encomienda

a little bit late but here’s a concise and (hopefully) sufficient list of US crimes against humanity domestically and abroad

Native American Genocide

Cultural clashes between European settlers and Natives lasted for over four hundred years – small battles, large scale wars and forced labor systems on large estates, also known as encomiendas – took a large toll on the Native population.

Throughout the Northeast, proclamations to create ‘redskins’, or scalps of Native Americans, were common during war and peace times. According to the 1775 Phips Proclamation in Massachusetts, King George II of Britain called for “subjects to embrace all opportunities of pursuing, captivating, killing and destroying all and every of the aforesaid Indians.”

Colonists were paid for each Penobscot Native they killed – fifty pounds for adult male scalps, twenty-five for adult female scalps, and twenty for scalps of boys and girls under age twelve. These proclamations explicitly display the settlers’ “intent to kill”, a major indicator of genocidal acts.

Native American genocide (including deaths caused by disease): 76 million

etc. genocidal incidents involving native americans

Wounded knee Massacre: 150-300

Trail Of Tears: 5,000

Sand Creek Massacre: 150

Gnadenhutten Massacre: 96

Creek War native casualties: 1,597

Ash Hollow Massacre: 86

1860 Wiyot Massacre: 188

the Long Walk to Bosque Redondo: (at least) 200

Battle of Tongue River: 50 

that’s only a few, but notable, examples of forced relocation and massacres attributable to pre-modern genocidal policies, however modern (as in, post-19th century) includes unlivable reservation conditions, forced sterilization of native women, forced assimilation policies in the 1920s, and lack of constitutional rights pre-1968

it goes without saying that this doesn’t do justice to the sheer amount of constant relocation, forced marches, and deportations faced by native americans, however.

U.S. foreign policy + CIA operations abroad

phoenix program (1975), a program during the vietnam war meant to identify and neutralize suspected viet cong, viet cong sympathizers, and communists. it resulted in the torture of tens of thousands (by gang rape, rape following murder, whippings, electric shock treatment, and so on) and the “neutralization” of 81,740; 41,000 of which were killed. 

operation condor (1968-1989), a campaign of anti-communist terror that resulted in the deaths of 60,000 to 90,000 suspected communists, unionists, students, teachers, intellectuals, priests, and racial and sexual minorities. it entailed the installation of right wing, oftentimes fascist, military dictatorships and juntas across south america. notable examples being pinochet’s chile, hugo banzer’s bolivia, and alfredo stroessner’s paraguay.

operation menu (1969-1970), a bombing campaign targeted at both the khmer rouge guerrillas and cambodian civilians, resulting in a noncombatant death toll of 4,000. although, all bombing campaigns directed at cambodia are as high as 150,000.

the christmas bombings, or operation linebacker II (1972), an ariel bombardment operation that resulted in the deaths of 1,624 vietnamese citiziens, along with the intentional destruction of vital infrastructure. 

operation rolling thunder (1965-1968), an ariel bombardment operation that resulted in the deaths of anywhere from 52,000 - 182,000 vietnamese civilians.

operation wandering soul (assumed to be throughout the entire vietnam war), a psychological and propagandistic campaign that preyed on the vietnamese belief that “It was believed that if one died away from one’s family and was not buried with their ancestors, then they would be forced to wander forever; their souls in pain”, the CIA utilized this by recording south vietnamese actors encouraging viet cong to desert the army, oftentimes blasting these recordings from helicopters overhead. 

bay of pigs (1961), the attempted overthrow of the increasingly communist leadership of fidel castro, in part due to the severed ties between cuba and the US after the cuban revolution that overthrew and exiled the previous US-friendly dictator, fulgencio batista, and with him the US’ influence over the region.

operation allied force (1999), the NATO bombing of yugoslavia that resulted in the deaths of anywhere from 500 to 5,700 serbian civilians, 60% of which were in kosovo.

CIA funding of the contras (1981-1988), the CIA funded the right-wing, terrorist contras in opposition to the left social democratic sandinista government in nicaragua as a result of the left wing government being a threat to the economic interests of the US. the contras frequently resorted to widespread acts of terror including, but not limited to: rape, torture, kidnappings, mass shootings, the destruction of schools, and the destruction of hospitals. of which killed a staggering 70,000-130,000 civilians. all the while, the contras were considered freedom fighters by the US media and state.

US bombs in laos (1964-1973), 270 million cluster bombs were dropped on laos, or 2.5 million tons, 80 million of which didn’t explode on impact and have since claimed 20,000 civilian lives after the original bombing. it is unknown how many have died due to the initial bombing, but several thousands can be assumed. one estimate is over 500,000.

When Lyndon Johnson announced a halt to the bombing of North Vietnam in 1968, the bombing of Laos escalated. Asked about the bombing during Senate testimony, Deputy Chief of Mission Monteagle Stearns said, “Well, we had all those planes sitting around and couldn’t just let them stay there with nothing to do.”

The refugees spoke of a relentless campaign of destruction: entire villages incinerated, temples and schools destroyed, livestock killed, people buried alive in holes they dug trying to escape the bombs, people burned alive by napalm and white phosphorous, others forced to live underground in caves for years.

operation 40 (1959-1960), code name for a CIA sponsored terrorist organization pre-bay of pigs that both practiced anti-castro terrorism, sabotage, and assassinations of left-wing political and military leaders. in response to it’s failure in the 60s (disbanded due to evidence of drug trafficking), brigade 2506 was created in it’s place with similar functions.

operation IA feature (1975), a covert CIA operation that authorized the support of both the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola and UNITA, both right-wing parties.

operation ajax (1953), a coup sponsored by the US that entailed the overthrow of the democratically elected prime minister of iran, mohammad mosaddegh and the emplacement of a military government headed by fazlollah zahedi and, accordingly, allowed the shah of iran to institute what was practically an absolute monarchy. this was caused due to mosaddegh’s nationalization of iranian oil and effective dismission of US economic interests.

operation gladio (1956-1990): the peak of NATO (and, accordingly, CIA) anti-communist paranoia.

project FUBELT (1970-1973), the CIA operation that lead to both the assassination of democratically elected chilean president, salvador allende, and the following coup that resulted in the military dictatorship headed by augusto pinochet.

US syphilis experiments in guatemala (1946-1948), the forced, deliberate infection of 700 or more guatemalans with venereal diseases for the purpose of testing the effectiveness of penicillin.

albanian subversion (1949-1952), the attempted overthrow of albania’s government, one of the first of many attempts of the CIA in overthrowing communist and soviet-aligned governments. regardless, it cost the lives of at least 300 people.

CIA tibetan program (1950-1972), the CIA funding, training, and arming of tibetan nationalists and rebels for the purpose of anti-communism and US interests.

CIA drug trafficking

disposition matrix (2010-current), also known as the kill list has claimed up to  2,300 lives via drone strikes, 80% of which were innocent.

operation northwoods (1962, rejected), which was a proposed false flag operation that would’ve framed cuba as a terrorist state.

The desired resultant from the execution of this plan would be to place the United States in the apparent position of suffering defensible grievances from a rash and irresponsible government of Cuba and to develop an international image of a Cuban threat to peace in the Western Hemisphere.

additionally, there has been over 600 failed assassination attempts on fidel castro that have been linked to the CIA 

U.S. domestic policy

operation MHCHAOS (1967-1973), originally based on finding connections between anti-war (anti-vietnam war, particularly) movements and soviet influence expanded into surveilling the majority of leftist groups, such as: students for a democratic society, black panther party (BPP), young lords (puerto rican left-wing nationalists), women strike for peace, and ramparts magazine. at it’s peak, it had a database of approximately 1,000 left-wing groups, 300,000 civilians, and files on 7,200 americans. 

project ARTICHOKE (1951-1953) a study dedicated to forced morphine addiction and hypnosis, tested primarily on sexual and racial minorities (see: gay men, asians, african americans, and military prisoners)

project MKUltra (1953-1973) more infamous than other CIA operations, project MKUltra was the code name given to an illegal program based on human experimentation, usually on unwilling canadians and US citizens belonging to ethnic minority groups. it’s hard to go over just how awful it was in one paragraph so tbh i suggest you read the wiki page.

radiation experiments in puerto rico on puerto rican nationalist leaders and prisoners (1950s)

operation mockingbird (1948-1973), a secret campaign by the CIA to influence the media, the organization recruited leading american journalists in a network to help project the CIA’s views. this extended to multiple student organizations and magazines. there were at least 3,000 CIA officers engaged in this operation.

operation wetback (1954), the deportation of (at least) a million persons to mexico, the majority of which were mexican nationals in response to the increased level of immigration

japanese internment (1942-1946), the deliberate internment of over 127,000 japanese citizens following the bombing of pearl harbor, which resulted in the relocation of japanese people to concentration camps. 

COINTELPRO (1956-1971)

notable groups targeted:

communist party USA (CPUSA)

national lawyers guild (NLG)

national association for the advancement of colored people (NAACP)

american indian movement

congress of racial equality (CORE)

young lords

weather underground

black panther party (BPP)

white panther party

venceremos

socialist workers party (SWP)

student nonviolent coordinating committee (SNCC)

nation of islam (NOI)

patriot party

national caucus of labor committees 

additionally the majority, if not all, groups protesting the vietnam war and almost every socialist and/or communist organization. 

notable people targeted:

martin luther king, jr. (sent death threat and was later involved in his assassination)

fred hampton (assassinated)

bill ayers

muhammad ali

gus hall

john lennon

jeff jones 

yoko ono

huey p. newton

malcolm X

assata shakur

and i honestly shouldn’t have to explain that the U.S. was built off of african slave labor and oppression for hundreds of years, but i will. at least 85,000 deaths can be attributed to the transport of slaves alone (see: not abuses and deaths actually within the U.S.) and an unknown amount of slaves were killed within the U.S., however, in 1860 there were approximately 3,950,528 slaves, or 13% of the U.S. population. let that speak for itself.

U.S.-backed authoritarian regimes

juan vicente gómez, president of venezuela (1908-1935)

jorge ubico, president of guatemala (1931-1944)

manuel estrada cabrera, president of guatemala (1898-1920)

fulgencio batista, president of cuba (1952-1959)

rafael trujillo, president of the dominican republic (1930-1961)

efraín ríos montt + military junta of guatemala (1954-1986)

revolutionary government junta of el salvador (1979-1982)

hugo banzer, president of bolivia (1971-1978)

national reorganization process of argentina (1976-1983)

brazilian military government (1964-1985)

nicaraguan somozan family (1936-1979)

jean-claude duvalier, president of haiti  (1957-1971)

françois duvalier, president of haiti  (1971-1986)

plaek phibunsongkhram, prime minister of thailand (1948-1957)

thanom kittikachorn, prime minister of thailand  (1963-1973)

pol pot, general secretary of the communist party of kampuchea (1978-1983)

A 16 December State Department cable to the UN insisted that, “If the Pol Pot regime was toppled, this could result in indefinite guerrilla warfare in Cambodia.”

The US government insisted that, in spite of the roughly 1 to 2 million people killed by the Khmer Rouge, Pol Pot maintained “stability” in Cambodia, and that was most important.

chiang kai-shek, chairman of the nationalist government of china (1941-1975)

nicolae ceaușescu, general secretary of the romanian communist party (1969-1989)

turkish military junta (1980-1989)

greek military junta (1967-1974)

francisco franco, caudillo of spain (1936-1975)

antónio de oliveira salazar, prime minister of portugal (1933-1974)

paul kagame, president of rwanda (2000-present)

zine el abidine ben ali, president of tunisia (1987-2011)

yoweri museveni, president of uganda (1986-present)

idriss déby, president of chad (1990-present)

national party of south africa. see: apartheid (1948-1994)

house of saud (1945-present)

teodoro obiang nguema mbasogo, president of equatorial guinea (1979-present)

emomali rahmon, president of tajikistan (1994-present)

islom karimov, president uzbekistan (1990-present) 

gurbanguly berdimuhamedow, president of turkmenistan (2006-present)

hashemite dynasty of jordan (1954-present)

suharto, president of indonesia (1967-1998)

ferdinand marcos, president of the philippines (1965-1986)

lon nol, president of the khmer republic (1970-1975)

mohammad reza pahlavi, shahanshah of iran (1941-1979)

syngman rhee, president of south korea (1948-1960)

prayut chan-o-cha, prime minister of thailand (2014–present)

samuel doe, president of liberia (1980-1990)

united arab emirates (1994-present)

hassan II, king of morocco (1961–1999)

and this is, of course, only scratching the surface. feel free to add more.

some relevant links:
35 Countries Where the U.S. Has Supported Fascists, Drug Lords, and Terrorists

Killing Hope: US military and CIA interventions since WWII

The Triumph of Evil: The Reality of the USA’s Cold War Victory introduction (pg. 22) & chapter 7

*links provided for convenience

“Yo me rompí sola, no fueron tus manos, no fue tu boca. La verdad no rompe, la verdad libera, tú no me rompiste, porque aunque soy de barro, tengo alas y yo decidí caer sin aletear siquiera, me estampé fuerte contra el pavimento de tu egoísmo. Tú no rompiste mi corazón, yo rompí las expectativas de un amor ideal. Tú no me rompiste así que me voy a reparar sola. Nadie lamerá mis heridas, nadie tiene la obligación de sanar lo que yo misma me causé. Empezaré despacio, cosiendo mis alas y reconstruyendo la capacidad de asombro. Es una encomienda egoísta tratar que alguien más arregle mis despojos. No cierro la puerta, no me niego oportunidades, si por la noche alguien más quiere besar mis dedos al notar que han enrojecido por la aguja e hilo con que remiendo mi alma, no pecaré de orgullosa y lo permitiré, pues los abrazos son necesarios cuando uno se encuentra medio roto y desubicado. Yo me arreglare sola, porque me amo.” — Habla mi ego, Mercedes Reyes Arteaga

DEJA QUE EL TOME EL CONTROL

Encomienda a Jehová tu camino, y confía en él; y él hará. Salmo 37:5

ENCOMIENDA A JEHOVA TÚ CAMINO. Encomendar, es dejarle a alguien el cuidado de algo. Dios quiere que le encomiendes tu vida, tus planes, tu esposo (a), tu familia, tus finanzas. El quiere hacerse cargo de TODO!! Deja que Dios se encargue de tu vida.

CONFIA EN EL. Dios quiere que le confiemos todo, que dependamos de él al 100%, Dios Quieres que le busquemos de corazón todos los días, tiene que ser algo genuino. No solamente cuando ocupamos un milagro. Cuando empecemos a creer en él por lo que es y no por lo que hace, nuestras vidas darán un cambio radical.

ÉL HARÁ. Es dejar que Dios se haga cargo de todo, cuando dejamos que Dios haga su parte, nosotros descansamos verdaderamente. Solo en él puede solucionar tus problemas, solo él puede cambiar tu vida, solo él puede darte paz, deja de buscar por tu cuenta!!.

DEJA QUE EL TOME EL CONTROL!!!

ABC Cristiano

Alaba a Dios en cada circunstancia de la vida.

Busca la excelencia, no la perfección.

Cuenta tus bendiciones en vez de sumar tus penas.

Devuelve todo lo que tomes prestado.

Encomienda a tres personas cada día.

Fíate de Dios de todo corazón y no confíes en tu propia inteligencia.

Gózate con los que gozan y llora con los que lloran.

Haz nuevos amigos pero aprecia a los que ya tienes.

Invita a Cristo a ser tu Señor y Salvador.

Jamás pierdas una oportunidad de expresar amor.

Lee tu Biblia y ora cada día.

Mantente alerta a las necesidades de tu prójimo.

No culpes a los demás por tus infortunios.

Olvida las ofensas y perdona así como Dios te perdona.

Promete todo lo que quieras; pero cumple todo lo que prometes.

Que se te conozca como una persona en quien se puede confiar.

Reconoce que no eres infalible y discúlpate por tus errores.

Sé la persona más amable y entusiasta que conoces.

Trata a todos como quisieras que te traten.

Únete al ejército de los agradecidos.

Vístete de misericordia, humildad y paciencia.

Y no te olvides de soportar a los demás como a ti te soportan.

Záfate de las garras seductoras de Satanás.

Y lo mejor llénate del amor de Dios, que todo lo puede y está dispuesto a amarte siempre.

Relations with Natives

Each country that established colonies in North America had different relationships with the Native Americans in the area.

Spanish: the focus was on missions and converting the Natives to Christianity. Often intermarrying and trade combined the Spanish and Native peoples. Other times the Natives were made slaves to work in silver mines under the encomienda system. 

French: the French had the best relations with the Natives. They created alliances, trading posts, and settlements with the other peoples and lived peacefully. Thus when the French and Indian war came around, the Indians and French readily supported each other in their fights against the English. 

Dutch: the Dutch created trade relationships with the Native Americans, but lacked the personal connection that the French had. Outside of monetary gain there was little incentive for the Dutch to create more personal relationships.

English: the English had the worst relations with the Native Americans of the four colonial groups. Wars broke out as the English tried to take over more and more land. Respect could not be gained from the English colonists for their Indian neighbors, so trade could never be established. 

“Yo me rompí sola, no fueron tus manos, no fue tu boca. La verdad no rompe, la verdad libera, tú no me rompiste, porque aunque soy de barro, tengo alas y yo decidí caer sin aletear siquiera, me estampé fuerte contra el pavimento de tu egoísmo. Tú no rompiste mi corazón, yo rompí las expectativas de un amor ideal. Tú no me rompiste así que me voy a reparar sola.
Nadie lamerá mis heridas, nadie tiene la obligación de sanar lo que yo misma me causé. Empezaré despacio, cosiendo mis alas y reconstruyendo la capacidad de asombro. Es una encomienda egoísta tratar que alguien más arregle mis despojos. No cierro la puerta, no me niego oportunidades, si por la noche alguien más quiere besar mis dedos al notar que han enrojecido por la aguja e hilo con que remiendo mi alma, no pecaré de orgullosa y lo permitiré, pues los abrazos son necesarios cuando uno se encuentra medio roto y desubicado. Yo me arreglare sola, porque me amo.”
— Habla mi ego, Mercedes Reyes Arteaga
Arte: Irina Karkabi