Preliminary information: The pituitary is secretly 2 things, the Adenohypophysis and the Neurohypophysis. The Adenohypophysis is NOT directly connected to the hypothalamus however it does receive hormones via the hypophyseal portal system (it’s a bunch of capillaries). The Adenohypophysis is also known as the ANTERIOR BODY of the pituitary gland. The Neurohypophysis IS directly connected to the hypothalamus via the infundibulum and isn’t actually a true gland. It makes ZERO hormones, and is mostly made of nerves. All the hormones it sends out are actually made by the hypothalamus. It is also known as the POSTERIOR BODY of the pituitary gland. COOL STUFF BRO. You all should know by now that the hypothalamus makes up the walls and floor of the 3rd ventricle in the brain (assuming you guiz are in A&PI or II, and not a casual reader).
GOING TOP DOWN
Dopamine when it’s not doing it’s business in our brain and affecting how we feel and perceive things emotionally and is circulating around our body is also PROLACTIN-INHIBITING HORMONE. It’s made in the hypothalamus and inhibits the secretion of prolactin. This means it affects the adenohypophysis.
There are a series of other inhibiting or releasing hormones made by the hypothalamus, but it isn’t super key in API or II and it IS key to know that PRL Inhibiting hormone is also dopamine.
Antidieuretic Hormone (ADH) is made in the hypothalamus and sent to the neurohypophysis. Its target organ is the kidneys and its effect is water conservation.
Oxytocin is made in the hypothalamus and sent to the neurohypophysis. Its target organs are the mammary glands, uterus and the gonads. Its primary effect is contractions, orgasms. It also does bonding but that’s getting into neuropsychology and we’re not doing that here yo.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone is made in the adenohypophysis and its target organ is the adrenal cortex. Its primary effect is adrenal cortex hormone production and release.
Follicle Stimulating hormone is made in the adenohypophysis and its target organ is the gonads. Its primary effects are gamete production and testosterone production/release.
Growth Hormone is made in the adenohypophysis and its target organ is EVERYTHING, though primarily bones, at the epipheseal plates. It does growth.
Lutenizing hormone is made in the adenohypophysis and its target organ is the gonads. It works with FSH to do ovulation, corpus lutenum maintenance, testosterone and androgen production.
Prolactin is made in the adenohypophysis and its target organ is the mammary glands. It does lactation.
Parathyroid hormone is from the parathyroids and its target organ is bone. It releases calcium ions in cases of hypocalcemia.
Triiodothyronine (T3) is made in the thyroid follicular cells and it’s target organs are the cardiovascular system, the respiratory system, the nervous system and the digestive/excretory systems. It raises metabolism/ “Calorigenic effect”
Tetraiodothyronine (T4) is the same as T3, except it is the less active hormone. It’s the “travel” hormone and gets activated into T3 in different places.
Calcitonin is made in the thyroid’s C-cells and its target organ is bone. It deposits calcium in cases of hypercalcemia.
Epinephrine is made in the Adrenal Medulla and it’s target organ is EVERYTHING, IT’S ALSO A NEUROCHEMICAL. Its effect is sympathetic responses.
Mineralocorticoids are made in the Zona Glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex. Mineralocorticoids affect ion retention. An example is Aldosterone, which conserves Sodium ions. Its target organ is the kidneys.
Glucocorticoids are made in the Zona Fasiculata of the adrenal cortex and their target organs are muscle tissue and adipose tissue. An example is cortisol which does glucose metabolism.
Renin is made in the kidneys and it affects the kidneys and it is the first step in getting angiotensin to eventually be angiotensin II (it first converts angiotensin to angiotensin I). In the long term it raises blood pressure.
Erythropoietin is made in the kidneys and liver and it affects red bone marrow. Its effect is red blood cell production.
Calcitrol is made in the kidneys and it affects the small intestine. Its effect is calcium ion absorption from diet.
Insulin is made in beta cells in islets in the pancreas. It affects adipose tissue and muscle tissue. It’s effect is that it encourages glucose deposits into muscle and adipose tissue.
Glucagon is made in alpha cells in islets in the pancreas. It affects adipose tissue and muscle tissue. Its effect is that it encourages glucose release from muscle and adipose tissue.