endosymbiont

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UNDERSTANDING CORAL REEF SYSTEMS

  • To understand coral reefs as the systems they are, it’s necessary to understand not only the molecular mechanisms involved in the biology of the coral but also that of their live-in (endosymbiotic) algae. So, it’s essential to have genomic information on both the coral host and its algae symbiont.

Species of algae in the genus Symbiodinium make up the largest and most prevalent group of endosymbiotic eukaryotic microbes found in coral reef ecosystems. [Wikipedia]

In July 2013, the Marine Genomics Unit of the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) in Japan published (in Current Biology) the genome of the algae Symbiodinium minutum.

The OIST Marine Genomics Unit had already, in 2011, decoded the approximately 420-megabase genome of the coral Acropora digitifera for the first time.
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IMAGES [from the press release / Current Biology article]

[1] Coral polyps with Symbiodinium growing on them.  [2a] [2b] Free-swimming larva of the coral Acropora digitifera larva (green) and the symbiont Symbiodinium (red spots)  [3] Phylogenetic relationship between these corals and the Symbiodinium[4] Neither organism can survive without the healthy presence of the other. Symbiodinium receives CO2 and a stable, safe living environment from the coral host, while the coral benefits from oxygen and nutrients produced from the symbiont.

SOURCE: OIST press release  |||  You can also read the press release at PhysOrg: A coral symbiont genome decoded for first time.

Multiple endosymbiont infections and reproductive manipulations in a linyphiid ...

Multiple endosymbiont infections and reproductive manipulations in a linyphiid …

Download Free Typing Master 2002 News Multiple endosymbiont infections and reproductive manipulations in a linyphiid … We established two infection types of M. fradeorum in the laboratory, cured each infection type with antibiotics and determined endosymbiont effects on sex ratio and fecundity by comparing infected and uninfected spiders. Endosymbiont …. To eliminate … Read more on Nature.com…

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The creationist theory
Is about the people that belief in god and that he create every we know.

Panspermia
Is the theory that propose that the origin of life came for another part of the universe and that was a meteorite that had microscopic life

Chemical evolution
Is the big bang theory. That explain that a point of energy explode and expand the particles that with the time made atoms then they made stars and finally the universe.

Physical-chemical theory
Tis theory explains that there were a primitive atmosphere that contained H2 and He. What this mean? That the volcanos form this atmosphere that was composed of N2, CO2, H2, NH3, H2S and CH4. And then the water came from the volcanos then the water cycle start. 
In 1920 Oparin and Haldane proposed that the first molecules could have been produced from a primitive atmosphere, that reacted because of the electric shocks. (Miller & Urey experiments)

Endosymbiont theory
Photosynthesis liberated oxygen, and this gas made up the ozone layer. The oxygen provoked that the oxygen change the life conditions. The endosymbiont theory was proposed by Lynn Margullis, in 1966.
Findings of prokaryote microfossils. The photosynthesis bacteria produce oxygen for life 

Close upshot of an aggregating anemone in a tide pool at Bamfield. The green and olive colours of the anemone are due to 2 different kinds of algal endosymbionts (unicellular algae living inside the anemone’s tissues). The algae provide the anemone with food, while the anemone host provides the algae with a safe home.

The green colour is due to the light-resistant green alga Elliptochloris marina, while the olive colour is due to the heat-resistant brown alga Symbiodinium muscatinei.

Inhibition of the endosymbiont ¿Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii¿ during 16S rRNA gene profiling reveals potential pathogens in Ixodes ticks from Australia

1 Vector and Water-Borne Pathogen Research Laboratory, School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia 2 …
Source: Inhibition of the endosymbiont ¿Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii¿ during 16S rRNA gene profiling reveals potential pathogens in Ixodes ticks from Australia

Inhibition of the endosymbiont ¿Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii¿ during 16S rRNA gene profiling reveals potential pathogens in Ixodes ticks from Australia

1 Vector and Water-Borne Pathogen Research Laboratory, School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia 2 School of Biological…
Source:Inhibition of the endosymbiont ¿Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii¿ during 16S rRNA gene profiling reveals potential pathogens in Ixodes ticks from Australia