embryo form

8

25 September 1506

The death of Philip the Handsome

In September 1506, Queen Juana and King Philip traveled to the city of Burgos, where, within days, Philip became violently ill, allegedly because he overindulged in various banquets and festivities. Inevitably, because everything happened so swiftly, rumors of poison surfaced. In fact, his high temperature and fever give little clue as to what was wrong with him; in the days before antibiotics, the slightest infection could become life-threatening in a matter of hours. And sickness was rampant in Castile that autumn.  

Showing no signs of instability and brushing aside concern for her own health— Juana was five months pregnant at the time — she nursed him selflessly, never leaving his side, doing all she possibly could to save him, and always believing that he would recover. It was to no avail. Six days later, on  September 25, Philip died. He was just twenty-eight years old. On the day before Philip’s death, Cardinal Cisneros set himself up as the leader of a Regency Council and requested King Fernando to return to Castile. Juana and her lands, he proclaimed, needed her father. 

King Philip’s corpse was embalmed and taken from the palace of the Constables of Castile, popularly known as Casa del Cordón (The house of the cord), to the Monastery of Cartuja of Miraflores in Burgos. The heart was sent for burial beside his mother’s remains in Bruges. In his will Philip had asked, should he die in Spain, to be buried beside Queen Isabel I of Castile in Granada. He requested sixty thousand high and low masses, with two masses daily at his place of interment - a requiem mass ‘for my soul’ and a low mass ‘for myself and my predecessors’. He ‘desired and ordened’ that Juana be given her dower, or what she was owed by the marriage settlement.

Juana seems to have followed the same six-week Franco-Burgundian mourning protocol as for her mother. With Philip a lifeless corpse, her father safely in Italy, her six-year-old son and heir, Charles, being raised in his aunt’s care in northern European Flanders, her chance to take charge as Castile’s “proprietary ruler” had arrived. The evidence proves that, despite apparent inactivity between September and December, Juana received in audience, argued, weighed options and formed the embryo not only of a royal household but a court in the traditional sense.

On December 18, Juana canceled all the grants and offices with which Philip had shamelessly rewarded his followers, all of which, she said, had been handed out without her permission and to the detriment of both herself and of the state. Now she was ready to sign whatever documents were necessary for the government of her realms. Next, she tried to gather men around her to re-form a council similar to that of her mother, a council that reported to her and acted only upon her authority. Following the death of Philip, Juana clung to two political ambitions: to avoid a second marriage and to secure the inheritance of her offspring, particularly that of her eldest son in Castile.

Then, just before Christmas and in the depths of a bitterly cold winter, Juana made what proved to be a fateful move, one that would fuel a myth that has lasted to the present day. She ordered that Philip’s coffin should be escorted in a slow and solemn procession from the Monastery of Miraflores to Granada so that he could rest close to Queen Isabel. Philip had wanted that, and Juana wanted it for him. Thus it was that, accompanied by the prayers of monks, Philip’s candlelit cortège left the confines of the monastery for its last journey. Juana, now eight months pregnant, was at her husband’s side, but she could not go far. Within three days, she had to stop or risk losing her baby. In January 1507, in the town of Torquemada, Juana went into labor. The birth was difficult, but the child lived. Juana named her Catalina, presumably after her own sister, whom Juana had so recently seen in England. Although debilitated and weak, Juana was then itching to resume her interrupted  journey.

The legend started, and the legend spread, that she was a woman driven mad by grief, so distraught that she could not bear to be parted from Philip even by death and therefore would not allow his body to be laid into the pitiless earth at all but wanted it with her forever. It was said that she opened the coffin, that she kissed Philip’s decaying feet, that she allowed no woman except herself anywhere near the corpse. 

Pedro Mártir, the chronicler who was with Juana on her gruesome journey with Philip’s remains and was not a known supporter of the queen, made no mention of the alleged coffin-opening at all. In the event that Juana had opened the coffin, a possible cause might have been to be certain that the corpse was indeed Philip’s. He had wanted his heart taken back to Burgundy. Knowing his followers as she did, Juana might have steeled herself to check that they had not taken the entire cadaver. As for the exclusion of women from the immediate vicinity of Philip’s casket, that was in accordance with the monks’ rules; the only women allowed on monastic premises were royal. 

King Fernando of Aragon had decided to return to Spain and take up the burden of ruling Castile. Writing to his daughter Catalina, he vowed:

I am determined, with the help of God, to go to Castile during this spring, because the Queen, my daughter and your sister, continually sends and begs me very pressingly to do so, and all write to me that, after God, there is no other means to preserve those kingdoms from ruin and destruction except my return to them.… As they beg me very earnestly to go, and as the happiness of the most serene Queen, my daughter and your sister, and of those kingdoms greatly depend upon it, I have decided to give up my own comfort and to undergo all the labour of assisting her and her  kingdoms.

According to some historians, Fernando lied. Despite repeated supplications, Juana never summoned her father to help her govern Castile. It said that Juana could not rule herself because she was too devastated by Philip’s demise to do anything. Fernando returned to Castile in July 1507. His arrival coincided with a remission of the plague and famine, a development which quieted the instability and left an impression that his return had restored the health of the kingdom. 

Fernando and Juana met at Hornillos on 30 July. They first meeting “had given them both equal pleasure,” he enthused. Fernando went on to say that, following a series of discussions, Juana had agreed that he should do whatever he thought  necessary “for the peace and security of the kingdom.” Order, stability, happiness, and trade would revive; he would look after everything. 

On 17 August Juana summoned three members of the royal council and ordered them to inform the grandees, in her name, of her father Fernando’s return to power: “That they should go to receive his highness and serve him as they would her person and more.” She refused to sign the instructions – a last gesture of defiance – and issued a statement that she did not, as queen regnant, endorse the surrender of her own royal power. Nonetheless, she was thereafter queen in name only and all documents, though issued in her name, were signed with Fernando’s signature, “I the King”. 

In February 1509 Juana was escorted, with Philip’s body and her toddler daughter, to Tordesillas, a small town on the Duero River, about fifteen miles from Valladolid. Together with her attendants and household officials, all carefully vetted by Fernando, Juana was lodged securely within the castle while Philip’s corpse was entrusted to the nuns at the convent of St. Clare, which nestled beside its walls. Years later, Philip the Handsome was entombed at the Royal Chapel of Granada, where he remains today alongside his wife and his parents-in-law.



Sources:

Sister queens: the noble, tragic lives of Katherine of Aragon and Juana, Queen of Castile by Julia Fox

Juana I and the struggle for power in an age of transition by Gillian B. Fleming. The London School of Economics and Political Science. June 2011.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joanna_of_Castile

THE ULTIMATE ANSWER TO WHETHER OR NOT BREASTS ARE SEXUAL ORGANS

Do they produce haploid gametes (either sperm or ovum) that can fuse to ultimately form an embryo? No.
Do they transport gametes? No.
Do they house the fetus during pregnancy? No.
Are they involved in the reproductive system of mammals? No.
Well what do you know, looks like they aren’t fucking sexual organs.

About chapter 700+7 from a medical standpoint (spoilers, obviously)

The last time i did this was for chapter 699, about what messures could be taken to heal/regrow Naruto’s and Sasuke’s arms.
I’ll be brief now ‘cause i have to go to the hospital early and later a Radiology exam. (So yes, i have a base for saying what i’m gonna say about Genetics).

First off, about Shin and the Shins being clones…Orochimaru is right about him being exceptional. Someone who has no negative reaction to transplants or whose organism responds perfectly to it is Exceptional. Why? Because transplants in the real world are a messy subjects. What about parent/child transplants? Still messy, why? Because you don’t match your parent a 100%, heck, not even a 50% really. Why? Because when a new being is formed (the process from being two cells to multiplying them until you are an embryo) a recombination of genes hapens, meaning you don’t actually match the gene structure of your parents that way, but you can match allels (small strands of dna chains that contain your gene information).
The interesting concept that this chapter brought, was about DNA and transplants. So shin uses his own clones to transplant the exact replica of whichever organ he messed up and “live forever”? Probably? I don’t know, he’s messed up.
About the DNA test. At a first glance of that screen, i noticed that it was a 100% match. And that does mean Karin is involved, but not in the way many are thinking.
What was in her desk, is a piece of umbilical cord. This piece of flesh contains information of before the embryo was fully formed. Meaning, there are what we call Stem Cells (in my country the translation is Mother Cells, ain’t it nice for the drama this chap?). What it entails is that these particular cells can be used to produce whichever cell/tissue/organ the person is missing. In actuality, these cells are used to that purpose… Transplants.
So what does Karin have to do with this? Well, she had an umbilical cord that matched a 100% (according to the graphics) with Sarada’s DNA (that came from an epitelial sample, what Suigetsu did with the Q-tip in her mouth). If it matched Sarada in a 100% it obviously means, that cord is Sarada’s.
Remember that Sarada wasn’t born on Konoha since there are no registers or info in the Konoha Hospital. What if for whatever reason, Karin was involved in the birth? Sakura can’t help in the giving birth process if she’s the one in labour…
But why would Karin keep her DNA? Genetics ands transplants. Sarada is an Uchiha, meaning Sharingan, meaning eventual blindness, meaning she might need new eyes but there are no more uchihas… Why not grow new eyes on a lab with her Stem cells?? It can be done.
And why would Karin have her own Umbilical cord if she was your regular bullied kid when she was a child? Before Orochimaru and science was a thing in her life… Because is not her but Sarada’s. Everyone was surprised about it being a possibility, but Suigetsu wasn’t even sure that sample was Karins.
I would expand more on the topic but i gotta run right now. Maybe later today i will expand more on genetics. 'Till then, hang on people!

Two competing theories seek to explain the rare phenomenon of conjoined twins. 

The first and oldest theory is known as fission, in which the first cell divisions of the fertilised egg do not result in complete separation of the twins to begin with.

A more recent and more widely accepted contradicting theory, fusion, asserts that two separate embryos form but are rejoined as groups of similar stem cells on either body find each-other and fuse the twins together. 

It’s curious how radically different and symmetrical theories like this can exist. 

anonymous asked:

Ok, so i heard you can't have kids, my mom had the same thing. What you can do is frickle frackle and form the embryo, then put it in someone else's uterus so they give birth to it but it has your genetics and stuff.

Not if you’re infertile you can’t :/

luxlazuli  asked:

Can a characteristic evolve more than once in a species? Or maybe a better question is HAS a characteristic evolved more than once in a species? Eg; if heaps of the male widow birds with the longest tails died due to increased predation (or something) and the females had to mate with less impressive specimens leading to shorter overall tails in young.

This is an interesting and complex question.

A fellow named Dollo says no, and in 1893 he proposed a law- Dollo’s Law, in fact- that stated that once lost, genetic traits could not be regained via evolution. We’ll discuss how well Dollo’s Law has held up a bit more further down.

A trait can absolutely appear more than once in a species. In fact, certain traits go in and out of style all the time in some species based on changing environments.

Keep reading

deadbison  asked:

If there's evidence that tetrapods had body part growing abilities right up to the amniotes split, what happened with amniotes that made us all lose this miraculous ability? I for one would love to be able to grow a finger back after playing too many games of 5 finger fillet.

We don’t know for sure yet. It’s an important subject of biomedical research, though, because of the obvious benefits to humans.

One proposal is that the ability to regenerate limbs is linked to the timing of development in embryos. Amniotes start forming their limbs early on, and their development is linked to temporary embryonic structures that later disappear – while amphibians develop their limbs later on in a more “self-organizing” manner, independently of the presence of those same structures. It may be that amniote limbs are “locked out” of the ability to regenerate later in life because of their growth relying on interactions with something that just isn’t there anymore.

It also seems to have something to do with the immune system, and differences in the presence and absence of certain genes.

“Oh you’re pro-life? But you eat eggs, don’t you? That’s the same thing!”

Unless you’re eating fertilized chicken eggs with a half-formed chicken embryo inside it, (in which case…wtf that’s creepy af), please don’t use this argument.

5

Leopard gecko embryo development:

1) Egg at Day 3 Possibly infertile. Notice it is completely yellow and there is no veining whatsoever. I hang onto these eggs until they start to mold or shrivel up, or until two weeks past the due date.

2) Day 2 Fertile. Notice the red ring known as the Bullseye. This is the embryo just beginning to form.

3) Week 2. The bullseye has grown and the veins are spreading out to the rest of the egg.

4) Week 3. The embryo has filled up a large portion of the egg. The space that used to be yellowy-pink and transparent was the yoke, and it is now nourishing the growing embryo, decreasing in quantity as the baby grows.

5) Week 4.5-5. About ready to hatch. The egg is no longer transparent. There is very little, if any, yoke left. The baby has filled up all possible space in the egg, which is why it appears opaque. This egg has a bit of yoke left at the end, so it probably has a few days left before hatching. If you get the light at the right spot, sometimes you can see a pattern, or even see the baby moving inside the egg.