Beeston Castle
Cheshire, England by Debbie Aspin

Built in the 1220s by Ranulf de Blondeville – the 6th Earl of Chester – after his return from the Crusades. By 1237 CE the castle was taken over by the Crown. Upkeep was maintained until the 16th century, when it was considered to be no longer strategically important. Ironically, it saw use more than a century later during the English Civil War (1642-1651). Afterwards it was partially destroyed as part of Oliver Cromwell’s destruction order.

On the 2nd of September, 1752, Great Britain adopted the Gregorian calendar. Most of Western Europe had adopted the calendar some two centuries earlier, changing from the Julian calendar.

Included in this reform was the British Empire, including parts of what is now the United States.

The Julian calendar is still used alongside the Gregorian calendar in some parts of the world, which is the reason some countries in the east of Europe celebrate Easter and Christmas on different dates.


Petticoat panel with Chinoiserie Motifs

England (c. 1700)

Linen Embroidered with Silk, 92.7 × 135.9 × 7.6 cm.

By the late seventeenth century the appeal of Far Eastern goods had reached most levels of English society. Those who could not afford luxurious imports could turn to domestically produced options. In 1688 A Treatise of Japanning and Varnishing by John Stalker and George Parker was published in London. The popular how-to guide includes twenty-four chinoiserie illustrations for decorating a variety of objects with an Asian flair. This embroidered panel is one of several English examples from the period stitched with such designs. Included are well-known motifs such as a fan-toting woman shaded by an attendant’s parasol and tiny pavilions dwarfed by oversized foliage. Despite the typical lack of cultural and geographic specificity, Europeans would have understood the images to symbolize the Far East.

-The Metropolitan Museum of Art