end-coal

CAST ANNOUNCED FOR BBC AMERICA’S DOCTOR WHO SPIN-OFF – CLASS

Announced today, the stars of BBC AMERICA’s Doctor Who spin-off series Class - exciting young new talents Greg Austin, Fady Elsayed, Sophie Hopkins and Vivian Oparah. They will be joined by Katherine Kelly, as she takes the role of a teacher and powerful new presence at Coal Hill School.

These four Coal Hill School students have hidden secrets and desires. They are facing their own worst fears, navigating a life of friends, parents, school work, sex, sorrow - and possibly the end of existence.

Coal Hill School has been a part of the Doctor Who universe since the very beginning, but that has come at a price. All the time travelling over the years has caused the very walls of space and time to become thin. There’s something pressing in on the other side, something waiting for its chance to kill everyone and everything, to bring us all into Shadow.

Fear is coming, tragedy is coming, war is coming. Prepare yourselves, Class is coming. (x)

4
I suppose if I allow myself to be sentimental,
despite all that has occurred, there is one thing I wander back to.
8

Last night you said Boyd would hit the cash on the road, and then today we go through all the trouble putting together a bait truck so he has something to hit, Duffy tells us he’s planning to hit it, we’re watching one of his guys appear to be waiting for it to move so he can hit it, all which leads you to conclude that that is in fact not his plan.

2

Coalville, Iowa
Population: 610

“Coalville takes its name from the coal mines of the area. It began as one of the northernmost coal mining towns in Iowa. Early settlers were mining coal from outcrops along the Des Moines River by 1860, and in 1870, a mine was opened on Holiday Creek, about a mile east of Coalville, with a 3-mile tramway to the Dubuque and Sioux City Railroad (later the Illinois Central). Later in 1870, a shaft was sunk at Coalville. The Fort Dodge Coal company took over these mines and opened several more in the Coalville area. By 1880, manual labor was being augmented with machinery in these mines. In 1883, the Fort Dodge Coal company employed 350 miners to produce 30 carloads of coal daily.The Pleasant Valley Coal Company sank a 105-foot shaft in Coalville in 1895, employing 100 men to mine a 6-foot coal bed. This was mined out in the early 20th century. 

The Gleason Coal Company sank a shaft in 1899 that operated until 1907, producing 200,000 tons of coal over its lifetime. Gleason sunk a new shaft in 1908. United Mine Workers local 392 was organized in Coalville in 1899; by 1907, it had 133 members. Mine wages varied from $1.91 to $2.56 per day.”

Buddha and Anger

“Holding on to anger is like grasping a hot coal with the intent of throwing it at someone else; you are the one who gets burned.”

“Too often, we carry around things from our past that hurt us, holding onto anger is like drinking poison and expecting the other person to die. Don’t let negative experiences from the past rob your present of a happy future.”

“You will not be punished for your anger,…

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Birds killed per year by energy source. Via U.S. News (trigger warning, written by Alan Neuhauser).

Wind and solar kills about 300k per year. Coal, nearly 8 million. Power lines kill about 12 and 64 million birds per year.

The biggest killer of birds? House cats kill 3 billion birds per year. That’s about 375 of those black bars for coal placed end to end.

scientificamerican.com
White Rot Fungi Slowed Coal Formation
The evolution of the ability to break down a plant's protective lignin largely stopped the geologic burial of carbon that formed present-day coal deposits—and may provide secrets to making biofuels from inedible parts of plants
By David Biello

One of the puzzles in Paleontology has been the Carboniferous. The “Coal Age”. This was a period when massive amounts of coal were laid down. Then around 300 my ago it ended. Coal has been laid down since then but nothing like the vast beds during the Pennsylvanian and Mississippian. Why this was the case has been a mystery.

This article I just stumbled across suggests an answer. About 300 my ago fungus developed the ability to break down lignin, the stuff that holds plants together. Before this, logs and leaves and such would fall down and accumulate on the ground. After this fungus has been breaking down this dead plant material into soil.