engine cowlings

10 People You Wish You Met from 100 Years of NASA’s Langley

Something happened 100 years ago that changed forever the way we fly. And then the way we explore space. And then how we study our home planet. That something was the establishment of what is now NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. Founded just three months after America’s entry into World War I, Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory was established as the nation’s first civilian facility focused on aeronautical research. The goal was, simply, to “solve the fundamental problems of flight.”

From the beginning, Langley engineers devised technologies for safer, higher, farther and faster air travel. Top-tier talent was hired. State-of-the-art wind tunnels and supporting infrastructure was built. Unique solutions were found.

Langley researchers developed the wing shapes still used today in airplane design. Better propellers, engine cowlings, all-metal airplanes, new kinds of rotorcraft and helicopters, faster-than-sound flight - these were among Langley’s many groundbreaking aeronautical advances spanning its first decades.

By 1958, Langley’s governing organization, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, or NACA, would become NASA, and Langley’s accomplishments would soar from air into space.

Here are 10 people you wish you met from the storied history of Langley:

Robert R. “Bob” Gilruth (1913–2000) 

  • Considered the father of the U.S. manned space program.
  • He helped organize the Manned Spacecraft Center – now the Johnson Space Center – in Houston, Texas. 
  • Gilruth managed 25 crewed spaceflights, including Alan Shepard’s first Mercury flight in May 1961, the first lunar landing by Apollo 11 in July 1969, the dramatic rescue of Apollo 13 in 1970, and the Apollo 15 mission in July 1971.

Christopher C. “Chris” Kraft, Jr. (1924-) 

  • Created the concept and developed the organization, operational procedures and culture of NASA’s Mission Control.
  • Played a vital role in the success of the final Apollo missions, the first manned space station (Skylab), the first international space docking (Apollo-Soyuz Test Project), and the first space shuttle flights.

Maxime “Max” A. Faget (1921–2004) 

  • Devised many of the design concepts incorporated into all U.S.  manned spacecraft.
  • The author of papers and books that laid the engineering foundations for methods, procedures and approaches to spaceflight. 
  • An expert in safe atmospheric reentry, he developed the capsule design and operational plan for Project Mercury, and made major contributions to the Apollo Program’s basic command module configuration.

Caldwell Johnson (1919–2013) 

  • Worked for decades with Max Faget helping to design the earliest experimental spacecraft, addressing issues such as bodily restraint and mobility, personal hygiene, weight limits, and food and water supply. 
  • A key member of NASA’s spacecraft design team, Johnson established the basic layout and physical contours of America’s space capsules.

William H. “Hewitt” Phillips (1918–2009) 

  • Provided solutions to critical issues and problems associated with control of aircraft and spacecraft. 
  • Under his leadership, NASA Langley developed piloted astronaut simulators, ensuring the success of the Gemini and Apollo missions. Phillips personally conceived and successfully advocated for the 240-foot-high Langley Lunar Landing Facility used for moon-landing training, and later contributed to space shuttle development, Orion spacecraft splashdown capabilities and commercial crew programs.

Katherine Johnson (1918-) 

  • Was one of NASA Langley’s most notable “human computers,” calculating the trajectory analysis for Alan Shepard’s May 1961 mission, Freedom 7, America’s first human spaceflight. 
  • She verified the orbital equations controlling the capsule trajectory of John Glenn’s Friendship 7 mission from blastoff to splashdown, calculations that would help to sync Project Apollo’s lunar lander with the moon-orbiting command and service module. 
  • Johnson also worked on the space shuttle and the Earth Resources Satellite, and authored or coauthored 26 research reports.

Dorothy Vaughan (1910–2008) 

  • Was both a respected mathematician and NASA’s first African-American manager, head of NASA Langley’s segregated West Area Computing Unit from 1949 until 1958. 
  • Once segregated facilities were abolished, she joined a racially and gender-integrated group on the frontier of electronic computing. 
  • Vaughan became an expert FORTRAN programmer, and contributed to the Scout Launch Vehicle Program.

William E. Stoney Jr. (1925-) 

  • Oversaw the development of early rockets, and was manager of a NASA Langley-based project that created the Scout solid-propellant rocket. 
  • One of the most successful boosters in NASA history, Scout and its payloads led to critical advancements in atmospheric and space science. 
  • Stoney became chief of advanced space vehicle concepts at NASA headquarters in Washington, headed the advanced spacecraft technology division at the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, and was engineering director of the Apollo Program Office.

Israel Taback (1920–2008) 

  • Was chief engineer for NASA’s Lunar Orbiter program. Five Lunar Orbiters circled the moon, three taking photographs of potential Apollo landing sites and two mapping 99 percent of the lunar surface. 
  • Taback later became deputy project manager for the Mars Viking project. Seven years to the day of the first moon landing, on July 20, 1976, Viking 1 became NASA’s first Martian lander, touching down without incident in western Chryse Planitia in the planet’s northern equatorial region.

John C Houbolt (1919–2014) 

  • Forcefully advocated for the lunar-orbit-rendezvous concept that proved the vital link in the nation’s successful Apollo moon landing. 
  • In 1963, after the lunar-orbit-rendezvous technique was adopted, Houbolt left NASA for the private sector as an aeronautics, astronautics and advanced-technology consultant. 
  • He returned to Langley in 1976 to become its chief aeronautical scientist. During a decades-long career, Houbolt was the author of more than 120 technical publications.

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Now for something that maybe Humans are space orcs

So a while ago I posted something about how aliens may find Brutal in appearance and power and what we may consider normal is insane amounts of power, well I have discussed the power now it’s time see the alien point of view in human ship design. (this is a continuation of my post Human are Space orcs)  also sorry if this post is a little disjointed 

“My Hanar the human ship should be entering normal space from hyper wave”

“Good my SubHanar  I trust we are well clear of the exit point? ”

Before the SubHanar can answer one of the Bridge crew shouts in alarm the Human ship is exiting Hyperwave. The whole of the Bridge falls silent trying to spot this Vessel that a few moments ago was overloading the scanner array.

The first sighting goes to the SubHanar Darni with each passing minute the human ship grows in size until all the Bridge crew can see it, they are taken back. We’re as their ship The-Blade-of-Joy is Sleek with a long flared sceptre shaped hull with four forward swept wings that mount the ships weapons arrays and the Bridge a Glass tip at the very bow of the ship. The human ship is a shovel headed shape with its engines cowled and glowing blue at the rear of the ship, six of the bulbous domes that are its primary weapons arrays can be seen dotting the hull as well as smaller turreted weapons arrayed to deal with anything that may get past the main weapons. on what would be considered the top the bridge can be seen a slender tower with an array of windows and sensor masts, the two ships do share a similarity they both have their names proudly emblazoned upon their hulls as well as markings of their respective space fleet  the human ships Name can be Seen, H.M.S Argo and were as the Blade-of-joy is marked with the Vakamr of Akamari Communion, the human ship is marked with the Flag of the Commonwealth of Dominions.

as the Human ship manoeuvres into position SubHanar Darni turn to her Hanar “My Harnar why is it so ugly?”

“Becuase my Subhanar it is human war vessel it is built to fight and win nothing more”

Airworthy B-17 Flying Fortresses, 2017

A quick guide to the survivors, and how to quickly identify them.

Sentimental Journey, 44-83514, CAF Arizona Wing

“Triangle U” fin flash, denoting the 457th Bomb Group, 1st Bomb Wing, 8th Air Force.  This aircraft served as a mothership during Operation Greenhouse, a series of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in 1951.  She is based out of Mesa, Arizona.

Memphis Belle, 44-83546, Military Aircraft Restoration Corp.

Olive drab fuselage paint with yellow identification markings, lacks a fin flash for unit identification.  The aircraft is actually a B-17G modified to resemble the real Belle for the 1990 movie, and carries the markings of the original aircraft.  Note the flatter Sperry top turret (not visible in this picture), lack of a chin turret, and larger waist windows.  She is based out of Anaheim, California.

Miss Angela, 44-85778, Palm Springs Air Museum

Unpainted main fuselage, bright red forward fin, yellow ring around the nose compartment, the markings of the 34th Bomb Group, 4th Bomb Wing, 8th Air Force.  The aircraft was delivered to the 6th Air Force and served post-war in Brazil.  She is based out of Palm Springs, California.

Fuddy Duddy, 44-83563, Lyon Air Museum

“Square K” fin flash, denoting the 447th Bomb Group, 4th Air Wing, 8th Air Force.  Unpainted main fuselage, yellow fin and control surfaces, double green band on rear fuselage and fin.  This aircraft served as a VIP transport in the Pacific at the end of WWII.  She is based out of Santa Ana, California.

Nine-O-Nine, 44-83575, Collings Foundation

“Triangle A” fin flash, denoting the 91st Bomb Group, 1st Bomb Wing, 8th Air Force; olive drab fuselage, vertical red bar on fin, aircraft code OR-R, extensive mission markings for nose art.  The aircraft was subjected to three nuclear explosions in 1952 before being sold for scrap, then restored.  She is painted to resemble the original Nine-O-Nine and is based out of Stow, Massachusetts.

Yankee Lady, 44-85829, Yankee Air Museum

“Triangle L” fin flash, denoting the 381st Bomb Group, 1st Air Wing, 8th Air Force; unpainted main fuselage, red vertical band on the fin and red markings on the wingtips and horizontal stabilizers, aircraft code Y-GD.  The aircraft was transferred to the Coast Guard in 1946 where it was stripped and turned into an air-sea rescue plane.  She is based out of Belleville, Michigan.

Thunderbird, 44-85718, Lone Star Flight Museum

“Triangle C” fin flash, denoting the 303rd Bomb Group, 1st Air Wing, 8th Air Force; olive drab fuselage, large group markings on the fin and starboard upper wing surface, aircraft code U-BN.  The aircraft is painted to represent the original Thunderbird which flew 112 missions without a crew injury.  She is based out of Galveston, Texas.

Texas Raiders, 44-83872, CAF Gulf Coast Wing

“Triangle L” fin flash, denoting the 381st Bomb Group, 1st Air Wing, 8th Air Force; olive drab fuselage, red wingtips and horizontal stabilizers, group markings on the fin and starboard upper wing, aircraft code X-VP.  The aircraft served in the Navy as a PB-1W AWACS aircraft before being retired in 1955.  She is based out of Spring, Texas.

Madras Maiden, 44-8543, Erickson Aircraft Collection

“Triangle L” fin flash, denoting the 381st Bomb Group, 1st Bomb Wing, 8th Air Force; unpainted main fuselage, red wingtips and horizontal stabilizers, red band on the fin, black/red open band on the starboard upper wing, aircraft code F-JE.  The aircraft was converted into a Pathfinder with the H2X radar set before being retired in 1959.  She is based out of Madras, Oregon.

From 1979 until 2013 44-8543 wore the colors of Chuckie, “Square W” 486th Bomb Group, 4th Air Wing, 8th Air Force.  In these pictures she is painted with a yellow fin, triple yellow bands around the rear fuselage, yellow wingtips and yellow ring around the nose.  This is how the aircraft was displayed at my local air museum, and how it is most often pictured.

Aluminum Overcast, 44-85740, Experimental Aircraft Association

“Triangle W” fin flash, denoting the 398th Bomb Group, 1st Air Wing, 8th Air Force; silver main fuselage, red wingtips and horizontal stabilizers, red vertical band on fin, group markings on fin and starboard upper wing.  The aircraft was delivered too late to see service in Europe and was sold as surplus, entering the civilian market.  She is based out of Oshkosh, Wisconsin.

Sally B,  44-85784, B-17 Preservation Ltd.

The aircraft carries identical markings to Memphis Belle, acquired during the filming of the 1990 movie.  Her #3 engine cowling (starboard inner) is painted with a yellow-black checkerboard pattery.  She is based out of Duxford, England, and is the only airworthy B-17 in Europe.

Several other B-17s are listed as airworthy, including The Pink Lady (44-8846, last flown 2010), Boeing Bee (42-29782, flown 2006 with no plans for further flights), and Shady Lady (44-83785, recently acquired by the Collings Foundation with plans to return to flight by 2017).  Several others are under restoration to airworthiness.

Innovation at 100

Air travel, spaceflight, robotic solar-system missions: science fiction to those alive at the turn of the 20th century became science fact to those living in the 21st. 

America’s aerospace future has been literally made at our Langley Research Center by the best and brightest the country can offer. Here are some of the many highlights from a century of ingenuity and invention.

Making the Modern Airplane

In times of peace and war, Langley helped to create a better airplane, including unique wing shapes, sturdier structures, the first engine cowlings, and drag cleanup that enabled the Allies to win World War II.

In 1938 Langley mounted the navy’s Brewster XF2A-1 Buffalo in the Full-Scale Tunnel for drag reduction studies.

Wind Goes to Work

Langley broke new ground in aeronautical research with a suite of first-of-their-kind wind tunnels that led to numerous advances in commercial, military and vertical flight, such as helicopters and other rotorcraft. 

Airflow turning vanes in Langley’s 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel.

Aeronautics Breakthroughs

Aviation Hall of Famer Richard Whitcomb’s area rule made practical jet flight a reality and, thanks to his development of winglets and the supercritical wing, enabled jets to save fuel and fly more efficiently.

Richard Whitcomb examines a model aircraft incorporating his area rule.

Making Space

Langley researchers laid the foundation for the U.S. manned space program, played a critical role in the Mercury, Gemini and Apollo programs, and developed the lunar-orbit rendezvous concept that made the Moon landing possible.

Neil Armstrong trained for the historic Apollo 11 mission at the Lunar Landing Research Facility,

Safer Air Above and Below

Langley research into robust aircraft design and construction, runway safety grooving, wind shear, airspace management and lightning protection has aimed to minimize, even eliminate air-travel mishaps

NASA’s Boeing 737 as it approached a thunderstorm during microburst wind shear research in Colorado in 1992.

Tracking Earth from Aloft

Development by Langley of a variety of satellite-borne instrumentation has enabled real-time monitoring of planet-wide atmospheric chemistry, air quality, upper-atmosphere ozone concentrations, the effects of clouds and air-suspended particles on climate, and other conditions affecting Earth’s biosphere.

Crucial Shuttle Contributions

Among a number of vital contributions to the creation of the U.S. fleet of space shuttles, Langley developed preliminary shuttle designs and conducted 60,000 hours of wind tunnel tests to analyze aerodynamic forces affecting shuttle launch, flight and landing.

Space Shuttle model in the Langley wind tunnel.

Decidedly Digital

Helping aeronautics transition from analog to digital, Langley has worked on aircraft controls, glass cockpits, computer-aided synthetic vision and a variety of safety-enhancing onboard sensors to better monitor conditions while airborne and on the ground.

Aerospace research engineer Kyle Ellis uses computer-aided synthetic vision technology in a flight deck simulator.

Fast, Faster, Fastest

Langley continues to study ways to make higher-speed air travel a reality, from about twice the speed of sound – supersonic – to multiple times: hypersonic.

Langley continues to study ways to make higher-speed air travel a reality, from about twice the speed of sound – supersonic – to multiple times: hypersonic.

Safer Space Sojourns

Protecting astronauts from harm is the aim of Langley’s work on the Orion Launch Abort System, while its work on materials and structures for lightweight and affordable space transportation and habitation will keep future space travelers safe.

Unmasking the Red Planet

Beginning with its leadership role in Project Viking, Langley has helped to unmask Martian mysteries with a to-date involvement in seven Mars missions, with participation in more likely to come.

First image of Mars taken by Viking 1 Lander.

Touchdown Without Terror

Langley’s continued work on advanced entry, descent and landing systems aims to make touchdowns on future planetary missions routinely safe and secure.

Artist concept of NASA’s Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator - an entry, descent and landing technology.

Going Green

Helping to create environmentally benign aeronautical technologies has been a focus of Langley research, including concepts to reduce drag, weight, fuel consumption, emissions, and lessen noise.

Intrepid Inventors

With a history developing next-generation composite structures and components, Langley innovators continue to garner awards for a variety of aerospace inventions with a wide array of terrestrial applications.

Boron Nitride Nanotubes: High performance, multi-use nanotube material.

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Republic P-43

was initially fitted with a large prop spinner and a tight-fitting engine cowling, as a testbed to evaluate means of improving the aerodynamics of radial-engined fighters, following similar experiments with the first production P-35. The AP-4’s big spinner was later removed and a new tight cowling fitted. Unsurprisingly, these measures led to overheating problems. On 22 March 1939, the engine caught fire in flight, the pilot had to bail out, and the AP-4 was lost. Despite the loss of the prototype, the USAAC liked the turbo-supercharged AP-4 demonstrator enough to order 13 more in May 1939, designating them YP-43.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic_P-43_Lancer

Bifurcation of the aerosol trails is due to the duel thrust emissions from the high-bypass turbofan engine - with a minority of thrust coming from the combustion stage and most thrust developed in the bypass stage.

Only 15% to 20% of the air intake goes into the engine combustion chamber to produce the water vapor necessary for a contrail to form. Remarkably, a whopping 80% to 85% of the thrust that exits the engine NEVER passes into the combustion chamber. This means that 85% of the thrust exiting the engine is INCAPABLE of producing a contrail.   Furthermore, the 15 to 20% that is subjected to combustion is almost completely neutralized by the dominant mixing from the 85% of “dry” thrust that passes around the combustion chamber to provide almost all the thrust.  The thrust from the combustion chamber creates the appearance of a “bifurcated” trail because the 15% of the emission creates the small doughnut hole in the bypass thrust where the aerosols are injected, hidden beneath the engine cowling.  This finding explains why no fuel additives are found to explain the chemical trails since the additives would degrade engine performance if passed though the combustion chamber.  To avoid engine damage, the aerosols are injected in the bypass stage where aerosols will not come into contact with critical engine parts.

Lastly, commercial pilots likely have little control of aerosol emissions since the ability to start and stop the chemical spray is controlled remotely as in “drone” or fly-by-wire technology from a remote site. Modern jet engines are fitted with transponders that report engine performance to the manufacture through transmission of data to a satellite. With radio frequency communication already in place it becomes possible for the engine to respond to a remote satellite command where chemical aerosol emissions are turned on and off automatically without intervention by pilot or crew.  This explains why pilots may not be good whistleblowers since they have no, or insufficient knowledge of the secret devices located inside the aircraft that supplies the engine.

☢ ☠ ☢ 💉Skygazer 💨💨 ✈✈

anonymous asked:

i know that dick has said he doesn't want to join the justice league permanently but do you still think there's a chance that he'd become their official leader one day? in post-crisis of course

I don’t know what reference that is from for him not wanting to lead it permanently, but it feels kind of the same as the late Post-Crisis ‘reluctance to be Batman’ which was used to engineer Battle for the Cowl. Nightwing, a pillar of the superhero community, as it’s inevitable leader is something that makes logical in-universe sense. There’s obviously a separation of Nightwing as a character in DC Comics vs how he’d be realistically in an organic world that lets characters age and change. At some point a fair few of his Titans friends were on the Justice League, so it’s not even a big stretch. 

Personally, even out of universe Dick’s functioned in team books better than isolated in a solo (half the problem is that the writers do end up isolating him away from his actual friends). 

The only glaring detail is that one of the spitfires was a modified Yak-52, but I only recognized that because the engine cowling was different. What they couldn’t get the real deal for, they did an excellent job masking. 

4

Avia S-199

During WWII, Germany had taken Czech territory and was using industry in Bohemia to supply the war effort. The Avia factory in Letňany (now Prague) had supplied material support, contributing to the Me262 production under the name S-92, and had been tooled to produce Bf109-G aircraft for the Luftwaffe. The aircraft production didn’t reach full operation until after WWII, but nonetheless, Avia had produced 21 Bf-109-G6′s to-spec which they called the S-99, as well as 23 training aircraft, the CS-99. But, quickly, Avia found themselves running out of the DB-605 engines which the powerful Bf109-G drew its performance from. Quickly, the Czech engineers managed to kludge their way to success and retrofit Junkers Jumo 211F engines and propellers to the Bf-109G airframe. These engines were intended for the He-111 Bomber, and did not give the kind of performance that could compare to the CS-99/BF-109G series aircraft. Thusly, this new hybrid was given a new designation.

The S-199, as it is now called, was a single-engine, water-cooled aircraft capable of a maximum speed of 649km/h. Its armament was to use two 13mm machine guns in the engine cowling, as well as wing-mounted Mg-151/20s in the wing roots, as the Jumo 211F had no provision for a single, nose-mounted cannon. The extra weight and modifications needed to the airframe, combined with the underwhelming engine performance led to the aircraft having characteristics described as “difficult.” Eventually, the Czech pilots who operated it would give it the name “Mezek”, meaning “Mule”, presumably because of its stubborn temperament.

But the truly interesting story of this aircraft comes from its usage in the Israeli war of independence. At the time, there was a large arms embargo placed on Israel, despite the fact that surrounding Arab states had made it public that they intended to march on Israel as soon as British forces pulled from the area once Israel was declared to be an autonomous state. The two factors made for a dire situation for the budding nation, and resulted in a rather wonderful smuggling scheme with the help of the nation of Panama and a handful of veteran pilots from WWII. This story is covered in detail in the documentary Above and Beyond, which I strongly recommend as it’s a wonderful story.

The first flight of this aircraft under Israeli usage was a ground attack run on an Egyptian armor column. 4 aircraft sortied, flying to decimate the newly-demoralized Egyptian forces who had, until now, been nearly uncontested. Though casualties were low on the Egyptian side, and one Israeli aircraft was downed as the interrupter mechanism on one aircraft had malfunctioned, this began the story of the IAF and greatly shifted the tide of the war. The Israelis appreciated it, despite being a poorly-constructed aircraft, and eventually named it the Sakeen, meaning “Knife”, though more usually it was simply referred to as “Messerschmitt” given the basis of the aircraft.