english court

ok but just imagine Jean waking up day after day to see in his reflection that Jeremy has modified his tattoo again with black marker. Sometimes it’s a little snowman, sometimes a peanut. Most of the days is an 8, his new number in that estrange team. Eventually, Jean starts to feel excited to see his face in the mirror in the morning and at some point realises he is no longer afraid of that permanent ink stroke.

I realize that when most people think about interpreters, they either confuse them with translators or just imagine them as boring people who sit in a box all day and repeat the boring speeches politicians give at conferences. Somehow I doubt that most people have ever thought about how important interpreters have been for the way we communicate and how the world today would not be the same without them. And I also doubt that people have ever viewed interpreters as badass or as heroes. Therefore, I’d like to tell you about:

The Interpreters at the Nuremberg Trials

I guess most of you already know what the Nuremberg Trials were, but here’s a short explanation for those who don’t: The Nuremberg Trials were a series of military tribunals, held by the Allied forces after the Second World War. They took place in the city of Nuremberg and they were most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the Nazi leadership. As the people involved with the trial were American, British, French, German and Russian, it had to be conducted in four different languages. Which is why they needed interpreters.

I recently went to an exhibition about those interpreters and even though it was a really small one, it was super impressive- because of what I learned about them.

Here are some of the most interesting and impressive facts:

·         Before the Nuremberg Trials, simultaneous interpreting did not exist. Before the trials, people believed that the human brain was not capable of something like that. The simultaneous interpreting equipment used for the trials was the very first of its kind.

In this video you can see a demonstration of the simultaneous interpreting system. Later you can also hear some of the interpreters’ interpretations:

·         None of the interpreters had ever worked as a simultaneous interpreter before. (The reason was, of course, that this profession had not existed before the trials.) Some were translators, consecutive interpreters or linguists, and others were ordinary people who had grown up bilingually, or people who had fled from Germany before the war and lived abroad for a while. The bar was set very high and they had to pass difficult and complex tests, including mock trials, before they were allowed to interpret at the tribunals. Since none of them had any kind of experience with simultaneous interpreting, they had to train themselves in a very short time.

·         Without simultaneous interpreting, the Nuremberg Trials would have taken much longer or might not even have been possible at all. Before the trials, only consecutive interpretation was used. (With consecutive interpretation, the speaker stops every few minutes and the interpreter repeats what he said in the target language.) Since there were four court languages (English, German, French and Russian), using this interpreting technique would have prolonged the trials significantly. As the Cold War started soon after the end of the tribunals, it is unclear whether they could have been finished, had they taken any longer.

·         Simultaneous interpreters were not the only language professionals working at the trials. If a witness spoke neither of the four court languages, consecutive interpreters were brought in to interpret their testimony- which was then interpreted again by the simultaneous interpreters. There were also interpreters sitting behind the judges to help them communicate. The American and the British judge were seated next to each other, so they could exchange their thoughts, but if they wanted to talk to the French and Russian judge, they needed the help of their interpreters. Translators also worked at the trials. They translated the notes taken by the court reporters in shorthand. These translations were then compared to recordings of the simultaneous interpreters’ interpretations, to make sure that they hadn’t made any mistakes which could influence the outcome of the trials.

·         In total, the team consisted of approximately 50 interpreters, 200 translators and 100 people who compared the interpretations with the court reporters’ shorthand. Of course, this generated a lot of paperwork. One photo taken by the American military photographer Ray D’Addario shows employees in the court’s document room standing literally ankle-deep in translation paperwork.

·         Interpreters at the trials worked 85 minute shifts on their own. (In contrast, simultaneous interpreters today work in teams of two and take turns in shifts of up to 30 minutes.)

·         Sometimes, interpreters were not able to finish their shift- not because of exhaustion, but because they could no longer handle the psychological strain and could no longer force themselves to listen to what was being said. The trials dealt with the worst atrocities committed by the Nazis- war crimes, genocide, mass murder and crimes against humanity. Many interpreters had to be replaced -either because they left or because they returned to the translation department- and later many said that they had nightmares because of those trials. One interpreter, however, also said that he didn’t really catch all the details of what was being said, because he was always way too focused on getting the grammar and the vocabulary right. (And yes, that happens. A lot.)

·         One of the most famous photos of an interpreter at the Nuremberg Trials does not actually depict an interpreter. The photo in question shows a young woman in a red suit wearing headphones and explaining the simultaneous interpreting system to the press. However, she was not actually an interpreter, but a lawyer’s secretary. The reason she was chosen as a model for this photo was that she always had the most fashionable suits, because her mother was a tailor.

·         Interpretations and Translations could influence the outcome of the trials. The fact that recordings of simultaneous interpretations were checked against the translations of the court reporters’ shorthand limited the risk of communication mistakes, but could not eliminate it completely. Many Nazis, like Göring for instance, tried to use this to their advantage- which, of course, put the interpreters under immense pressure to get everything exactly right. Richard W. Sonnenfeldt, the lead interpreter for the prosecution, remembered Göring asking him: “Could you find me a good lawyer? Although I might need a good interpreter even more than a lawyer.” After the trials, some defendants claimed that they had only been found guilty because of translation or interpretation mistakes. Interpretation or translation mishaps could also negatively affect the prosecution, though. A mistranslation of the word “Freimachung” (translated with “liberation” instead of “clearing”) caused a big problem for chief prosecutor Robert H. Jackson during his first confrontation with Göring in court. Of course, some words also have more than one meaning. And sometimes, one meaning was more incriminating than the other. Those words quickly became bones of contention.

More about the equipment

·         Unlike interpreters today, the interpreters at the Nuremberg Trials did not have soundproof booths. Therefore, they had to be careful to not be distracted by ambient noise all the time. Their booths were nicknamed “the aquarium” because they were made of glass. However, those booths were not even closed glass boxes. There was one big glass panel in front of them, and smaller glass panels were used to separate the booths. The headphones were not soundproof either, and probably also not very comfortable.

·         Everyone had to wear headphones, except for the guards. There were more than 300 headphones in the court room at all times.

·         Each interpreter had a sign which said “slow”. They would hold it up if they wanted the speaker to talk more slowly. If a speaker did not see this (or ignored it), either the interpreters or a technician could push buttons which would light up differently coloured lights on the speaker’s table. The orange light told the speaker to slow down and the red light was a signal that there was a technical problem and the session had to be suspended until this problem was fixed.

What influence did those interpreters have on the future?

·         Together with other interpreters who worked at the trials, Colonel Léon Dostert, the head of the interpreters at the tribunals, founded the United Nations Interpretation Service. The technology used in Nuremberg became the basis of modern interpreting technology and ever since the Nuremberg Trials, simultaneous interpreting has become an integral part of international politics and diplomacy. Without simultaneous interpreting, international institutions like the UN, NATO, the EU or the WTO would look completely different today.

These interpreters did something that was considered to be impossible before the Nuremberg Trials. People believed that the human brain was not capable of simultaneous interpretation and yet those interpreters did it. In a short time, they taught themselves how to do it. They worked with newly developed equipment that was far from perfect: Uncomfortable headphones, people tripping over cables and no soundproof booths. They worked shifts which were nearly three times as long as shifts today, and all the time they had to listen to descriptions of the horrific atrocities committed by the Nazis. But even though they were constantly faced with these horrors, even though they were under immense pressure- the interpreters, translators, and other language professionals involved with the trials still did their job. They all put themselves through immense stress, psychological strain and possibly trauma, to make the trials happen and to make sure that Nazi war criminals received the punishment they deserved. Without those interpreters and translators, it would not have been possible. The simultaneous interpreters in particular were pioneers of their profession. Without them, simultaneous interpreting might not even exist. And without simultaneous interpreting, international institutions like the UN or the EU would look completely different today. The world might look completely different, too. After all, during the Cold War, fast communication with people who spoke different languages was essential. Who knows what might have happened without interpreters?

So, yeah, I don’t want to hear people calling interpreters boring ever again.

Just in case you’re interested in hearing more about this topic from someone who has actually lived through all this; here’s a speech by Siegfried Ramler, one of the interpreters who worked at the Nuremberg Trials:

[Finally, I’m not a historian or anything like that; I’m just telling you what I learned at the exhibition and from a few articles about it, because i found it interesting and super impressive. So if there’s anything that’s not correct, I apologize. Please let me know and I’ll correct it at once!]


Compared to her fellow ladies-in-waiting, Anne Boleyn was exotic. She’s been schooled in the refined world of French court. Unusually for an English courtier, the teenage Anne had spent 7 years in the royal household of Queen Claude, the young wife of King Francis I. Court life in France was different from court life in England, it was more sophisticated and sexy, and some of this rubbed off on Anne. At the French court Anne learnt how to sing, dance, and about fashion that was more seductive and revealing than the English equivalent. But, most importantly, she learnt a new way of behaving, flirtatiously and confidently with men. She picked up this trick of using her eyes, it was said she could “send them forth as messengers to carry the secret witness if the heart”. Anne was also sharp and curious, she didn’t just flirt with King Henry, she also argued with him.


*Requested* Elijah and the reader were together and married before he was turned, so when he was turned she was too. And when Elijah comes to Mystic Falls (with Y/N) to help Elena with Klaus, Elena walks in on the couple having a cute moment and when Y/N leaves she overhears Elena ask Elijah about their relationship he gets all like glossy eyed and tells her about how their love is everlasting.

(This is set back in Season 2 when Elijah and Elena talk about Klaus and the sacrifice. Also, this was requested pretty recently, but I loved this requests so much I had to write it immediatly. @iamnotlabeled: I hope it does your request justice. Happy reading my lovelies! )

Characters: Husband!Elijah x Wife!Reader, Elena

Story Title: “Truly Everlasting”

Word count: 898

Your name: submit What is this?

The birds outside chirp away while the soft drizzling of the fountain outside of the Lockwood mansion reach your ears. Your husband, Elijah, waits impatiently for Elena to return, while you currently rummage through the impressive music collection of the former Major. It seems he had a passion for renaissance music. Who would have thought?

You spot a particularly interesting piece and immediately felt the need to listen to it, so you place it onto the ancient record player. At the song´s very first tunes you feel hands around your waist and Elijah´s chin resting on your shoulder.

Y/N: “Do you recall how we danced to this song in…”

You try to recall the exact date, but it has been quite some time. Over 400 years to be a little more precise. But luckily your husband engraved every date into his mind.

Elijah: “…England 1601. At the English royal court on your 626th birthday.”

He gently tugs at your waist, swirls you around with one arm and then pulls you close, gently swaying with the music.

Keep reading

One summer night Andrew and Neil just can’t sleep because of the heat and decide to go out for a ride. Andrew drives to nowhere in particular until they find themselves driving down one of those empty countryside streets. Neil tells Andrew to pull over and Andrew does, without questions. Neil climbs on top of the car and Andrew follows. Neil has spent his whole life on the run, he never had the time to stop and observe, especially not during the night, when dangers could easily hide in the shadows. But now Neil is free and he suddenly realises how beautiful the stars are. And he doesn’t even want to blink, because he fears they might disappear. So there they are, in a hot summer night, lying on the roof of their car. Neil looks at stars while Andrew looks at Neil. And at some point Neil turns and returns Andrew’s gaze. And they just stay there, in the silence, looking at each other. This time Andrew doesn’t tell Neil not to look at him like that, that idiot will never learn anyway. And maybe, listening to the steady sound of his own heart, Andrew will think that, in the end, they may be each other’s answer. Maybe not the answer to every question, but the answer to “how does peace feel like?”


1983. Court in the Act

is the debut  album by band Satan.

Satan originating from Newcastle, England in 1979, known as part of the New Wave of British Heavy Metal movement. With regards to the band’s name, Steve Ramsey said in a 2013 interview: “The judge was always part of it, the judge and the the devil. That’s the basic theme of the whole band, you know. Satan isn’t occult or anything like that, the whole idea of the band is injustice. It’s all about injustice.”

Satan would later change it’s name to Blind fury because they didn’t want to be associated with the growing number of satanic bands coming mostly from the newly emerging thrash metal movement, they released an excellent album titled “Out of reach” featuring the same flawless musicianship and strong numbers but without the great Brian Ross and with a cleaner production than on “Court in the act” the magic seemed to have disappeared though “Out of reach” is still recommended.

NWOBHM has to be one of the greatest genres of heavy metal and Satan proves this with “Court in the Act”. This is absolutely top-notch killer fucking metal with balls and heart.

Court in the Act is quite possibly their greatest moment, for 1983 the material here was years ahead of its time and was an undeniable stepping stone for many bands to follow.

Brian Ross    Russ Tippins    Steve Ramsey   Graeme English    Sean Taylor

I just want to talk about Regency court dress for a minute

It’s been discussed here before, but good lord. I love seeing pictures of English court dress from the Regency era. I mean look at this 

This happened because the ageing Queen Charlotte just could not BEAR to part with her 18th century hoops when the fashions started changing. And since the Queen was the deciding factor in what ladies of the court wore..

What is this supposed to…What?

Someone stop this I feel ill 



hand holding and pet names feat. these two assholes

Neil is calling Andrew an endearment form of “gold nugget” and Andrew’s calling Neil a “little fox”??

EDIT: thank you to @nniehaus for fixing the translation!

I love the idea of andreil+ pet names

  • the first time Andrew calls Neil sweetheart it’s entirely sarcastic
  • they overhear nicky talking on the phone to erik using all those disgustingly cute pet names and andrew rolls his eyes so hard, looks neil dead in the eyes and goes ’ don’t you think so, too sweetheart?’ ( bonus for andrew doing a very bad impression of nicky’s voice)
  • neil is just like ??? did andrew just call him sweetheart and why did he like it so much
  • and so it begins
  • andrew of course noticed the flush on neil’s cheeks and bc he ‘hates’ him so much and absolutely ‘loathes’ making neil happy he doesn’t stop
  • at first he only does it when he’s being sarcastic ‘kevin is right, watching old exy games is a respectable way to spend your weekend, right babe?’
  • and nicky is so confused bc it would be really cute if andrew wouldn’t do his don’t say anything or I’m going to kill you stare every time he uses a pet name
  • the other foxes notice too and ofc they bet on whether or not andrew actually likes pet names and what the most ridiculous name is he ever called Neil
  • they find out at the next exy match
  • some asshole from the opposing team starts giving them shit (calling them names, muttering insults whenever he gets near neil)
  • at one point andrew just has enough
  • he starts really defending the goal and calling neil the most hilarious names when he passes him the ball (buttercup, angel, little star…)
  • and neil is blushing furiously but his smile is so bright and he has never played better
  • after the games (the foxes won bc nobody gets past andrew if he doesn’t want them to) neil happily grins at andrew but andrew just says: 264% with a blank expression and neil just grins harder
  • the player from the other team just shakes his head (the foxes are crazy)
  • the first time neil calls andrew 'love’ andrew realises he has a problem bc he didn’t sign up for his silly boyfriend calling him that and he doesn’t like the way it makes his heart beat faster
  • neil notices his weird reaction and asks 'yes or no’ bc he doesn’t want to overstep andrews boundaries by calling him something he isn’t comfortable with
  • you can imagine neil’s face when andrew angrily answers ’yes’
  • so pet names become a thing but they are extremely private about it
  • like: Neil would never call andrew ’love’ in front of the others and andrew is only slightly less sarcastic when they’re alone
  • sometimes when they just need to let the other one know how important they are they switch to russian

royal meme | monarchs 2/10 

Anne Boleyn, Queen of England (c. 1501-36)

“Captivating to men, Anne was also sharp, assertive, subtle, calculating, vindictive, a power dresser and a power player, perhaps a figure to be more admired than liked.”
- Eric Ives

Anne Boleyn was the most controversial and scandalous woman ever to sit on the throne of England. From her early days at the imposing Hever Castle in Kent, to the glittering courts of Paris and London, Anne caused a stir wherever she went. Alluring but not beautiful, Anne’s wit and poise won her numerous admirers at the English court, and caught the roving eye of King Henry.

Anne was determined to shape her own destiny, first through a secret engagement to Henry Percy, the heir of the Earl of Northumberland, and later through her insistence on marriage with the king, after a long and tempestuous relationship as his mistress. Their love affair was as extreme as it was deadly, from Henry’s ‘mine own sweetheart’ to 'cursed and poisoning whore’ her fall from grace was total.

Neither saint nor seductress, victim or witch Anne Boleyn was essentially a modern woman. She saw her opportunities and took them, causing a scandal that shocked England and Europe.

laropasucia  asked:

Your favorite-characters post lists Margaret from Henry VI as one of your three favorite Shakespeare characters, but though I tracked down your posts on Edmund and Benvolio (and Regan), all of which are epic, I can't find any lengthy posts on Margaret, in any tag. So, whatcha like about her?

So unfortunately I don’t have time for anything really lengthy atm (my critical survey is due in two days and I’m jumping on a plane back to the States literally the day after that) but here’s the short version: 

Margaret is a badass. She appears in four different plays, starting at the end of 1H6 and right from the start she’s not taking anybody’s bullshit. Suffolk captures her in battle and instead of being being remotely frightened by this man with a sword who is standing there talking to himself (the scene is hilarious, read it if you never have) she’s just like “Are you gonna ransom me or what? I’m not going to stand here all day.” And Suffolk is so struck by her and how beautiful and fiery she is that he falls in love with her on the fucking spot. And I mean, really who can blame him?

So to make a really long story really short, Suffolk’s descriptions of Margaret are so captivating that he persuades the goddamn king of England to marry her without having even seen her and without her having a dowry and as soon as she crosses the ocean she starts to fucking dominate. To be fair, dominating Henry isn’t hard because he really just wants to sit around reading his Bible instead of ruling, but Margaret also has to contend with the whole court mocking her because she didn’t come from a rich family, and she takes literally none of their crap–she smacks the Duchess of Gloucester in the fucking face when she’s had enough of her high and mightiness, and personally I like to imagine Suffolk standing in the background, fucking beaming just like “That’s my girl.”

Okay, really quickly, Suffolk: Suffolk is a weird guy. He’s kind of nasty and slimy and the only thing he does with any consistency is love Margaret so hard he can’t even see straight. When he’s finally banished at the end of 2H6 it’s one of the saddest scenes in the whole fucking cycle. Look at the way they talk to each other: 

Queen Margaret. O, let me entreat thee cease. Give me thy hand,
That I may dew it with my mournful tears;
Nor let the rain of heaven wet this place, 
To wash away my woful monuments.
O, could this kiss be printed in thy hand,
That thou mightst think upon these by the seal,
Through whom a thousand sighs are breathed for thee!
So, get thee gone, that I may know my grief; 
‘Tis but surmised whiles thou art standing by,
As one that surfeits thinking on a want.
I will repeal thee, or, be well assured,
Adventure to be banished myself:
And banished I am, if but from thee. 
Go; speak not to me; even now be gone.
O, go not yet! Even thus two friends condemn’d
Embrace and kiss and take ten thousand leaves,
Loather a hundred times to part than die.
Yet now farewell; and farewell life with thee!

Earl of Suffolk. Thus is poor Suffolk ten times banished;
Once by the king, and three times thrice by thee.
‘Tis not the land I care for, wert thou thence;
A wilderness is populous enough,
So Suffolk had thy heavenly company: 
For where thou art, there is the world itself,
With every several pleasure in the world,
And where thou art not, desolation.
I can no more: live thou to joy thy life;
Myself no joy in nought but that thou livest.

Dude, this scene goes on for a while, and it’s fuckin’ heartbreaking. And I think what you have to remember is that Margaret is young when she arrives in England, where nobody wants her and everyone ridicules her, to marry a man who has no real interest in taking care of her, and Suffolk is the only one who’s always been on her side. (There’s a theory floating around that Ned is actually his son, and that’s why Margaret often calls him ‘my son’ instead of ‘our son’ when she’s talking to Henry. I don’t know if I believe this but it makes for a really compelling narrative.) 

But here’s what happens to Suffolk: On his way into exile he’s murdered by pirates and they send his head to Margaret. She enters in 4.4 carrying his head and listen to what she says: 

Queen Margaret. Oft have I heard that grief softens the mind,
And makes it fearful and degenerate;
Think therefore on revenge and cease to weep. 
But who can cease to weep and look on this?
Here may his head lie on my throbbing breast:
But where’s the body that I should embrace?

This is her turning point. From this point forward, Margaret is motherfucking ruthless, and the stuff people call her is insane. She-wolf of France, tiger’s heart wrapt in a woman’s hide, and so on. She fights the wars herself while her useless husband sits at home and she takes absolutely no prisoners. One of my favorite scenes in the whole canon is her torture and murder of York in 3H6, because it’s so deeply disturbing–you can see how tormented she is even as she’s tormenting him. Every drop of pity has dried up in her because the English court has taught her that pity doesn’t get you anywhere, and she’s right–look what happens to her piteous husband at the end of the play. 

But here’s the thing: Margaret comes back for one last encore in Richard III. It’s a total anachronism because she never actually returned to England after losing everything and being exiled, but I think Shakespeare just couldn’t resist bringing her back for one last bow, and dudes, I am so fucking glad he did because she’s the best part of that play. She enters as this mad old woman who has lost everything, and has come back just to watch the people who ruined her suffer. But again, like the scene with York, you can see that it just comes from her own suffering. She rants and raves and throws out some of the best insults in the canon (Thou elvish-mark’d, abortive, rooting hog!), but the most interesting scene by far is the one with the four women together, where they sit and talk about what a fucking mess the men have made of everything. And you get this amazing, precarious moment of camaraderie where Margaret says, “This is going to harden you. Look what it’s done to me.” Here:

Forbear to sleep the nights, and fast the days;
Compare dead happiness with living woe;
Think that thy babes were fairer than they were,
And he that slew them fouler than he is:
Bettering thy loss makes the bad causer worse:
Revolving this will teach thee how to curse.

And I just… Jesus. Margaret may be ruthless and bloodthirsty, but the world has made her that way, and she knows it. In a lot of ways she’s like a female Edmund, and maybe that’s why I love her so much. She’s one of those most dizzyingly complex characters Shakespeare ever wrote, and because she’s in four different plays you just get to know her in such a deep, intimate way. Working on these plays and directing one of my best friends–who is so beautiful and so talented and absolutely brought the role to life–is one of the most cherished Shakespearean experiences I have. Like Suffolk I think Margaret will always be my queen.