So @starkinthesheets received an ask: What are you thoughts on the War of the Roses influence? Another reason I think we will be made to choose between Jon and Dany is that they both represent parts of Henry Tudor. Dany - raised on foreign soil, conqueror under red dragon banners, army of mercs. Jon - royal claim through a bastard line, raised by his uncle. Also Sansa is believed to be based on Elizabeth of York who married Henry and was rumored to be involved with Richard II who inspired Tyrion. Interesting.
And I decided to take it upon myself to answer it and the result is in the read more. I complied this without any of my books as back up, so if I’m wrong about some things, (gently) let me know.
The statistics of World War II in terms of New Zealand’s involvement may not look like much compared to other nations, but it’s important to remember that NZ’s population was 1.6 million at the time. At that number, a single NZ division took the same amount of effort that it took the U.K. to raise 25 divisions.
By war’s end, 194,000 men and 10,000 women had served overseas, with 11,928 of those killed – one in 150 people.
At its peak in the critical time of 1942, New Zealand had 44% of the country’s GDP funneled into its military, and was suffering a manpower shortage at the end of the war. For the entire war, New Zealand was hampered by the fact they couldn’t directly buy planes, and the British could change the orders of planes to fit their own operational needs. On top of that, New Zealand was expected to not only create twenty squadrons in the Pacific, but continue to meet their requirements in Europe – and they somehow achieved this, a monumental effort for the country.
New Zealand was small, but they made the largest contribution of any Commonwealth country in proportion to said country’s size.
Renee is ugly. Renee is fat. Renee is a slut. Renee looks like a man. Renee doesn’t respect Dean. I would like to see how wide her v***** is.
I have read all this over the course of these weeks: having been concerned with the link between haters and feminism, many people have sent me and asked for things on this subject. Above I wrote the main sentences I read on Tumblr and beyond. I’ll have a long talk, so follow me carefully.
Renee is ugly.
I want to tell you one thing: who are you, haters, to establish the concept of beauty? Absolute beauty exists only in art, and not even there! Most likely, it’s my humanistic training that makes me do these arguments and … Renee is ugly according to what idea? If we were to speak of “ideal woman”, Renee has blond hair and long hair, so she already has an element that the whole world considers beautiful. Renee has not rounded face, but it’s fairly straightforward: another feature that the world gives to the perfect woman. The only thing … she doesn’t have blue eyes. For you, is she bad because she has no blue eyes? The “perfect woman” doesn’t exist. By changing context, Renee is ugly only for haters. They rely on their own external concept.
Renee is fat.
Renee is not lean. Renee is not fat. Renee has a perfect body for her: straightforward, healthy. If Renee is fat, I would be obese. Are haters based on skeletal models? Girls, don’t rely on those: they are bones, they are not lean.
Renee looks like a man.
The same is said for Charlotte. Why should they look like a man?
Dean is a private man and Renee makes interviews saying “I’m happy!” “The wedding was beautiful!” She doesn’t respect him! She forced him to make TD!!
One question: what’s wrong with saying you’re happy? She is happy to be married to Jonathan Good, the man of her life. What’s the problem? Ah, then you quoted Norm continually … Dean also had many women in his past, but nobody says anything about it. I wonder why. In the end, Dean said he had fun doing TD! In my blog you will find all the evidence about it.
I would like to see how wide her v***** is.
This was the phrase that made me feel bad. Really.
Are there women able to say this? Almost I can’t believe it! I cannot believe there are similar women! I will make references to history, especially to English History. In England, I don’t remember if it was during the First War or the Second World War … Women replaced men in work. Even the most difficult. In England, there was the movement of the suffragettes. In America, if I don’t remember badly in the seventies, there was the feminist movement. Throughout the world, when the wars ended, a woman’s “grateful” began: women began to rebel, to have their rights. There are women who are in politics. In medicine, in environments in the male dominance. Maria Montessori is an example. These feminist movements, along with cultural movements, have given a new ideology: to respect women for what they really are. What are we women? HUMAN BEINGS. This respect, however, must not only come from man. But also by the woman. Mainly by the woman. Because, unless we learn to respect ourselves as women … how can we expect to change the world? Insulting Renee for the physical look … cowardice. Why insult a beautiful woman like Renee? Saying this, “You’re fat” “You’re ugly,” you created in the minds of those who follow you a real complex. Imagine a 14-year-old girl following the haters, she sees Renee and says “Renee is fat? I have to be leaner than she is!”. Maybe she can’t and begins to accuse anorexia, depression. They all read us here, we must at least keep that level of dignity! I mean one thing … If women say this to a woman … then the haters cannot be defined as women, or fans, or humans. Animals don’t even say this. I will never forget Goffman and Pirandello: they support the theory of “masks”. We wear a mask every day to satisfy society … And it is true. Me, you, them, everyone. Even Renee. Renee always looks happy and smiling … and if she is suffering from something and we don’t know it? If Renee suffers and only Dean helps her? You too haters: you have the haters mask, but … who really is under this mask? Fear. Disadvantages. Misunderstandings. Insurances. And you haters vent all your insecurities not on Renee as a person, but as a “scapegoat”. Because you don’t know who to blame your faults, your fears, your uncertainties. And I tell you, to complete. Be women. Don’t write down those things I read. Because, let’s forget Deanee/Renee/Dean, first of all we are women. At least the majority. And we have to respect ourselves first. Only then we CAN change.
I really want to know what you think about everything that is happening. We share our ideas!
April 21st in 753 BC, the prophecy given to Aeneas by the Gods shortly after he
and the remaining Trojans fled the sacking of Troy in 1184 BC came to fruition.
The founding of Rome was one that would change the course of world history.
descendant of Aeneas, was King of Alba Longa. His younger brother, Amulius,
envied this position, and so sent him into exile to usurp his throne. To
prevent any vengeance or competition arising up from Numitor’s heirs in the
future, he simply killed them off. Furthermore, he then forced Numitor’s
daughter, Silvia, into becoming a Vestal Virgin, having her swear celibacy for
was a God who emanated from Helios and was carried down by the Goddess of
Forethought, Athena. Mars crafted him a mortal body within Silvia’s womb, and
thus Quirinus was born Romulus, alongside his twin, Remus. Following the
discovery that Silvia had given birth to twins, Amulius imprisoned Silvia and
ordered a servant to kill the twins; who instead took pity on the infants and
showed them mercy; instead sending them adrift down the river Tiber.
the river begun overflowing, leaving the infants in a pool by the bank. There,
an animal said to represent both Helios and Mars, the She Wolf, was said to
have lost her own cubs when she came across the twins, deciding to nurture them
and give them suck. Soon after a farmer named Faustulus came across them, and
with his wife Acca adopted and raised the children as shepherds.
On 752 BC,
while they were herding their sheep one day, they were met by shepherds under
the rule of King Amulius. These shepherds begun a fight with the twins in which
Remus was captured and taken before King Amulius. Romulus gathered and incited
a band of local shepherds to join him in rescuing his captured sibling. King
Amulius believed that Silvia’s children were dead, and hadn’t recognized Remus
or Romulus. After a conflict, Romulus freed his brother, and in the process
killed King Amulius. Being offered the throne of Alba Longa, they rejected it
and instead chose to reinstate Numitor on the throne. However, they did still
want to rule a city, and so they left to go and find their own.
finding a proper location with seven hills, Romulus and Remus were bickering
over where their city would be founded. Romulus supported the construction of
the city on the Palatine Hill, and Remus supported the construction of the city
on the Aventine Hill. Taking the auspices to read the will of the gods, Remus
on his hill saw six birds, while Romulus saw twelve. As a result it was decided
that Romulus’ choice was the one with divine favour, which lead him and his
followers to begin construction of their city on the Palatine Hill. Romulus
took to marking the city’s sacred boundary with a plough drawn by a white bull
and a white cow to begin building the city’s walls, but Remus scornfully jumped
over the furrows, causing the furious Romulus or one of his Chiefs to kill him.
the new settlement’s future population he outlawed infanticide and established
an asylum for fugitives, where freemen and slaves alike could both find
protection in the new city and recieve Roman citizenship.
point, due to a shortage of females since the population of Rome was mostly
young and unmarried men, Romulus organised the abduction of single women who
were marriageable from nearby Italic tribes by drawing them in with grand
festivals & games, most notably the local tribe of the Sabines, and taking
the women’s hand in marriages without the consent of their families. A conflict
ensued in which enraged Italic tribes warred with Rome, which ended when the
women ran between the armies of their fathers and their new husbands, pleading
for them to put down their weapons and negotiate for peace. Peace was reached,
where Romulus and the King of the Sabines, Tatius, joined together to form one
years, the city and its relations developed. Tatius died, and conflicts with
Italic and Etruscan tribes continued to rise as Rome grew more and more
powerful. After a reign of 36 years, Romulus mysteriously disappeared in a
violent storm, causing an uproar of confusion and accusation of murder to go
around; along with a claim that their King had simply abandoned them. However,
Proculus Julius, a man who had been friends with the King, came forth, swore a
sacred oath in which he could not lie, and revealed the truth of what happened
to the missing Romulus. He recounted an experience where Romulus descended from
the sky infront of him shortly after his disappearance. Puzzled and shocked,
Proculus asked why Romulus had abandoned his city as he did: confused,
mourning, suspicious and on edge. Romulus revealed that it was the divine will
of the Gods that took him into the Heavens by destroying the mortal part of his
body with the fire of lightning during the storm, and that he was ascended into
the heavens by the Goddess Athena straight back to Helios, and that in truth he
was the God Quirinus. He revealed he was sent forth by King of All, his duty
being to build a city that would become the greatest on Earth, and now that
work is done. The now-revealed God then promised to watch over his people
before ascended back into the heavens. With this information revealed to the
people of Rome, the divine truth had overcame them and eased their minds;
causing them to abandon their suspicions and anger over their old king having
left them. King Numa, a Sabine and a great reformer, was made Romulus’
successor and proclaimed the second King of Rome.
the eternal city still stands another year.
Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus, Hymn to King Helios, 358 AD
Plutarch, and John Dryden. Selected lives: from the parallel lives of the noble Grecians and Romans. Franklin Center, PA: Franklin Library, 1982.
Today is Internationaler Frauentag (8. März) - International Women’s Day. Although this “Frauenpower” observance has its roots in the USA, it is little known there, probably because of its socialist/communist associations. Inspired by an American commemoration of working women in 1909, and following a meeting of the Socialist International in Denmark, the German socialist Clara Zetkin (1857-1933) organized the first Internationaler Frauentag in 1911, when socialists from Austria, Denmark, Germany, Switzerland, and the USA held strikes and marches. Russian revolutionary and feminist Aleksandra Kollontai, who helped organize the event, described it as “one seething trembling sea of women.” As the annual event developed, it took on the cause of peace as well as women’s rights. In 1915, Zetkin organized a demonstration in Switzerland to urge the end of WW1. Women on both sides of the war turned out. With the advent of the United Nations in 1945, the UN used the day to further the cause of women’s rights around the world, particularly in developing nations. The day is now observed in many countries from Australia to Canada, focusing on gender equality. Today’s date for IWD probably goes back to a strike by Russian women textile workers in St. Petersburg in 1917. Although it was observed in the GDR/East Germany until German Reunification, the celebration in West Germany (by the SPD party) never caught on, and the date goes largely unnoticed by most Germans. Overall, March 8 is an official holiday in less than 20 countries today.
Steampunk costumes as a trend fad look like just what they represent - a futuristic yet underdeveloped style reminiscent of something out of a Jules Verne or HG Wells science fiction novel. Imagine a mixture of present day Goth and futuristic Goth rolled into one! The look is not objectionable, and in fact is kind of cool looking and brings on an edge! Picture Edward Scissorhands meets Elvira Mistress of the dark and Xena the Warrior Princess meets Sherlock Holmes meet. Sort of.
A number of the more widespread apparatus involved in Steampunk clothes is as follows:
Spats; old fashioned albeit with a Steampunk fashion that is awesome
Fingerless gloves, leather of course
Machinist goggles, I don’t know what they are riding but apparently they want eye protection
Long old English coat with tails, top hat or bowler (cane discretionary)
A completely different appearance for Steampunk clothing to get a man is of a Victorian driver:
Pouch belt; this resembles something one might carry ammunition in, which gives an entirely new meaning to the expression ‘road rage’
White ruffled shirt (with ammo…)
Brown suede jacket with fur collar and 'badge’ of types
Another look for men, the 'Studly Gentleman’:
Grey jacket with braided decorations, golden buttons at each braid-end (reminiscent of civil war coat cosmetic design)
Now for the women:
Skirts that are frilly however somehow find a way to share a tough and rough exterior
Small tops with plenty of ruffles and sequined studs emitting exactly the same atmosphere
And, machinist, you guessed it goggles
Miniature small bowler hat hair pinned to the very top of her head, Janis Joplin -esque round glasses that are tinted
Leather choker with attached gold brooch, leather belts worn diagonally from shoulder right down to waist (ammunition belt style)
Only a little brownish short vest over kick butt, and a tight short black dress, high heeled boots to die for!
Various bobbles, trinkets, badges, pocket watches, brooches, chains studded leather arm and wrist bands and as such serve as Steampunk jewelry and accessories.
Cyberpunk and Steampunk are often incorrectly associated with each other.Interesting Steampunk Costume Ideas
Imagine a combination of present day Goth and futuristic Goth rolled into one! In fact is kind of trendy looking, and the appearance isn’t objectionable and brings on an edge! Picture Edward Scissorhands meets Elvira Mistress of the dark and Xena the Warrior Princess meets Sherlock Holmes meet. Sort of.
A few of the more common equipment involved in Steampunk attire is as follows:
Spats; old fashioned albeit with a funky Steampunk fashion
Fingerless gloves, leather of course
Buckles, buckles, and much more buckles… everywhere!
Machinist goggles, I actually don’t know what they’re riding but seemingly they need eye protection
Long old English jacket with tails, top hat or bowler (cane elective)
An entirely distinct look for Steampunk clothing to get a man is of a Victorian driver:
Pouch belt; this resembles something one might carry ammunition in, which gives a whole new meaning to the expression ‘road rage’
White ruffled top (with ammo…)
Brown suede coat with fur collar and 'badge’ of sorts
Another look for men, the 'Studly Gentleman’:
Bowler hat, monocle, handlebar moustache
Grey jacket with braided decorations, gold buttons at each braid-end (reminiscent of civil war jacket cosmetic design)
Now for the women:
Short skirts that are frilly yet somehow find a way to share a tough and rough outside
Small tops with lots of ruffles and sequined studs emitting the exact same atmosphere
And, you machinist goggles
Tiny small bowler hat hair pinned to the top of her head, Janis Joplin -esque round glasses that are tinted
Leather choker with attached gold brooch, leather belts worn diagonally from shoulder all the way down to midsection (ammunition belt style)
Only a little brownish short vest on a tight short black dress, and kick butt, high heeled boots to die for!
Various bobbles, pocket watches, badges, trinkets, brooches, chains studded leather arm and wrist bands and as such function as Steampunk jewelry and accessories.
Steampunk and cyberpunk are often incorrectly connected with each other.
My Definition of an American Hero. A woman from a foreign nation helping to end war between men. Loving, Kinda and a role model for women and men everywhere.
Fox News Definition of an American Hero. The Comedian from Watchmen, a trigger happy, cigar smoking abusive asshole with unhinged authority oh and a rapist. Cause Fox News loves to defend rapist and terrorist.
Among the myths of the postwar period was that of the apolitical woman. […] Female fascists – in Nazi Party headquarters in Kiev, in military and SS and police headquarters in Minsk, and in gated villas in Lublin – were not simply doing “women’s work.” As long as German women are consigned to another sphere or their political influence is minimized, half the population of a genocidal society is […] “endowed with innocence of the crimes of the modern state,” and they are placed “outside of history itself.” […]
A third of the female population, thirteen million women, were actively engaged in a Nazi Party organization, and female membership in the Nazi Party increased steadily until the end of the war. Just as the agency of women in history is underappreciated, here too […] the agency of women in the Third Reich has not been fully elaborated and explained. Vast numbers of ordinary German women were not victims, and routine forms of female participation in the Holocaust have not yet been disclosed. […]
The consensus in Holocaust and genocide studies is that the systems that make mass murder possible would not function without the broad participation of society, and yet nearly all histories of the Holocaust leave out half of those who populated that society, as if women’s history happens somewhere else. It is an illogical approach and puzzling omission.
We are here to make a better world. No amount of rationalization or blaming can preempt the moment of choice each of us brings to our situation here on this planet. The lesson of the ‘60s is that people who cared enough to do right could change history. We didn’t end racism but we ended legal segregation. We ended the idea that you could send half-a-million soldiers around the world to fight a war that people do not support. We ended the idea that women are second-class citizens. We made the environment an issue that couldn’t be avoided. The big battles that we won cannot be reversed. We were young, we were self-righteous, reckless, hypocritical, brave, silly, headstrong and scared half to death.
And we were right. I regret nothing.
- Abbie Hoffman, Vanderbilt University on April 1989.
Due to the lack of historical accuracy in many Tom Riddle-based fanfictions, particularly time-travel ones, I decided to embark on my own research escapade in preparation for writing my own. What I found was “The 1940′s House”, a British reality TV program, filmed in 2001, about a modern family that tries to the live as a typical middle-class family in London during The Blitz of World War II.
For those interested, you can watch the entire program on YouTube here. For those wondering what life for Tom Riddle at the London Muggle orphanage during the war years would’ve been like, I highly reccommend you watch it.
Being an American, I learned quite a lot that I feel that other fanfiction writers, especially Brits, could learn from this program. These points include:
What sort of clothes people wore (including hairstyles and beauty). It’s worth noting, especially for Tomione fanfictions, that Hermione’s hair would still likely be a hopeless mess, simply because hair work was “so much effort just to maintain minimal results”.
What sort of food people ate (i.e. canned peaches, pudding, meat pies, cake, etc.). Before rationing, the documentary establishes that Brits’ diets were high in fat and cholesterol, and on average, 3,000 Calories a day. That was for the average, middle-class family. After rationing, it would be a fraction of that.
Remember Billy Stubbs’s rabbit, and Tom Riddle hanging it from the rafters? Well, ladies and gents, Tom wasn’t the only one with a certain disdain for rabbit life. Indeed, during the wartime, and in the months preceding, the British government actively encouraged people to breed, and eat, rabbits. However, many British people, seeing the rabbits as pets, could not bring themselves to kill their beloved companions. Others managed to kill the rabbits, only to be “unable to eat them”, due to personal attachment. Nevertheless, rabbits were a very common pet at the time. (Speaking of other pets, it’s mentioned that thousands of dogs and cats were put down by their owners, out of fear that the pets would starve to death during the bombings.)
By Christmas 1939, “blackout” was in effect all over London and surrounding cities. The government required civilians to “black out” all windows in the home, for fear that any light - no matter how small - might “bring a hail of German bombs upon them”. Not only was blackout claustrophobic, but by that point in time, the decreased light at night from blackout had caused over 4,000 deaths from unfortunate accidents. Household accidents were also not uncommon; a young mother, rushing to comfort her child in the darkness, tripped down the stairs and broke her neck, dying. “Blackout inspectors”, judging harshly using draconian guidelines, would also visit homes to enforce blackout, penalizing residences that failed to “fully black out” all windows and sources of light. Cardboard coffins, in anticipation of the death toll from bombings, were made and distributed; an estimated 1 in 25 civilians were expected to be killed (4.1%).
In the beginning of 1940, food rationing began. Food began to get scarcer and scarcer, and in an attempt to evenly distribute “essential foods”, the British government began to hand out ration books. People even petitioned the government in favor of rationing, as it represented “fairness” in “the people’s war”. However, with the rationing, all of the prices jumped up about 15%. People were expected to grow any fruits or vegetables in a “war garden” in their backyard, and sweets and cereals all but disappeared from the shelves. Many of the shelves were empty, and stores and shopkeepers attempted to “put out rarer items more slowly” in an attempt to give every family a chance to buy them. Sugar was in such short supply, that it was illegal for bakers to use it in icing.
Options for cooking in the kitchen also became limited. As shortages increased, meals became more monotonous and smaller. Children were likely almost always going hungry, and ones from wealthier families were unaccustomed to such limited amounts of food. Meanwhile, many built bomb shelters in their yards for protection, which could take a week or two (or more) to dig out and construct. Emergency boxes were stocked with “essential supplies” and stashed by the back door. People had to be ready to flee at a moment’s notice, to “pack up everything and go”. Sirens would warn of impending air raids, and it was signal for people to rush to the nearest bomb shelter. All preparations were taken beforehand.
Often times, the “man of the house” would leave to work long hours in the war effort, making parts or in the army, leaving the women to tend to the household and their families on their own. Thus, women were expected to be mentally, emotionally, and physically strong, capable, and healthy. This was in addition to soaring inflation and more shortages; in between 1939 and 1943, the cost of living in the UK rose by 83%. More food variation was helped immensely through aid from the US, providing good like dried milk, dried eggs, Spam, and other processed foods. Under the points system, each person in the household got 5 points, which, unfortunately, still didn’t buy very much. Housewives also needed to be intelligent, as using the rationing system and the American “points system” could get very confusing. Organizational and mathematics skills were highly valued, along with cunning and shrewdness, to beat the competition. Queues were often quite long, and housewives sometimes returned empty-handed.
Fuel was also rationed, and water conservation, namely for baths, was paramount. Many households did not have enough water in the house in order to take proper baths or showers, and the water itself, after several uses, was usually dirty and unsanitary. Some children would be tasked to monitor fuel and water usage in terms of “units”, and staying under or at the daily (or weekly) quotas was also important. Personal hygiene was considered a luxury, and adults often times allowed the children alone to have a more generous use of allotted resources.
Due to cigarette shortages, women were encouraged to quit smoking; however, by the end of the war, over 50% of the women in the UK had taken up the habit. Women were blamed for cigarette shortages, and indeed, they were deemed “more susceptible” to more frequent use, usually due to feeding the habit out of stress. Men alone were seen as “worthy” by the British government of the privilege to smoke. Toothpaste, kept often times in a cup, was reserved for children, as were larger food rations. Adults used resources as sparingly as possible. Often times, adults did not have shampoo to wash their hair.
Medical attention or help was often little to outright unavailable, with half the nation’s doctors and nurses aiding the war efforts. If someone was hurt or injured, he or she would often have to heal or recuperate on his or her own. Many civilians also gave blood. (“The most important work during and after air raids is blood transfusion. That miracle of healing that brings new life into shattered bodies…Over 100,000 men and women are ready and willing to give their blood to save the life of a soldier, a sailor, and airman, or a loved one at home. Rest assured that somehow, someway, their blood will save someone.”)
In 1938, the Women’s Voluntary Services were formed to help with the war effort. During the war, 241 of these women died while on active duty. These women did a range of jobs, from tending to nurseries, to assisting in wartime production, to other service positions. They also wore special uniforms, using every spare minute to help those in need, including even sewing and crocheting blankets and quilts to be sent off to soldiers in war. Women were also told by the British government to “make do and mend”, and “Deft Darns” pamphlets or books, by “Mrs. Sew-&-Sew”, were handed out. It taught women how to patch and repair old clothes and fabric.
State nurseries were set up by the government to “free up women for war work”. A woman could drop off her child(ren) before breakfast, and come to retrieve them after supper. Free milk, juice, and other foods normally limited by rationing were also provided to keep the children healthy. Women were encouraged to have more children, and pregnant women were given extra rations; the birth rate went up by 22%. Some doctors even advised women to have babies as “a cure for wartime anxiety”. Women were also encouraged to become “stronger” and “more independent”.
“Beauty before duty” became a prevalent phrase. (”Look to your looks. Beauty is definitely a duty. When you look your best, you feel self-confident, and your confidence transmits itself to those around you.”) Women, however, were expected to look beautiful without makeup; lipstick, however, the “red badge of courage”, was also expected to be worn every day. From 1941, it became virtually illegal to manufacture hair and beauty products. However, this only encouraged women to turn to the black market; even legitimate shops sold nail varnish, disguised as something else. Most wartime women, however, had to improvise in terms of makeup, including “natural” hair stain or dye.
Books by Marguerite Patten, a famous food writer, were also popular with women, most notably with their recipes of how to make due with wartime supplies. During World War II, she worked for the Ministry of Food suggesting nourishing and inventive recipes using the rationed food that was available. She broadcast her ideas and advice to the nation on a BBC radio programme called the Kitchen Front.
It was illegal to waste. Notices would be on newspapers to reuse the paper they were made from, and people were not allowed to feed their pets “anything that was possible for human consumption”. One woman was even fined 10 pounds for feeding bread to the birds. The National Loaf, used from a particular flour, and distributed to much of the British public, was so unpopular that it was known as “Hitler’s Secret Weapon”. It was also rumored that the government touted that the Loaf possessed “aphrodisiac properties”, to try and encourage people to eat more.
Towards the end of the war, 85% of women were doing some form of work, and women up to age 50 were often assigned work. Women with children under 15 were classified as “immobile”, and therefore, did not have to work. However, there was still tremendous societal pressure even for “immobile” women to work as well. The average pay for a man was $6 weekly; the average pay for a woman was $4.10. Women were also not compensated for any injuries on the job. Ladies also worked 16 hours a day, 7 days a week. In 1945, after the war, women were expected to leave their jobs, and go back to tending the household - a move that was not always welcome. The divorce rate jumped 3 times more than what it had been pre-war, but the female suicide rate fell by a third.
Tiredness was constant, especially during the air raid times. Sometimes, home life would be disrupted by up to 17 air siren calls a day.
Water and gas lines were sometimes cut off by bomb damage. On the other hand, children were given much more freedom to roam, but not without potential danger: in one case, in 1945, four boys were killed when they played with what they thought was a “dud” bomb, which exploded on them unexpectedly.
Even at the end of the war, shortages would continue in Britain for another 9 years.
a warm smile has the corners of her lips lilting upwards at the scene playing out before her — she’s been in man’s world for over two decade, she’s seen two wars ( the war to end all wars proved false ), she’s seen women be drafted and she’s seen them be sent home immediately after the war, but never in all her years away from themyscira has she seen a woman so fierce in battle. it’s a welcome change and she has no hesitation in letting the other woman know; within moments she’s at the (considerably shorter) woman’s side, grin growing with each passing moment.
Felice Rahel Schragenheim (March 9, 1922, Berlin - December 31, 1944, Bergen, Germany) was a Jewish resistance fighter during World War II. She is known for her tragic relationship with Lilly Wust and death during a march from Gross-Rosen concentration camp (today Poland) to Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in Germany or, not later than, March 1945 in Bergen-Belsen.
Because she was Jewish (and not because of her homosexual relationship with Lilly Wust), Schragenheim was deported from Berlin to KZ Theresienstadt (now Czech Republic) on September 8, 1944 by national-socialist Gestapo (transport nr. I/116). On October 9, 1944, she was deported from Theresienstadt to the extermination facility KZ Auschwitz Birkenau to be put to death (transport nr. Ep). As the gas chambers and crematoria were dismantled and blown up between November 1944 and January 1945, the mass extermination in Auschwitz came to an end, gradually. The inmates, also Felice Schragenheim, were taken to a death march to KZ Groß-Rosen, maybe later to a death march to KZ Bergen-Belsen. Date and place of her death are unknown. Officially, the date of her death was defined as December 31, 1944 by a Berlin court in 1948. Relatives set a memorial stone in Bergen-Belsen, naming “March 1945” as her death date. (x)
“It was the tenderest love you could imagine,” says Lilly, now 89, who lives a secluded life in a small apartment in Berlin. “I was fairly experienced with men, but with Felice I reached a far deeper under-standing of sex than ever before.” It was a shock to Lilly to realise she had fallen in love with a woman, but she says in many ways all the signs were there. Her obsession with a female teacher had seen her expelled from one school. “She was Jewish. I think I was always attracted to Jewish girls, and they to me,” she chuckles.
Lilly and Felice first got to know each other through a young Jewish girl who was caring for Lilly’s children. “There was an immediate attraction, and we flirted outrageously,” Lilly recalls. “I began to feel alive as I never had before.” Felice, who had tried in vain to emigrate - to Australia, Britain and the US - seemed resigned to staying in Berlin, even after Goebbels’s declaration that Berlin would be “Judenfrei” or Jew-free by April 20 1943, Hitler’s 54th birthday. She would come to tea at Lilly’s almost daily, bringing flowers and poems. In between, the two would write to each other.
In March, Lilly was taken into hospital with dental sepsis, and Felice brought red roses every day. For the first time, Lilly allowed Felice a glimpse of her real feelings, giving her a wish-list on a page from her diary: “Cream, your handkerchief, writing paper, your love for me alone, needle and thread.” Felice replied with a poem which ended with the lines: “There’s just something I’m desperate to know/ How it is to lie on your breast and dream of your lips?” On March 25, the two became “engaged”, signing written declarations of their love, which they sealed with a marriage contract three months later. “She was my other half, literally my reflection, my mirror image, and for the first time I found love aesthetically beautiful, and so tender,” Lilly says today, gazing at a studio portrait of Felice.
Felice would disappear, for days at a time, to carry out her underground activities to enable fellow Jews to escape. One night, Lilly, who knew nothing of her double life, implored Felice to tell her where she had been. “She told me she was a Jew and immediately I took her in my arms, and I loved her even more,” says Lilly. They cried all night, she says, and spent their next few months together fearing night-time noises, unexpected knocks on the door, and the sound of every vehicle drawing up outside. Lilly would wake Felice with “butterfly kisses” when nightmares caused her to grind her teeth. And Lilly had never guessed that her lover was Jewish? “I never had any idea. I hadn’t realised that she had no ration card - as a large family, we had plenty of food to go round.” They spent their days in the flat, looking after the children, talking about literature and politics, and following the course of the war on a big wall-map.
They hid their love from all but a few very close friends. On August 21 1943, they packed a picnic and went to the Havel lake. There, using a self-timer, they took the only pictures that exist of the two of them alone, embracing and kissing in their bathing suits. On their return to the flat, eight men sprang out of the shadows and carted Felice away, the underground Jew whom they, the Gestapo, had been trying to find for months. The day after her arrest, Lilly found a love poem which Felice had dropped into her coffee cup.
Lilly took the risk and visited Felice just a couple of times in Schulstrasse, in north Berlin, where Jews were held before their next destinations were determined. From the various places Felice was held captive - Theresienstadt, Auschwitz, Gross-Rosen - she managed to smuggle out letters to Lilly, signing them “Your caged Jaguar” and promising to be home soon. Lilly sent letters back not knowing if they would reach Felice. At the end of September, Lilly made a risky visit to Theresienstadt in Bohemia in an attempt to rescue Felice, and managed to secure a meeting with the camp commandant. He reacted to her request by throwing her out. Ironically, that visit, motivated by love, may have sped up Felice’s demise. Lilly faced years of accusations from Felice’s friends who blamed her for causing Felice’s death.
Felice sent her last-ever letter on December 26 1944. The winter temperature had reached -15C, so she thanked Lilly for the gifts of gloves, socks and woollen lung-protector. “It’s amazing what one is capable of without a jumpsuit and long-johns. I love you very much. You, your parents, and the boys - all my love, Jaguar.” It took Lilly a further four years to discover, via the UN’s Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, that Felice had died - probably of tuberculosis - just five days later.
The following years were a blurred mix of depression, cold and hunger for Lilly. She divorced her husband and, towards the end of the war, befriended three Jewish women and sheltered them in her basement. In 1946 she was forced to swap Felice’s 50 pairs of silk stockings for supplies of coal and bread. Later she took an overdose, one of several attempts at suicide, before being saved by a friend.
“I was alone for years,” she says. “For about three decades I lived totally within myself. Only on Sundays did I allow myself the privilege of thinking about Felice and I have never stopped loving her.” In September 1981, Lilly’s son, Bernd, collected the Order of the Federal Republic of Germany on her behalf, which she had been awarded for sheltering the Jewish women. Neo-Nazis responded by smearing her door with faeces. It was only then that her story started to emerge. “I suddenly felt that I owed it to Felice, so that people would know who she was.”
A book by the Austrian writer and journalist Erica Fischer resulted, followed by an exhibition on the life of Felice Schragenheim, a theatre production, and then the film, directed by Max Färberböck, who co-wrote the screenplay with British writer Rona Munro, best-known for her work with Ken Loach.
Lilly keeps the key to a suitcase of the Aimee and Jaguar letters and poems, round her neck. “I open it every August 21 [the anniversary of her departure] and indulge myself with memories,” she says. When she dies, the suitcase is promised to the Yad Vashem Memorial Institute in Jerusalem. Often she feels her lover to be close by. “Twice since she left, I’ve felt her breath, and a warm presence next to me. I dream that we will meet again - I live in hope.” (x)
Controversy about the actress being shit aside, Wonder Woman was not very women empowering. Every single female character was either created or helped by the Gods, except the amazing secretary who only had like 10 lines. Yes, seeing women fight and defined themselves was amazing, but they were only able to do so because the Gods helped them. (Spoiler alert) I was super excited about the German scientist until the end. Yes, a women in stem helping out with the war. Oh, just kidding, she only got those brilliant ideas and chemistry knowledge because a God told her and she is going to curl up in a ball when Wonder Woman and evil guy are fighting. Honestly, Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them was more women empowering. Both movies sucked ass at diversity though. You know what movie was good? Moana. Moana was good. We’re half way through 2017. Let’s do better Hollywood.
A Short History of Female Judges in Judge Dredd from 1982 to 1986
Following the early explosion of female judges in the second half of the first five years of Judge Dredd, there came a settling down period where faceless background crowd-filling women in uniforms mostly faded away in favor of developing the ones established over previous years. In other words, quantity gave way to quality, though of course there were a few notable exceptions and a couple of interesting experiments that are well worth dissecting. But first, let’s pick up where we left off…
(Disclaimer: unless otherwise noted, all stories mentioned in this post are written by John Wagner and Alan Grant. Trust me, it’ll save us a lot of time)
These women proceeded to get right in the faces of the warlords, demanding an end to the violence. Keep in mind, this isn’t like protesting in America, where maybe you get pepper sprayed and spend a night in jail on a disorderly conduct charge. These are warlords who used drugged children as battlefield drones and mutilated the faces and limbs of anyone who stood in their way. These are people who used rape as a military tactic.
But in 2003, this group of women protested and shouted and increased their numbers, demanding that the warring factions sit down at the peace table and hammer out a truce. And they did. They actually stopped the war just to shut them up. Liberia held its first democratic elections two years later.