Women Artists and Postwar Abstraction | HOW TO SEE the art movement with MoMA curator Starr Figura
Many people recognize names like Pollock and de Kooning, but far fewer know of women abstract artists like Lee Krasner, Magdalena Abakanowicz, and Lee Bontecou, who made their own space in an often resistant art world.
MoMA curator Starr Figura introduces MoMA’s new exhibition Making Space which shines a spotlight on the stunning achievements of women artists between the end of World War II and the start of the Feminist movement in the late 1960s.
So @starkinthesheets received an ask: What are you thoughts on the War of the Roses influence? Another reason I think we will be made to choose between Jon and Dany is that they both represent parts of Henry Tudor. Dany - raised on foreign soil, conqueror under red dragon banners, army of mercs. Jon - royal claim through a bastard line, raised by his uncle. Also Sansa is believed to be based on Elizabeth of York who married Henry and was rumored to be involved with Richard II who inspired Tyrion. Interesting.
And I decided to take it upon myself to answer it and the result is in the read more. I complied this without any of my books as back up, so if I’m wrong about some things, (gently) let me know.
Keywords: (Y/F/N) = Your first Name (Y/L/N) = Your Last Name (Y/H/C) = Your Hair Color (Y/E/C) = Your Eye Color
Word Count: 2,414 ________________________________________________________________ Being
in war took it‘s toll on many men and also many women. While most
of the men were at the front, fighting Nazis, their women hoped that
this war would end soon and their men return alive. A few aren‘t
lucky with that. Mothers, Wifes and Sisters received news from the
army that their loved once died , to quote the army themselves
‚Fighting for their Fatherland‘. Each and every day you could
hear cries of grief through the city of New York.
America alias Steve Rogers and his best friend James Buchanan ‚Bucky‘
Banres returned with their group of Soldiers after a long fight with
some Germans that tried to get over the lines, but Germans lost and
the Americans cheered knowing that every small victory against the
enemy meant a step further to the
big victory. Beaten, but with a big smile on each face, the soldiers
reached the camp. Some were directly lead to the med bay and the
others went to their tents looking forward to some rest for at least
a few minutes. War didn‘t had time for any resting.
and Bucky also went to the tents. „I hope this ends soon.“ Steve
said sighing and looking up to the sky. The sun slowly setting. His
dark haired friend pated his back and smiled up at his old friend.
„After Today I‘m sure that our enemies are pissing their pants
right now.“ The blond man laughed a little something he didn‘t in
awhile. He replied „You‘re right. We should see on the bright
side.“ Bucky and Steve smiled at each other. Than Bucky spoke up
again „You know what? We deserve a little time out. What about we
fetch a drink?“ The Captain knew even when he said no to this
request they would be still in a bar a few hours later. So Steve just
nodded and both parted to take a quick and needed shower.
putting on cleaner clothes they both met up again and went to the
nearest bar that wasn‘t destroied by a bomb. Music could be heared
over laugther and people talking and dancing. It was crowded but not
in an uncomfortable way. No it was a way that showed that there is
still hope and live in all what the people did.
Taking a seat
at the bar both men ordered some drinks. They talked about
everything. About the latest fight, about the war itself, what they
missed from the time before the war started and what they would do
when all this is over.
Let‘s say it got a bit poetic.
Something Steve wouldn‘t expected from his friend but he sure had
many drinks. Still, Bucky had a straight posture and
he didn‘t look drunk at all.
At some point they talked about
what motivated them. Motivated them to get up every damn day in this
war. „The World needs Captain America. They need someone who can
lead them to a great victory.“ Steve explained and Bucky nodded
knowing what his friend meant. Steve Rogers wasn‘t little Stevie
anymore. This whole expirment changed him and not in just the way how
tall and strong he is now. He wanted to change the world. He wanted
to save people.
„What about you Bucky? What keeps you
alive?“ Steve than asked not sure what his friend may answer. Steve
wasn‘t the only one who changed. Bucky was a childish men before he
went to war. Always looking out for adventures. Or Women for that
matter. It got on Steves nerves sometimes, but he wouldn‘t know
what he would do with out Bucky. Now in the war, Bucky grow up. He
became a man that would die for his country and his people.
smiled a hals smile and reached into his jacket pocket. He pulled out
a Picture. Cut out from a magazine, Steve asumed, looked two pairs of
(Y/E/C) right into Steves eyes. „Are you serious Buck?“ Steve
laughed a little. He pulled Buckys drink from his grasp. With a roll
of his blue eyes, Bucky pulled his drink away from Steve. Then he
looked at the picture. „I‘m more than serious. This girl is the
reason why I‘m here.“ Bucky remembered it clearly when he first
saw an article with this Girl.
The war just
started a year ago. Live was hard. But some had taken the chance to
show men that the army was the right choice to end this game of
violence. Bucky would shook his head at all the men that swooned over
some Girls printed on paper, showing off a lot of skin.
a really hard day at the factory that Bucky worked at he got into the
crowded bus that brought him back home. He looked around when he
suddenly took a glance at a paper a man held in his hands. A girl
with a bright smile adorned the whole page. Her (Y/H/C) styled into
an upright pin curl style,
red lips formed into a bright smile that showed off pearly white
teeth, her (Y/E/C) were stood out with the way the make up was done.
She wore a way too short military uniform and in her right hand she
held the american flag high up into the air. The left hand was on her
The headlines were saying ‚Join the Army!‘ ‚Bring
Victory one day nearer!‘.
Bucky didn‘t know this Girl but
the female stole his heart right away.
amzed, Bucky nearly missed his stop. After he got out of the bus in
time, he made his way to the nearest store. When he entered he made
his way straight up to the magazines, seaching for the unknown Girl
he saw on the paperes only moments ago.
He found what he seeked
in no time. The man paid quickly and went out the store making his
way down to his home. Meanwhile he flicked through the pages.
Everywhere he could was a picture of this Girl. All in different
themes. Bucky found at that this Girl was named (Y/F/N) (Y/L/N) a new
Pin Up Girlfor the magazines. In the year that the war went on she
got very populat due to her looks and smiles that would seduce men
right into the army.
That was when Bucky knew he would
join the Army. Of course he wanted that before he saw (Y/F/N) but now
he was 110 % sure he wanted it. And thats what he did. He joined the
Army and he got far. He was a great soldier. When ever he felt that
he loses his mind he would look at pictures of the (Y/H/C) haired
girl with her big, bright smile and in an instant everything was well
„You can say she saved my life over
and over.“ Bucky than said still looking at the picture. Steve
rolled his eyes now. Than he said „You know what? This Girl doesn‘t
even know you exist. How came that you fall for someone you don‘t
know?“ Steve was sure his
friend had more than enough drinks and let his friend out of the bar
that was still filled with men and women dancing the night away.
bit tipsy but not completely drunk Bucky walked beside his muscular
friend. „oh Come on Stevie. You and Miss Carter weren‘t exactly a
perfect match when you joined us. And now you two act like a married
couple.“ A little blush appeared on the blonds cheeks. Looking the
other way so his friend wouldn‘t see he responded „Bucky, like I
said this Girl has no clue that you exist and…“ before he could
continue he was interrupted by his friend „Yet. She has no clue
yet, Stevie. I tell you when this war is over I will find her and
will tell her what I feel.“ Steve shook his head. „Okay Buck.
That was for sure enough drinking for you we should take you to bed.
As fast as possible.“ Bucky whined like a little child but Steve
just let him effect that and put his friend to bed.
went by slowly. The war was still on and the tension grew thicker
with each passing day.
Every Fight would drain the live out of
the men. Losing more and more friends was hard for everyone.
only thing that could cheer them up was that the enemies, too are
drained and hadn‘t the strength they had before.
with now winning another meaningfull fight all Soldiers planed on
going to a bar to celebrate. The same Bar Steve and Bucky were just a
few weeks ago. Said men both came along with their friends to
celebrate that they are not dead yet.
the other day the bar was crowed with people dancing and drinking.
The music echoed into the room giving a comfortable atmosphere. Steve
and his friends sat on a table and ordered their drinks.
looked around the bar not really interested in the stories his
friends had to tell. He stopped looking when caught side of a
familiar (Y/H/C) color.
He shook his head, he blamed the
lack of sleep and the many pictures that he had of (Y/F/N). But when
he saw those shimmering (Y/E/C) eyes he was sure that this wasn‘t
just his imagination. With a quick nod of his head he excused himself
from his friends and got up to find the Girl he was looking for.
quick as he saw her as quick he lost her again. He looked all around
the little bar and was ready to give up when suddenly a womans voice
made him look up. „Excuse me but I need to get through…“ and
there she was. (Y/F/N) (Y/L/N). Her
(Y/H/C) was in a classic bombshell style and she wore a dark blue
dress that hugged her hips perfectly and it ran losly around her legs
to her knees. Her red painted lips had this big smile he knew so
well. She had two drinks in her hand and tried to get to a table.
Buck stepped aside a little ashamed. „Ehm…sorry.“ She looked
into his eyes and shook her head. „Don‘t worry.“ Than she got
to her table and put the glasses down.
Bucky watched her
as she sat down beside a Girl with short brown hair and a green
dress. He asumed it was a friend. Suddenly she looked and met his
gaze again. Bucky felt a chill ran down his spine when he saw her. He
felt guilty for being so creepy. Too deep in thought he didn‘t
realized that the girl got up and went to him again. „Is there a
reason you‘re watching me?“ she asked amused. Caught off guard
the dark haired man rubbed his neck nervously. „I…ehm…yes ..I
mean no. God this is emberessing.“
The Girl laughed and
Bucky thought his heard stopped by hearing her angelic laugh. „I
don‘t bite. No reason to be nervous.“ that made Bucky smile a
little. He reached his hand out. „I‘m Bucky.“ Without any
hesitation she took his hand and shook it firmly. „(Y/F/N. But by
the way you look at me I think you know who I am.“ Now feeling like
a total stalker he looked down. „Yeah. Sorry I didn‘t want to
look like a Creep.“
She waved it off with her
fragile hand. A smile adorned her red lips. „I mean. It is quite
hard to talk to someone who I have a lot of photos around my room…“
he than relaized how wrong it sounded. „Dang it…it didn‘t
mean…“ but her laugh interrupted him.
She held her
hand to her mouth to silence her laughter. „Believe me you‘re one
of the few guys who aren‘t creepy.“ Bucky let out a reliefed sigh
nd than smiled a little at her and he could make the slightest blush
on her cheeks. She is so cute, the Soldier thought. „You wanna
fetch a drink with me?“ he then offered to her and mentioned to the
bar. With a little nod of hers they both sat down on the bar stools.
They ordered drinks and started talking. „So you‘re in the Army?“
she started and he nodded. „Yeah. Always wanted to. But the last
thing to sattle that down was photo of you.“ he confessed.
made a complete fool of himself before so now he could continue it.
She smiled a bit. „Let me guess. The one where I hold up the Flag.“
Bucky nodded and laughed togther with her. (Y/F/N) was just like
Bucky imagined her to be. Lively, cute and so nice. They talked the
whole night. About their Jobs, the war and thir Families. „Do you
miss your Family?“ she than asked and Bucky nodded sipping on his
drink. „Yeah. I do. But I will come back to them when the war is
over.“ he looked her deep in the eyes and she looked away to
emberessed to look him in those blue eyes. „What makes you sure to
survive this?“ curiousity takes a toll on her.
moments past till Bucky answered. „Well. I had the same
conversation with my best friend. And I will tell you the same as I
did to him. I have to come back to the Girl I fell in love. My friend
thinks I‘m crazy just because she doesn‘t know me. Yet.“ He
looked into his now empty glas.
felt a pang in her chest as he mentioned that he fell in love
already. Of course he would. He is a eye sight. She puts her hand
over his and looked him straight in the eyes. „Like you said she
doesn‘t know you yet. I believe she will love you back if she sees
you.“ she said with a smile. Bucky laid his other hand on hers. „I
think I just managed that.“ with that he leaned to her gave her a
Confused (Y/F/N) wided her (Y/E/C) eyes. Her
whole face was now red as a tomato. Bucky smiled a bit. „Since I
saw this picture of you in the papers I knew I had to fight. To make
it possible to meet you.“ she couldn‘t believe it. With any other
Guy she would have punched him right in the face but with Bucky it
was so different. No other words were needed as she pressed her red
lips against his full ones.
________________________________________________________________ First GIF is mine the second is not! I’m a big Bucky fan so if you want some Bucky imgines request them!
Sorry my English is bad hope you still like it. Requests are open!
wow. wOW. let’s just not put a trigger warning for that ending even though half our audience has suffered from depression and probably is triggered by that sorta of thing. haha yolo
also f u. i know dean is at a really low place right now but he would never walk in on someone who’s self harming and tell them they’re an idiot when he himself has self harmed (not in the same way i know) and then go on to tell him he’d kill him. of course bucklemming would take dean’s grieving and use it as an excuse to make him say something awful. they’re such shit writers
one word: boring. typical bucklemming ep. i liked michael tho so that’s something. and jack is still a sweat bean. cas is back next week!!! probs only for one scene but still! and missouri, jody and patience! :D
Series Summary: Steve Trevor wakes up on the beach Themyscira knowing that he just died on that plane. So how is he alive? And why doesn’t Diana remember him? As he relives his journey with Diana, will he change anything or will he let the course of history stay the same?
Author’s notes: I upped the number of chapters because I have a general idea where this is going….I have two possible endings in mind and I think I may post both one if you guys want….there’s a happy ending and a not so happy one. Hope you enjoy!!!!
Steve stumbled back feeling as if he had been bludgeoned in the stomach. His mind raced as he tried to piece together what was happening. But he didn’t know where to begin. All he knew was that he was back on Themyscira. He was reliving his past. He was back at the beginning of his and Diana’s journey. But why? Who had brought him back? And why had they dropped him back at the beginning of everything?
A loud noise shook him out of his daze and he shook his head trying to clear his mind; he didn’t have time to figure that out now, the German ships were drawing closer and he would have to fight soon. They would have to fight soon. Steve turned his gaze onto Diana, who had spun around to face him, the fear clear on her face, “Who are they?”
“The Germans. They are the bad guys. I’m one of the good guys. Come on, we have to go.”
Steve swung around and as he looked up he caught sight of the Amazonian’s standing at the edge of the cliff their weapons aimed out towards the German ships.
Steve turned back to Diana, whose gaze had returned to stare at the approaching ships, “Diana! Come on!”
He froze as he watched her turn around to stare at his hand in confusion. But as a woman above them screamed “Fire”, she took his hand and they ran, quickly sliding behind some rocks, remaining hidden as the battle broke out around them.
Flaming arrows rained down as bullets flew past. The Amazonian’s began descending from the cliff and Steve stared in awe as he once again took in their unique fighting style.
A bullet shot past his head and he quickly turned back seeing a soldier aiming right at them. Without a second thought, Steve turned and knocked Diana to the ground. He heard the bullet strike behind him and didn’t realize what had happened until he heard Diana gasp.
Turning around, his heart sunk as he realized that an Amazonian had once again been killed with that exact bullet. Even though he had known it was going to happen, he hadn’t stopped it. What had he been brought back for, if not to save lives?
With a deep breath, he focused back on the fight in front of him. He had to put it behind him. He wouldn’t be able to save every single person. He couldn’t possibly save every single person. But then it struck him…those had been the exact same words he had yelled at Diana when they were at No Man’s Land. And he had been wrong then. It hadn’t been about saving every single person. It was about fighting. It was about trying. It was about fighting for what you believed.
He and Diana continued to peer out from behind the rocks as Amazonian’s on horses flew past them. Spears were soaring. Knives were thrown. Arrows were flying. Swords were clashing. And the sound of gunshots rocked the beach.
Without thinking, Steve jumped out from behind the rocks and knocked out a German, stealing his gun. He saw Diana shoot out behind him and grab a bow taking down soldier after soldier. As he shot down soldiers, he kept an eye on Diana. She had dropped the bow in favor of a sword and his mind flashed back to her fight in the town they liberated. The way she had slid across the ground knocking out soldiers left and right.
As he spun around he caught sight of Antiope, the woman who had trained Diana. He remembered all the stories Diana had told him about her and he remembered how devastated she had been after her death. And in that moment he knew he had to do everything he could to save her.
Steve once again froze in awe as he watched Antiope fly up into the air taking down three men within a second. As her feet touched the ground Steve shook his head and focused back on the battle around him.
He looked around realizing he had lost sight of Diana. His heart was racing as he looked around trying to catch sight of her.
But then he saw her, her sword clashing into a soldier, which sent him sprawling across the sand. He watched as another soldier took aim at Diana and he saw Antiope begin to run toward her, but Steve was closer. He raced across the sand and flew at the German, the gun shot off and he felt it rip into his skin as he pulled it out of the soldier’s hands and whacked it across his head knocking him to the ground.
Behind him, he saw Diana leaning over Antiope who was laying on the ground the bullet had missed her chest, instead, it had skimmed past her shoulder.
He sighed in relief, dropping the gun to the ground as he watched Diana smile down at a smirking Antiope. But his happiness was short-lived when he felt a sword being pressed against his throat.
“No!” Diana yelled, scrambling to her feet. She pushed herself in front of Steve, shoving him back away from the other Amazonians.
“He saved Antiope’s life. He saved my life.”
Steve jerked his head up to see all the Amazonian’s glaring at him. As he cleared his throat and opened his mouth to speak a woman yelled that they should just kill him. He took a minute step back with wide eyes before another woman stated that they couldn’t kill him because they needed information from him.
As they argued, he glanced over seeing another Amazonian help Antiope to her feet and led her over to the Queen. Antiope whispered something in her ear and the Queen’s eyes narrowed.
Questions continued shooting at Steve and he refused over and over and over, “Why would you believe me anyway?”
With a nod, from Queen Hippolyta, they carried him away. As his body was dragged along the sand he looked back catching sight of a confused Diana frozen on the beach. His eyes met hers as he was taken further away and he could feel his heart drop as her eyes showed no recognition of him.
For the second time in his life, he found himself wrapped up in the golden lasso. The rope was burning into his skin and he hissed glaring up as the Amazonian holding it, pulled it tighter.
“Who are you? And why are you here?”
Steve took a deep breath. Instead of resisting this time he gave them all the information they needed. “My name is Steve Trevor. I work for British Intelligence. I am a spy. I was trying to get information from the Germans to stop the war.” He told them of Ludendorff and Doctor Poison and their plan to eradicate innocents with poison gas. He pleaded with them to let him leave so he could get the notebook he had acquired to his superiors.
“This is war. The war to end all wars. Four years. 27 countries. 25 million dead. Soldiers, women, children, innocent’s slaughtered. Their homes and villages looted and burned. It’s like nothing I’ve ever seen. It’s like the world’s gonna end. We need help.”
His eyes flashed as he remembered all the lives lost in the days he fought alongside Diana. Innocents that had been murdered before his eyes. He looked at Diana as her eyes widened in horror. She turned to face her mother, but the Queen’s face remained impassive.
“If I can get this notebook back to my superiors, it can stop millions more from dying.”
Steve told them everything not withholding one detail. Maybe just maybe he could convince them this time. Maybe they would believe him and come with him and Diana. Maybe this time it would be different.
But that didn’t seem to be the case. Steve fell silent, having told them everything. Without another word, the Queen left the room. Diana threw one last look at him before taking off after her mother.
An Amazonian’s, a woman named Tysa, tended to his wounds. Steve cleared his throat and she turned to him with raised eyebrows.
“Is it…um- possible for someone to come back to life?”
The woman’s eyes narrowed, “In what way?”
“If someone dies, but instead of dying they get sent back to relive a certain part of their life. Has that ever happened?”
Tysa looked at his suspiciously and remained silent as she finished up wrapping his wounds.
“Only the Gods would have the power to do that.”
Tysa handed him a glass of water and just as he took a sip she said, “I heard that Diana saved you.”
Steve coughed abruptly choking on the water. He banged on his chest as he sputtered, “Diana?”
Tysa smiled knowingly, “Yes, Diana.”
“She did. She saved my life. Even though she doesn’t know me.”
“That is who Diana is.”
Steve was more than happy to get back in the bubbling water. He washed quickly this time, knowing he wouldn’t have time to enjoy it this time if he wanted to get out before Diana showed up.
But it was just his luck that she came in anyways.
As he stumbled over his words, he cringed. He once again mentioned “above average” men and mentally slapped himself on the head. Instead of remembering an embarrassing moment in his mind, he was literally reliving it.
The worst part, however, was when Diana pointed down at his watch. Steve’s his heart sunk and he picked it up running his finger over its face.
He remembered the last time he saw it. How explosions had rocked his ears. How he had raced over to Diana, who had just been knocked back by Ares. How he had pressed it into her hand before telling her that he loved her. How he had left her standing there. How her scream had ripped a hole in his heart.
And now she didn’t even know him.
They talked for the next few minutes. And Steve’s heart ached the longer they talked because all he wanted to do was pull her close. Soon she left and Steve was left alone in the cave.
As he waited for Diana to come back, he explored. However, when he rounded a corner he came face to face with a visitor.
He backed up slowly, “Queen Hippolyta.”
He didn’t remember this happening.
“Are you doing this?”
“To what are you referring?”
“You know. I know that you do. Who brought me back?”
“You are not asking the right questions.”
Steve growled, “Well then, what questions should I be asking?”
“I cannot tell you that. You must find out for yourself.”
“Then why are you even talking to me?”
The Queen stepped in closer and Steve took another hesitant step back, “Because I wanted to meet the man that loves my daughter.”
Diana returned fuming a few days later and he knew today was the day. After she left, Steve packed up his stuff and sat back playing with his compass as he waited for her to show up.
He heard her step up beside him and he smirked, “Nice outfit.”
“You did not even look.”
“Above average men have eyes in the back of their heads.” He said, looking up with a smile. Her eyes went wide.
“No, they do not.”
Steve laughed, “So are we going?”
“Yes, I will show you the way off the island.”
Once they reached the boat, Steve turned waiting for her mother to show up. Diana skidded to a halt as she took in his motionless form.
“What are you waiting for?”
Diana’s brows furrowed as she looked up the path. A minute passed and the sound of horse hooves echoed through the night. Diana’s head snapped to Steve.
Steve couldn’t hear much of their conversation, only catching bits and pieces.
I am willing to fight for those who cannot fight for themselves.
I cannot stand by while innocent lives are being taken.
You may never return.
Be careful of the world of men, they do not deserve you.
April 21st in 753 BC, the prophecy given to Aeneas by the Gods shortly after he
and the remaining Trojans fled the sacking of Troy in 1184 BC came to fruition.
The founding of Rome was one that would change the course of world history.
descendant of Aeneas, was King of Alba Longa. His younger brother, Amulius,
envied this position, and so sent him into exile to usurp his throne. To
prevent any vengeance or competition arising up from Numitor’s heirs in the
future, he simply killed them off. Furthermore, he then forced Numitor’s
daughter, Silvia, into becoming a Vestal Virgin, having her swear celibacy for
was a God who emanated from Helios and was carried down by the Goddess of
Forethought, Athena. Mars crafted him a mortal body within Silvia’s womb, and
thus Quirinus was born Romulus, alongside his twin, Remus. Following the
discovery that Silvia had given birth to twins, Amulius imprisoned Silvia and
ordered a servant to kill the twins; who instead took pity on the infants and
showed them mercy; instead sending them adrift down the river Tiber.
the river begun overflowing, leaving the infants in a pool by the bank. There,
an animal said to represent both Helios and Mars, the She Wolf, was said to
have lost her own cubs when she came across the twins, deciding to nurture them
and give them suck. Soon after a farmer named Faustulus came across them, and
with his wife Acca adopted and raised the children as shepherds.
On 752 BC,
while they were herding their sheep one day, they were met by shepherds under
the rule of King Amulius. These shepherds begun a fight with the twins in which
Remus was captured and taken before King Amulius. Romulus gathered and incited
a band of local shepherds to join him in rescuing his captured sibling. King
Amulius believed that Silvia’s children were dead, and hadn’t recognized Remus
or Romulus. After a conflict, Romulus freed his brother, and in the process
killed King Amulius. Being offered the throne of Alba Longa, they rejected it
and instead chose to reinstate Numitor on the throne. However, they did still
want to rule a city, and so they left to go and find their own.
finding a proper location with seven hills, Romulus and Remus were bickering
over where their city would be founded. Romulus supported the construction of
the city on the Palatine Hill, and Remus supported the construction of the city
on the Aventine Hill. Taking the auspices to read the will of the gods, Remus
on his hill saw six birds, while Romulus saw twelve. As a result it was decided
that Romulus’ choice was the one with divine favour, which lead him and his
followers to begin construction of their city on the Palatine Hill. Romulus
took to marking the city’s sacred boundary with a plough drawn by a white bull
and a white cow to begin building the city’s walls, but Remus scornfully jumped
over the furrows, causing the furious Romulus or one of his Chiefs to kill him.
the new settlement’s future population he outlawed infanticide and established
an asylum for fugitives, where freemen and slaves alike could both find
protection in the new city and recieve Roman citizenship.
point, due to a shortage of females since the population of Rome was mostly
young and unmarried men, Romulus organised the abduction of single women who
were marriageable from nearby Italic tribes by drawing them in with grand
festivals & games, most notably the local tribe of the Sabines, and taking
the women’s hand in marriages without the consent of their families. A conflict
ensued in which enraged Italic tribes warred with Rome, which ended when the
women ran between the armies of their fathers and their new husbands, pleading
for them to put down their weapons and negotiate for peace. Peace was reached,
where Romulus and the King of the Sabines, Tatius, joined together to form one
years, the city and its relations developed. Tatius died, and conflicts with
Italic and Etruscan tribes continued to rise as Rome grew more and more
powerful. After a reign of 36 years, Romulus mysteriously disappeared in a
violent storm, causing an uproar of confusion and accusation of murder to go
around; along with a claim that their King had simply abandoned them. However,
Proculus Julius, a man who had been friends with the King, came forth, swore a
sacred oath in which he could not lie, and revealed the truth of what happened
to the missing Romulus. He recounted an experience where Romulus descended from
the sky infront of him shortly after his disappearance. Puzzled and shocked,
Proculus asked why Romulus had abandoned his city as he did: confused,
mourning, suspicious and on edge. Romulus revealed that it was the divine will
of the Gods that took him into the Heavens by destroying the mortal part of his
body with the fire of lightning during the storm, and that he was ascended into
the heavens by the Goddess Athena straight back to Helios, and that in truth he
was the God Quirinus. He revealed he was sent forth by King of All, his duty
being to build a city that would become the greatest on Earth, and now that
work is done. The now-revealed God then promised to watch over his people
before ascended back into the heavens. With this information revealed to the
people of Rome, the divine truth had overcame them and eased their minds;
causing them to abandon their suspicions and anger over their old king having
left them. King Numa, a Sabine and a great reformer, was made Romulus’
successor and proclaimed the second King of Rome.
the eternal city still stands another year.
Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus, Hymn to King Helios, 358 AD
Plutarch, and John Dryden. Selected lives: from the parallel lives of the noble Grecians and Romans. Franklin Center, PA: Franklin Library, 1982.
Renee is ugly. Renee is fat. Renee is a slut. Renee looks like a man. Renee doesn’t respect Dean. I would like to see how wide her v***** is.
I have read all this over the course of these weeks: having been concerned with the link between haters and feminism, many people have sent me and asked for things on this subject. Above I wrote the main sentences I read on Tumblr and beyond. I’ll have a long talk, so follow me carefully.
Renee is ugly.
I want to tell you one thing: who are you, haters, to establish the concept of beauty? Absolute beauty exists only in art, and not even there! Most likely, it’s my humanistic training that makes me do these arguments and … Renee is ugly according to what idea? If we were to speak of “ideal woman”, Renee has blond hair and long hair, so she already has an element that the whole world considers beautiful. Renee has not rounded face, but it’s fairly straightforward: another feature that the world gives to the perfect woman. The only thing … she doesn’t have blue eyes. For you, is she bad because she has no blue eyes? The “perfect woman” doesn’t exist. By changing context, Renee is ugly only for haters. They rely on their own external concept.
Renee is fat.
Renee is not lean. Renee is not fat. Renee has a perfect body for her: straightforward, healthy. If Renee is fat, I would be obese. Are haters based on skeletal models? Girls, don’t rely on those: they are bones, they are not lean.
Renee looks like a man.
The same is said for Charlotte. Why should they look like a man?
Dean is a private man and Renee makes interviews saying “I’m happy!” “The wedding was beautiful!” She doesn’t respect him! She forced him to make TD!!
One question: what’s wrong with saying you’re happy? She is happy to be married to Jonathan Good, the man of her life. What’s the problem? Ah, then you quoted Norm continually … Dean also had many women in his past, but nobody says anything about it. I wonder why. In the end, Dean said he had fun doing TD! In my blog you will find all the evidence about it.
I would like to see how wide her v***** is.
This was the phrase that made me feel bad. Really.
Are there women able to say this? Almost I can’t believe it! I cannot believe there are similar women! I will make references to history, especially to English History. In England, I don’t remember if it was during the First War or the Second World War … Women replaced men in work. Even the most difficult. In England, there was the movement of the suffragettes. In America, if I don’t remember badly in the seventies, there was the feminist movement. Throughout the world, when the wars ended, a woman’s “grateful” began: women began to rebel, to have their rights. There are women who are in politics. In medicine, in environments in the male dominance. Maria Montessori is an example. These feminist movements, along with cultural movements, have given a new ideology: to respect women for what they really are. What are we women? HUMAN BEINGS. This respect, however, must not only come from man. But also by the woman. Mainly by the woman. Because, unless we learn to respect ourselves as women … how can we expect to change the world? Insulting Renee for the physical look … cowardice. Why insult a beautiful woman like Renee? Saying this, “You’re fat” “You’re ugly,” you created in the minds of those who follow you a real complex. Imagine a 14-year-old girl following the haters, she sees Renee and says “Renee is fat? I have to be leaner than she is!”. Maybe she can’t and begins to accuse anorexia, depression. They all read us here, we must at least keep that level of dignity! I mean one thing … If women say this to a woman … then the haters cannot be defined as women, or fans, or humans. Animals don’t even say this. I will never forget Goffman and Pirandello: they support the theory of “masks”. We wear a mask every day to satisfy society … And it is true. Me, you, them, everyone. Even Renee. Renee always looks happy and smiling … and if she is suffering from something and we don’t know it? If Renee suffers and only Dean helps her? You too haters: you have the haters mask, but … who really is under this mask? Fear. Disadvantages. Misunderstandings. Insurances. And you haters vent all your insecurities not on Renee as a person, but as a “scapegoat”. Because you don’t know who to blame your faults, your fears, your uncertainties. And I tell you, to complete. Be women. Don’t write down those things I read. Because, let’s forget Deanee/Renee/Dean, first of all we are women. At least the majority. And we have to respect ourselves first. Only then we CAN change.
I really want to know what you think about everything that is happening. We share our ideas!
Steampunk costumes as a trend fad look like just what they represent - a futuristic yet underdeveloped style reminiscent of something out of a Jules Verne or HG Wells science fiction novel. Imagine a mixture of present day Goth and futuristic Goth rolled into one! The look is not objectionable, and in fact is kind of cool looking and brings on an edge! Picture Edward Scissorhands meets Elvira Mistress of the dark and Xena the Warrior Princess meets Sherlock Holmes meet. Sort of.
A number of the more widespread apparatus involved in Steampunk clothes is as follows:
Spats; old fashioned albeit with a Steampunk fashion that is awesome
Fingerless gloves, leather of course
Machinist goggles, I don’t know what they are riding but apparently they want eye protection
Long old English coat with tails, top hat or bowler (cane discretionary)
A completely different appearance for Steampunk clothing to get a man is of a Victorian driver:
Pouch belt; this resembles something one might carry ammunition in, which gives an entirely new meaning to the expression ‘road rage’
White ruffled shirt (with ammo…)
Brown suede jacket with fur collar and 'badge’ of types
Another look for men, the 'Studly Gentleman’:
Grey jacket with braided decorations, golden buttons at each braid-end (reminiscent of civil war coat cosmetic design)
Now for the women:
Skirts that are frilly however somehow find a way to share a tough and rough exterior
Small tops with plenty of ruffles and sequined studs emitting exactly the same atmosphere
And, machinist, you guessed it goggles
Miniature small bowler hat hair pinned to the very top of her head, Janis Joplin -esque round glasses that are tinted
Leather choker with attached gold brooch, leather belts worn diagonally from shoulder right down to waist (ammunition belt style)
Only a little brownish short vest over kick butt, and a tight short black dress, high heeled boots to die for!
Various bobbles, trinkets, badges, pocket watches, brooches, chains studded leather arm and wrist bands and as such serve as Steampunk jewelry and accessories.
Cyberpunk and Steampunk are often incorrectly associated with each other.Interesting Steampunk Costume Ideas
“Funeral in London May 1919: the coffin containing the body of Nurse Edith Cavell leaving Westminster Abbey for the burial in "Life’s Green” at Norwich Cathedral.
“Edith Cavell worked in Brussels at a nursing school but after the occupation of Brussels by the German Army in 1914 she became involved in helping allied soldiers reach the safety of neutral Holland. On 4 August 1915 she was arrested and charged with helping allied soldiers to escape. After a Court Martial she was executed by firing squad on 12 October 1915 at the Champ de Tir in Brussels. She met her death with outstanding courage and dignity and was nationally honoured by a state funeral in London before her final burial in Norwich Cathedral.”
Imagine a combination of present day Goth and futuristic Goth rolled into one! In fact is kind of trendy looking, and the appearance isn’t objectionable and brings on an edge! Picture Edward Scissorhands meets Elvira Mistress of the dark and Xena the Warrior Princess meets Sherlock Holmes meet. Sort of.
A few of the more common equipment involved in Steampunk attire is as follows:
Spats; old fashioned albeit with a funky Steampunk fashion
Fingerless gloves, leather of course
Buckles, buckles, and much more buckles… everywhere!
Machinist goggles, I actually don’t know what they’re riding but seemingly they need eye protection
Long old English jacket with tails, top hat or bowler (cane elective)
An entirely distinct look for Steampunk clothing to get a man is of a Victorian driver:
Pouch belt; this resembles something one might carry ammunition in, which gives a whole new meaning to the expression ‘road rage’
White ruffled top (with ammo…)
Brown suede coat with fur collar and 'badge’ of sorts
Another look for men, the 'Studly Gentleman’:
Bowler hat, monocle, handlebar moustache
Grey jacket with braided decorations, gold buttons at each braid-end (reminiscent of civil war jacket cosmetic design)
Now for the women:
Short skirts that are frilly yet somehow find a way to share a tough and rough outside
Small tops with lots of ruffles and sequined studs emitting the exact same atmosphere
And, you machinist goggles
Tiny small bowler hat hair pinned to the top of her head, Janis Joplin -esque round glasses that are tinted
Leather choker with attached gold brooch, leather belts worn diagonally from shoulder all the way down to midsection (ammunition belt style)
Only a little brownish short vest on a tight short black dress, and kick butt, high heeled boots to die for!
Various bobbles, pocket watches, badges, trinkets, brooches, chains studded leather arm and wrist bands and as such function as Steampunk jewelry and accessories.
Steampunk and cyberpunk are often incorrectly connected with each other.
Today is Internationaler Frauentag (8. März) - International Women’s Day. Although this “Frauenpower” observance has its roots in the USA, it is little known there, probably because of its socialist/communist associations. Inspired by an American commemoration of working women in 1909, and following a meeting of the Socialist International in Denmark, the German socialist Clara Zetkin (1857-1933) organized the first Internationaler Frauentag in 1911, when socialists from Austria, Denmark, Germany, Switzerland, and the USA held strikes and marches. Russian revolutionary and feminist Aleksandra Kollontai, who helped organize the event, described it as “one seething trembling sea of women.” As the annual event developed, it took on the cause of peace as well as women’s rights. In 1915, Zetkin organized a demonstration in Switzerland to urge the end of WW1. Women on both sides of the war turned out. With the advent of the United Nations in 1945, the UN used the day to further the cause of women’s rights around the world, particularly in developing nations. The day is now observed in many countries from Australia to Canada, focusing on gender equality. Today’s date for IWD probably goes back to a strike by Russian women textile workers in St. Petersburg in 1917. Although it was observed in the GDR/East Germany until German Reunification, the celebration in West Germany (by the SPD party) never caught on, and the date goes largely unnoticed by most Germans. Overall, March 8 is an official holiday in less than 20 countries today.
Due to the lack of historical accuracy in many Tom Riddle-based fanfictions, particularly time-travel ones, I decided to embark on my own research escapade in preparation for writing my own. What I found was “The 1940′s House”, a British reality TV program, filmed in 2001, about a modern family that tries to the live as a typical middle-class family in London during The Blitz of World War II.
For those interested, you can watch the entire program on YouTube here. For those wondering what life for Tom Riddle at the London Muggle orphanage during the war years would’ve been like, I highly reccommend you watch it.
Being an American, I learned quite a lot that I feel that other fanfiction writers, especially Brits, could learn from this program. These points include:
What sort of clothes people wore (including hairstyles and beauty). It’s worth noting, especially for Tomione fanfictions, that Hermione’s hair would still likely be a hopeless mess, simply because hair work was “so much effort just to maintain minimal results”.
What sort of food people ate (i.e. canned peaches, pudding, meat pies, cake, etc.). Before rationing, the documentary establishes that Brits’ diets were high in fat and cholesterol, and on average, 3,000 Calories a day. That was for the average, middle-class family. After rationing, it would be a fraction of that.
Remember Billy Stubbs’s rabbit, and Tom Riddle hanging it from the rafters? Well, ladies and gents, Tom wasn’t the only one with a certain disdain for rabbit life. Indeed, during the wartime, and in the months preceding, the British government actively encouraged people to breed, and eat, rabbits. However, many British people, seeing the rabbits as pets, could not bring themselves to kill their beloved companions. Others managed to kill the rabbits, only to be “unable to eat them”, due to personal attachment. Nevertheless, rabbits were a very common pet at the time. (Speaking of other pets, it’s mentioned that thousands of dogs and cats were put down by their owners, out of fear that the pets would starve to death during the bombings.)
By Christmas 1939, “blackout” was in effect all over London and surrounding cities. The government required civilians to “black out” all windows in the home, for fear that any light - no matter how small - might “bring a hail of German bombs upon them”. Not only was blackout claustrophobic, but by that point in time, the decreased light at night from blackout had caused over 4,000 deaths from unfortunate accidents. Household accidents were also not uncommon; a young mother, rushing to comfort her child in the darkness, tripped down the stairs and broke her neck, dying. “Blackout inspectors”, judging harshly using draconian guidelines, would also visit homes to enforce blackout, penalizing residences that failed to “fully black out” all windows and sources of light. Cardboard coffins, in anticipation of the death toll from bombings, were made and distributed; an estimated 1 in 25 civilians were expected to be killed (4.1%).
In the beginning of 1940, food rationing began. Food began to get scarcer and scarcer, and in an attempt to evenly distribute “essential foods”, the British government began to hand out ration books. People even petitioned the government in favor of rationing, as it represented “fairness” in “the people’s war”. However, with the rationing, all of the prices jumped up about 15%. People were expected to grow any fruits or vegetables in a “war garden” in their backyard, and sweets and cereals all but disappeared from the shelves. Many of the shelves were empty, and stores and shopkeepers attempted to “put out rarer items more slowly” in an attempt to give every family a chance to buy them. Sugar was in such short supply, that it was illegal for bakers to use it in icing.
Options for cooking in the kitchen also became limited. As shortages increased, meals became more monotonous and smaller. Children were likely almost always going hungry, and ones from wealthier families were unaccustomed to such limited amounts of food. Meanwhile, many built bomb shelters in their yards for protection, which could take a week or two (or more) to dig out and construct. Emergency boxes were stocked with “essential supplies” and stashed by the back door. People had to be ready to flee at a moment’s notice, to “pack up everything and go”. Sirens would warn of impending air raids, and it was signal for people to rush to the nearest bomb shelter. All preparations were taken beforehand.
Often times, the “man of the house” would leave to work long hours in the war effort, making parts or in the army, leaving the women to tend to the household and their families on their own. Thus, women were expected to be mentally, emotionally, and physically strong, capable, and healthy. This was in addition to soaring inflation and more shortages; in between 1939 and 1943, the cost of living in the UK rose by 83%. More food variation was helped immensely through aid from the US, providing good like dried milk, dried eggs, Spam, and other processed foods. Under the points system, each person in the household got 5 points, which, unfortunately, still didn’t buy very much. Housewives also needed to be intelligent, as using the rationing system and the American “points system” could get very confusing. Organizational and mathematics skills were highly valued, along with cunning and shrewdness, to beat the competition. Queues were often quite long, and housewives sometimes returned empty-handed.
Fuel was also rationed, and water conservation, namely for baths, was paramount. Many households did not have enough water in the house in order to take proper baths or showers, and the water itself, after several uses, was usually dirty and unsanitary. Some children would be tasked to monitor fuel and water usage in terms of “units”, and staying under or at the daily (or weekly) quotas was also important. Personal hygiene was considered a luxury, and adults often times allowed the children alone to have a more generous use of allotted resources.
Due to cigarette shortages, women were encouraged to quit smoking; however, by the end of the war, over 50% of the women in the UK had taken up the habit. Women were blamed for cigarette shortages, and indeed, they were deemed “more susceptible” to more frequent use, usually due to feeding the habit out of stress. Men alone were seen as “worthy” by the British government of the privilege to smoke. Toothpaste, kept often times in a cup, was reserved for children, as were larger food rations. Adults used resources as sparingly as possible. Often times, adults did not have shampoo to wash their hair.
Medical attention or help was often little to outright unavailable, with half the nation’s doctors and nurses aiding the war efforts. If someone was hurt or injured, he or she would often have to heal or recuperate on his or her own. Many civilians also gave blood. (“The most important work during and after air raids is blood transfusion. That miracle of healing that brings new life into shattered bodies…Over 100,000 men and women are ready and willing to give their blood to save the life of a soldier, a sailor, and airman, or a loved one at home. Rest assured that somehow, someway, their blood will save someone.”)
In 1938, the Women’s Voluntary Services were formed to help with the war effort. During the war, 241 of these women died while on active duty. These women did a range of jobs, from tending to nurseries, to assisting in wartime production, to other service positions. They also wore special uniforms, using every spare minute to help those in need, including even sewing and crocheting blankets and quilts to be sent off to soldiers in war. Women were also told by the British government to “make do and mend”, and “Deft Darns” pamphlets or books, by “Mrs. Sew-&-Sew”, were handed out. It taught women how to patch and repair old clothes and fabric.
State nurseries were set up by the government to “free up women for war work”. A woman could drop off her child(ren) before breakfast, and come to retrieve them after supper. Free milk, juice, and other foods normally limited by rationing were also provided to keep the children healthy. Women were encouraged to have more children, and pregnant women were given extra rations; the birth rate went up by 22%. Some doctors even advised women to have babies as “a cure for wartime anxiety”. Women were also encouraged to become “stronger” and “more independent”.
“Beauty before duty” became a prevalent phrase. (”Look to your looks. Beauty is definitely a duty. When you look your best, you feel self-confident, and your confidence transmits itself to those around you.”) Women, however, were expected to look beautiful without makeup; lipstick, however, the “red badge of courage”, was also expected to be worn every day. From 1941, it became virtually illegal to manufacture hair and beauty products. However, this only encouraged women to turn to the black market; even legitimate shops sold nail varnish, disguised as something else. Most wartime women, however, had to improvise in terms of makeup, including “natural” hair stain or dye.
Books by Marguerite Patten, a famous food writer, were also popular with women, most notably with their recipes of how to make due with wartime supplies. During World War II, she worked for the Ministry of Food suggesting nourishing and inventive recipes using the rationed food that was available. She broadcast her ideas and advice to the nation on a BBC radio programme called the Kitchen Front.
It was illegal to waste. Notices would be on newspapers to reuse the paper they were made from, and people were not allowed to feed their pets “anything that was possible for human consumption”. One woman was even fined 10 pounds for feeding bread to the birds. The National Loaf, used from a particular flour, and distributed to much of the British public, was so unpopular that it was known as “Hitler’s Secret Weapon”. It was also rumored that the government touted that the Loaf possessed “aphrodisiac properties”, to try and encourage people to eat more.
Towards the end of the war, 85% of women were doing some form of work, and women up to age 50 were often assigned work. Women with children under 15 were classified as “immobile”, and therefore, did not have to work. However, there was still tremendous societal pressure even for “immobile” women to work as well. The average pay for a man was $6 weekly; the average pay for a woman was $4.10. Women were also not compensated for any injuries on the job. Ladies also worked 16 hours a day, 7 days a week. In 1945, after the war, women were expected to leave their jobs, and go back to tending the household - a move that was not always welcome. The divorce rate jumped 3 times more than what it had been pre-war, but the female suicide rate fell by a third.
Tiredness was constant, especially during the air raid times. Sometimes, home life would be disrupted by up to 17 air siren calls a day.
Water and gas lines were sometimes cut off by bomb damage. On the other hand, children were given much more freedom to roam, but not without potential danger: in one case, in 1945, four boys were killed when they played with what they thought was a “dud” bomb, which exploded on them unexpectedly.
Even at the end of the war, shortages would continue in Britain for another 9 years.
A Short History of Female Judges in Judge Dredd from 1982 to 1986
Following the early explosion of female judges in the second half of the first five years of Judge Dredd, there came a settling down period where faceless background crowd-filling women in uniforms mostly faded away in favor of developing the ones established over previous years. In other words, quantity gave way to quality, though of course there were a few notable exceptions and a couple of interesting experiments that are well worth dissecting. But first, let’s pick up where we left off…
(Disclaimer: unless otherwise noted, all stories mentioned in this post are written by John Wagner and Alan Grant. Trust me, it’ll save us a lot of time)
We are here to make a better world. No amount of rationalization or blaming can preempt the moment of choice each of us brings to our situation here on this planet. The lesson of the ‘60s is that people who cared enough to do right could change history. We didn’t end racism but we ended legal segregation. We ended the idea that you could send half-a-million soldiers around the world to fight a war that people do not support. We ended the idea that women are second-class citizens. We made the environment an issue that couldn’t be avoided. The big battles that we won cannot be reversed. We were young, we were self-righteous, reckless, hypocritical, brave, silly, headstrong and scared half to death.
And we were right. I regret nothing.
- Abbie Hoffman, Vanderbilt University on April 1989.