey- Hoseok (Part 8)

Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, Part 5, Part 6, Part 7 , Part 9

Your whole body moved when the man shook you by your hair, but you never broke eye contact with Hoseok. You were terrified, but you tried to tell him without speaking, that you weren’t blaming him, that none of this had been his fault, and that you were thankful, for he had tried to protect you from those men as best as he could.

“I SAID BACK AGAINST THAT WALL!” The man yelled at the boys, who all stood up. They walked towards the wall, standing against it, with panic in their eyes. You could see the expression of disgust on Jin’s face, and the anger boiling inside Suga’s veins, as they stared at the man holding you, and you realized, they cared about you.

So much for bad boys. You muttered with a bitter laugh. You couldn’t believe it, these guys, who had a reputation for being ruthless troublemakers, who were thought to be nothing but the lowliest of people, cared more about you than your parents did, the parents who had abandoned you at home, for an unknown length of time, being a minor, and hadn’t actually even bothered to call you up to check on you.

“Please let her go…” Begged Hoseok, falling to his knees. He knew there wasn’t much he could do. If he tried anything, he would either be stopped by the other men, or the man would slash your neck, and he would lose you forever. Although at this moment he didn’t know what would be worse for you, death, or whatever those guys were planning to do to you. His insides churned at the sole thought of it, and he wanted to be sick.

“We will let her go… once we are done with her. I promise we will return her back safely once we have had our fun… Well, as safe as can be anyway.” He told him with a disgusting evil laugh, which reminded you of the villains in old movies. It would have been almost comical, had he not been threatening to rape you and who knows what else.

You began sobbing desperately, covering your face with your hands. The man laughed cruelly, and once again, pressed the blade a  little harder into your neck, drawing blood. You could feel its warmth rolling down your neck, and staining your t-shirt. You looked at Hoseok once more, trying to remember every feature of his face, for comfort, and just in case you never got to see him again.

The man pulled on you harshly, hurting your scalp, to get you to stand up, and you obeyed immediately, pursing your lips tightly so you wouldn’t squeal out loud from the pain and fear. You stumbled, as he continued to grab you in such a way that meant you had to bend over. You had never been put in such a submissive position before, and honestly, you didn’t like it.

The man lowered his knife, and began walking towards his friends, when out of the blue, he was knocked on the side of the head, and he fell over, pulling you down with him, but his hand loosened almost immediately.

You scrambled to your knees, and backed away as quickly as you could. You lifted your head, and saw Namjoon straddling the man that had held you captive before, and punching him fiercely on the face, over and over again, until his knuckles were as red as the man’s bloody face.

At that same instant, the boys pulled themselves away from the wall, and the fight resumed, except that this time, your boys had the upper hand. You backed away further against one of the pillars, and noticed a man knocked out against a wall, the man Namjoon had been fighting. You smiled, Namjoon was smart, he could have made a move earlier, but he waited until the knife was safely away from you to fight, and no one had seen it coming.

You felt a sudden wave of relief wash over you, and for some reason logic cannot explain, you began crying even harder. You were safe now, your boys had saved you.

The intruders ran off, picking up the unconscious members of the gang, cursing and yelling at your boys, who stood weak, and bloody, but victorious. You ran towards Hoseok faster than you ever thought you could run, and held him tightly.

“Hoseok… Hoseok…” You cried into his arms, as he held you tightly.

“I’m so sorry Y/N… So so sorry… I should have never brought you here… “ he cried, unable to keep up the tough act anymore. His heart was shattering, falling in pieces to the ground. He began shaking, his whole body trembled with fear of what could have been, and relief, adrenaline slowly moving out of  his veins.

“It’s okay, I am okay.” You told him, as he held you tightly.

You watched the guys nod at each other, and begin to clear up the area, taking away the things they needed to take back. You watched Suga pour beer over a cut, and you almost opened your mouth to argue with him that it was probably not the best idea, but you kept it shut. He must have done this many times, and until they could get back home and tend to their wounds, cheap beer would do you guessed.

Hoseok looked at Jin, and mouthed something you couldn’t see, but Jin nodded, and grabbed his car keys. Suga sighed, and began walking towards Namjoon.

Hoseok began walking with you, but you could see him limp, so you put yourself under his arm, and helped him support his body weight with your body. He thanked you softly. Even beaten up like this, his face was still beautiful.

The drive back to your house was silent and uncomfortable, and every now and again you could see Jin checking his face in the mirror, and hissing at the sight, it was borderline hilarious how that seemed to be the only thing he cared about.

Hoseok grabbed your hand tightly in his, but he continued to look ahead at the road, you felt blood still trickling down your neck.

Jin followed Hoseok’s directions, and parked outside your house, grabbing his phone and beginning to text someone. Hoseok opened the door, and once again helped you out. You walked up the steps to your house, and opened the door. Hoseok followed you inside.

You walked up to the kitchen, to grab something to clean your wound with, but Hoseok took the disinfectant from your hand, and with the help of a cotton bud, he gently cleaned the wound. He didn’t speak, but you could see shame and guilt in his eyes.

“Hoseok… Will you stay with me tonight?” You asked him, looking at him, sat beside you on the sofa, still gently dabbing at your neck, trying to clean off all the blood, before placing a gauze on your neck, to make sure no bacteria could enter it, and the wound wouldn’t re open.

“No.” He whispered shortly, without looking you in the eyes. Your eyes widened, your heart dropped.

“Why not?” you asked him. He looked at your eyes briefly, before looking away.

“I can’t. I can’t see you again Y/N. I am too dangerous for you. Look at what happened tonight. You are not safe with me. You could have been killed, or raped, or worse. I don’t want to know. I can’t see you again.” He yelled, as he stood up abruptly, dropping the cotton in his hands.

“Hoseok you can’t be serious! You saved me tonight! Without you I’d be dead!” You replied, tears beginning to well up in your eyes. The sight of your tears made his heart ache, but he had to stay strong.

“WITHOUT ME YOU WOULD HAVE BEEN SAFE!” He yelled back, running his hands through his hair. You flinched at the sound of his raised voice.

“Please don’t leave me Hoseok… I don’t want to be alone tonight… Please… Don’t you love me?” You asked him, large, crystal clear tears rolling down your face, your bottom lip quivered.  Hoseok looked away.

“I do love you. That’s why I’m doing this. I’m sorry Y/N… Stay safe… Goodbye.” He replied quickly, before darting out the door, and back into the car.

Candy and Your Microbiome

Sugar doesn’t cause cavities—bacteria do! Sugar alone has no effect on teeth. But eating sugar does cause cavities. Here’s how it works:

What happens when bacteria on my teeth consume sugar from my food?

Some bacteria release acid that dissolves minerals in your teeth. Every sugary drink or snack releases a new round of acid.

What happens if I don’t brush my teeth and plaque (a sticky biofilm made of billions of bacteria) forms on my gumline?

Plaque blocks saliva, allowing acid to dissolve teeth nonstop.

What happens if acid is allowed to remain on my teeth too long?

Acid can dissolve holes in teeth called cavities. Bacteria can enter the tooth and infect nerves in the roots, causing toothaches.

Learn more about your amazing microbiome in the exhibition, The Secret World Inside You, now open at the Museum. 

Image: Wikipedia

Why Does No One Talk About It?: UTI’s And Other Infections

I’ve noticed that no one ever talks about UTI’s. No one talks about them even though most women suffer from them at least once in their life time. It’s same the with Yeast Infections.

I almost lost my left kidney to an asymptomatic bladder infection that moved to my kidneys. I found out only then, when I was lying in the hospital in pain and the doctors telling me that if I didn’t increase kidney function and stop peeing blood that I might have to get my kidney removed, that almost all women suffer from them! Whether it start when they become sexually active, when they become pregnant or just as a common problem! My mother has suffered from them since her early teens!

A UTI (Urinary Tract infection) occurs when bacteria enters the urethra and irritates the sterile area that is the urethra and bladder (Pee is sterile, who knew?) Now, the bodies way of trying to get rid of said bacteria is by creating the urge to pee as often as possible, burning sensation when urinating and an empty bladder.

There are ways to prevent it though.

Bladder infections are most likely to occur after sex, when PH Balance of the vagina is changed, during or after pregnancy when bladder control becomes an issue.

- Drink lots of water!

- Also drink lots of acidic fruit juices such as cranberry, pomegranate and orange. These help cleanse the bladder.

- Always urinate after sex to aid in the expulsion of any harmful bacteria from the area.

- Cleanse, but do not over cleanse. We always hear about these soaps or other ways of helping maintain PH balance. But did you know that the vagina is completely self sufficient and will ALWAYS return itself to proper PH whether it be after sex, pregnancy or menstruation.So, keep clean, but do not fall into the fear of over cleansing. (Unless told by a physician that you do have a problem)

- GO TO THE DOCTORS! I can’t stress that enough. If you have frequent bladder infections, go the doctors and get a script. Take it from me, you do not want to be in the hospital unable to breathe and vomiting from the pain while you pee blood while contemplating the need for surgery on a vital organ.

I know it was a random thing to write, but it was on my mind after talking to a friend about it, lol. Hope it helps someone out there!!!


An endless fight against ourselves: the IBDs.

The inflammatory bowel disease is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine. Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are the principal types of inflammatory bowel disease. 

  • Crohn’s disease may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus. Symptoms often include: abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be bloody if inflammation is severe), fever and weight loss. Other complications may occur outside the gastrointestinal tract and include: anemia, skin rashes, arthritis, inflammation of the eye, and tiredness. During a colonoscopy, biopsies of the colon are often taken to confirm the diagnosis. Certain characteristic features of the pathology seen point toward Crohn’s disease; it shows a transmural pattern of inflammation, meaning the inflammation may span the entire depth of the intestinal wall. There is usually an abrupt transition between unaffected tissue and the ulcer - a characteristic sign known as skip lesions. Under a microscope, biopsies of the affected colon may show mucosal inflammation, characterized by focal infiltration of neutrophils into the epithelium. This typically occurs in the area overlying lymphoid aggregates. These neutrophils, along with mononuclear cells, may infiltrate the crypts, leading to inflammation (crypititis) or abscess (crypt abscess). Granulomas, aggregates of macrophage derivatives known as giant cells, are found in 50% of cases and are most specific for Crohn’s disease. Biopsies may also show chronic mucosal damage, as evidenced by blunting of the intestinal villi, atypical branching of the crypts, and a change in the tissue type (metaplasia). Cytokine response is associated with Th17. Terminal ileum is commonly involved, colon is usually involved, rectum is rarely involved. Stenosis is common. Bowel obstruction also commonly occurs (due to stenosis).
  • Ulcerative colitis is a form of colitis, a disease of the colon, that includes characteristic ulcers, or open sores. The main symptom of active disease is usually constant diarrhea mixed with blood, of gradual onset. Ulcerative colitis only attacks the large intestine and it is an intermittent disease, with periods of exacerbated symptoms, and periods that are relatively symptom-free. Although the symptoms of ulcerative colitis can sometimes diminish on their own, the disease usually requires treatment to go into remission. Endoscopic findings in ulcerative colitis include the following: loss of the vascular appearance of the colon; erythema (or redness of the mucosa) and friability of the mucosa; superficial ulceration, which may be confluent; pseudopolyps. Biopsies of the mucosa are taken to definitively diagnose UC and differentiate it from Crohn’s disease, which is managed differently clinically. Microbiological samples are typically taken at the time of endoscopy. The pathology in ulcerative colitis typically involves distortion of crypt architecture, inflammation of crypts (cryptitis), frank crypt abscesses, and hemorrhage or inflammatory cells in the lamina propria. In cases where the clinical picture is unclear, the histomorphologic analysis often plays a pivotal role in determining the diagnosis and thus the management. By contrast, a biopsy analysis may be indeterminate, and thus the clinical progression of the disease must inform its treatment. The degree of involvement endoscopically ranges from proctitis or inflammation of the rectum, to left sided colitis, to pancolitis, which is inflammation involving the ascending colon. Terminal ileum is rarely involved, colon is usually involved, rectum is always involved. Stenosis is rare. Cytokine response is vaguely associated with Th2.

Causes: while the exact cause is unknown, IBD seems to be due to a combination of environmental factors and genetic predisposition. It is increasingly thought that alterations to enteral bacteria can contribute to inflammatory gut diseases. IBD affected individuals have been found to have 30-50 percent reduced biodiversity of commensalism bacteria. Further evidence of the role of gut flora in the cause of inflammatory bowel disease is that IBD affected individuals are more likely to have been prescribed antibiotics in the 2-5 year period before their diagnosis than unaffected individuals. The genetic contribution is poorly understood and seems to arise from the small contribution of dozens of genes. In 2012 163 IBD susceptibility loci were confirmed which means that 163 alleles that can increase the susceptibility to the disease.

TreatmentMesalazine is more useful in UC than in CD. Antibiotics are effective in long-term in CD, but generally not useful in UC. Depending on the level of severity, IBD may require immunosuppression to control the symptom. Often, anti-inflammatory steroids are used to control disease flares. While ulcerative colitis can be treated by performing a total colectomy (removing the entire large intestine), surgery for Crohn’s disease involves removing the damaged parts of the intestine and reconnecting the healthy parts, which does not cure Crohn’s, as it can recur after surgery, mostly at the site of the intestinal anastomosis (connection) or in other areas. 

Milk is the Cruellest Drink

Milk is only in constant supply if dairy cows give birth to a calf every year. This means they are pregnant for most of their lives. Brought into season with hormones and artificially inseminated they become worn out from producing a hugely unnatural quantity of milk and are usually culled after four or five years of milking, or - in the most intensive systems - two. Their carcases are used for soup or other processed food at the cheap end of the market.
Milk production has grown ever more intensive over the years. In the UK in the 1950s dairy cows produced about 10 litres a day. Now 22 litres is typical with the top-yielding cows producing 30 to 35 litres every day. As a consequence udders have become grotesquely large and when full can weigh 50 kilos and up to 75 kilos for the highest producing cows. These hugely heavy, pendulous, mammary glands drag on udder tissue and press down on the cows’ back legs. The discomfort is evident in their unnatural lumbering gait - a huge contrast to cows in suckler herds: they suckle their own calves that take just a few litres at any one time, have udders of a natural size and walk in a distinctly easier - and normal - way.
Producing hugely unnatural quantities of milk has a dire impact on health. Like slimmers on the Atkins diet who use up all their carbohydrate stores and burn fat instead, dairy cows can enter a state called ketosis which means ketones are deposited in the liver. When humans are ‘in ketosis’ they feel extremely unwell. Since cows in the same condition become ever more depressed and lethargic experts assume they must feel equally ill. The accompanying exhaustion weakens immune systems: infections and ill health follow.
Lameness is another inescapable part of a dairy cow’s life. Cows are heavy, and heavier still when they are carrying unborn calves and udders engorged with a vast quantity of milk. The weight bears down on hooves which can crack and split. Laminitis - an inflammation of the sensitive layers of tissue inside the hoof - is excruciatingly painful, particularly if cows have to walk long distances for milking. Sole ulcers are caused when dirt and bacteria get into cracks in the outer rim of feet and abscesses develop. Dermatitis causes extremely painful lesions, also on feet. Surveys show that half the dairy cows in the USA and Europe are lame at some time every year.
Another common disease is mastitis, an infection of the udder and also very painful. Caused by bacteria entering the teat canal, the infected udder becomes swollen, hot to the touch, lumpy, distended and a brown discharge leaks from the teats, rife with pus. Farmers try to reduce cases of mastitis by injecting a long-acting antibiotic into all 4 teats during the 6-8 week ‘dry period’ - when milking is stopped before cows have their next calf. But cows that have mastitis repeatedly are culled.
The story of calves is no less brutal. They are taken away soon after birth so that their mothers can be returned to the milking parlour as soon as possible. Most female dairy calves are kept to become herd replacements - and the whole brutal cycle begins all over again. Unwanted calves are dispatched - shot or electrocuted. The remainder are usually sold on through markets for rearing as low quality beef or veal and often exported to the Continent. Distraught at being separated from their mothers and made wretched by the trauma of travelling, one in 5 under 2 weeks of age dies within a few weeks of having been passed through a market.
Humans are the only species that drinks milk from another animal or that drink milk throughout adulthood. Supermarkets are abundant with milk products - like cheese, yoghurts, cream. Yet the health benefits are questionable: saturated fats; hormones; overly rich in protein; and implicated as a cause of testicular, breast and prostate cancer and heart disease.

TSI (Triple Sugar Iron) slants, used to differentiate and characterize mostly Enteric bacteria and facultative anaerobes. both aerobic and anaerobic growth can be studied because the slant is stabbed, and the the inoculating needle is then “wiggled” up the slant as it is pulled out. this will facilitate the growth of the bacteria, if it has the ability to grow in an aerobic setting. otherwise, no color change is observed in the slant region, while change in color is seen in the “butt” part of the slant. seen here on the left, is a bacterium that has the ability to ferment all three sugars present in the media as well as produce gas (the large empty gap at the bottom leading it to look like a “floating island”) along with production of an acid, altering the color of the slant from red to yellow. this is a typical result for a facultative anaerobe and an enteric bacteria such as Eschericia coli. the middle slant shows an alkaline slant and an acidic butt while the tube on the right illustrates the production of H2S (hydrogen sulfide).


Have a happy Easter, full of happy eggs

It is probably not uppermost in your mind when you dye eggs for Easter that you are depending on an invisible structure called the cuticle being present for the eggs to colour properly. But the amount of change in colour you see depends on how much cuticle is present on the egg.

Having colourful Easter eggs is good news, but more importantly this same cuticle prevents bacteria entering the egg. This reduces the chance of bacteria reaching the developing chick if the egg is fertile and keeps the non-fertile eggs we eat safe.

Industry and BBSRC-funded scientist are developing tools which are better, although less colourful, to measure the amount of cuticle on an egg. This will allow genetic selection to improve the cuticle and improve egg safety. 

Research from: The Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, University of Glasgow, Lohmann Tierzucht and Aviagen

Image of the green eggs from Norrie Russell.

Images of the bowl of dyed eggs from Hannah Dunn.

After 24 hours of growth, this image depicts four different agar media culture plates that had been inoculated with Shigella sp., Escherichia sp., and Proteus sp. bacteria, (clockwise: MacConkey, Shigella-Salmonella, Bismuth Sulfite, and Brilliant Green agars).

Differences in the constituents, which compose the various agar media, are used as determinants as to which bacteria are fostered on each culture plate. Thriving culture colonies on one type of medium may not thrive on another type of medium based on the agars’ ingredients, which a given bacterium will require to maintain life.