elizabethan-era

If anyone tries to tell you that Shakespeare is stuffy or boring or highbrow, just remember that the word “nothing” was used in Elizabethan era slang as a euphemism for “vagina”. 

Shakespeare has a play called “Much Ado About Nothing”, which you could basically read in modern slang as “Freaking Out Over Pussy”. And that’s pretty much exactly what happens in the play. 

anonymous asked:

I have this headcanon that england was super into neck ruffs, but france thought that they were gaudy, so it was the only time england was ever more fashionable than france ( this isn't historically accurate obviously, but when has hetalia ever cared about that?) bonus points for elizabeth I and england bonding over neck ruffs, also england with poofy pants (you know the ones I'm talking about )

- At meetings -

Culinary History (Part 21): Ovens

Benjamin Thompson (1753-1814, Count Rumford) was a physicist & inventor who worked to improve English kitchens.  He was not pleased at all with their design, both in terms of health and economics.  In the 1790’s, he wrote, “More fuel is frequently consumed in a kitchen range to boil a tea-kettle than, with proper management, would be sufficient to cook a dinner for fifty men.”

He didn’t think it was worth it for the roast meat that England was famous for, and complained that English cooks had neglected the art of making of “nourishing soups and broths”.  The main problem, he said, was that the hearth was open.

At this time, the typical English kitchen had a very long range (because of all the pots that had to be put on the fire).  This meant that a huge, very tall chimney was needed, wasting fuel and making the kitchen extremely hot and constantly smoky.  There were also cold draughts by the chimney.

To solve this problem, Rumford built invented his own custom-built closed range, which he installed in the House of Industry in Munich (i.e. the workhouse).  It used far less fuel.

Rumford’s range had many small enclosed fires, instead of one large fire.  Each pot had its own separate, closed fireplace.  The fireplaces were built with bricks (for good insulation), had a door to shut them, and each had their own individual canal which took the smoke into the chimney.

But while Rumford’s design was a major improvement, it never caught to a wide audience.  Part of the problem was that ironmongers (the main producers of cooking apparatus at the time) didn’t want to sell it, because it was made from bricks and not iron.  (Later on, various “Rumford stoves” would be marketed and sold, but with no connection to the original.)

But it wasn’t just a marketing issue.  People hate change, and they were determined to stick to the old ways.  The English believed that open fires roasted, and bread ovens baked.  You couldn’t mix the two together.  In 1838, Mary Randolph said, “No meat can be well-roasted except on a spit turned by a jack, and before a clear, steady fire – other methods are no better than baking.”

Inventors kept working on spit-jacks for ages.  In 1845, a patent was taken out for an electrically-propelled spit-jack, using two magnets. Even in 1907, the Skinners’ Company in London had a 3.3m-wide roasting range in the Guildhall kitchen.  Progress was not so easily won.

Baking vs. Roasting

In the Middle East, this baking/roasting division did not exist.  The Arabic word khubz means “bread”, and from this comes the verb khabaza, which means “to bake/make khubz”. But it can also mean “to grill” or “to roast”.

Mesopotamian bread ovens have been found dating back to 3000 BC (modern-day Pakistan, Syria, Iran & Iraq).  They are round cylinders, made of clay.  A fire is lit in the bottom of the cylinder; then dough is lowered through a hole in the top and slapped on the inside of the oven.  A few minutes later, it has baked into flatbread, and is lifted out again.

These clay ovens are still used today in the Middle East, Central & South-East Asia, and in many rural areas in African countries.  It is called a tandoor.  Many other things are cooked in it, not just bread.

The tandoor cooks with intense, dry baking heat.  Even poor households used them to bake bread.  In Amarna (an Ancient Egyptian village from 1350 BC), half of the labourers’ houses showed traces of a tandoor.  Unlike in medieval Europe, where it was believed that the only real bread was professionally baked, home-made bread was the preference.  In medieval Baghdad, a marketplace inspector once remarked that “most people avoid eating bread baked in the market.”

Like the portable braziers of Ancient Greece, the tandoor was portable, and far better than building a fire in the hearth.  They were also cheap.  An “eye” at the bottom of the cylinder gave control over the level of heat, by opening & shutting.  For example, a round Iraqi water-bread coated in sesame oil would be cooked in a moderate heat, but other breads needed extreme heat.  The fuel is burned directly inside the tandoor, on the bottom, so temperatures can reach up to 480°C (most domestic ovens can only get up to 220°C).

The tandoor wasn’t just used for baking – it was also used for stewing, and for roasting as well.  In the West, tandoori chicken (chicken marinated in yoghurt & red spices) is well-known, and it is cooked in a tandoor.

In Baghdad in the 900’s AD, the tandoor’s roasting capabilities were mostly used for “fatty whole lamb or kid – mostly stuffed…big chunks of meat, plump poultry or fish.”  These were either laid on flat brick tiles, which were arranged on the fire; or put on metal skewers and lowered in from the top.

There are three different types of cooking heat.  In all of them (as physics requires), heat moves from the hotter area/object to the cooler one.

Radiant heat is used for grilling.  It’s like when you put your hand above a heater, without touching it: the heat blasts out from it and warms your hand without you even needing to touch it.  No contact is needed.  A red-hot fire gives plenty of radiant heat from the flames and embers.

Conduction works through direct touch, from one object to another.  This is like touching the heater, instead of putting your hand above it.  Metals are excellent conductors; brick, wood and clay are poor conductors. For cooking, conduction is the type of heat transfer when you put a piece of meat in a pan.

Convection happens within a gas/liquid.  The hot parts of the gas/liquid are less dense than the cool ones, but gradually it evens out (for density and temperature).  This is like the heat of the heater spreading gradually through the room.  For cooking, convection happens when cooking porridge or boiling water.

While any cooking method will use a combination of these forms of heat transfer, one will usually dominate, and it is this which makes the tandoor unusual – it uses all three at the same time.  Radiant heat from the fire below, and from the hot clay walls; conduction from the clay to the bread, or the metal skewers to the meat; and convection within the hot air circulating in the tandoor. This is what makes this oven so versatile.

The old Western ovens were basically brick boxes.  They used both about 20% radiation and 80% convection.  Instead of the constant intense heat of the tandoor, their fire started off fierce (radiation) but then cooled down gradually, and convection took over.  In fact, the food didn’t even usually get put in until the fire had cooled down.

Over the centuries, cooking methods evolved to make the best use of this type of heat transfer.  Food was cooked in order – bread when the oven was hottest; then stews, pastries and puddings; herbs might be left to dry in it overnight, when the oven was barely warm.

In ancient & medieval times, bread ovens were huge, communal affairs.  A manor/monastery kitchen had massive equipment to match the ovens – wooden spoons as big as oars; massive trestle tables to knead the dough on.

Bundles of fuel (wood/charcoal) were heaved into the back of the oven, taken from stoking sheds outside, and then fired up.  When the oven was hot, the ashes were raked out into the stoking sheds.  Then the dough was shoved in on peels – extremely long wooden spoons.  Bakers worked almost naked because of the heat, like the turnspits.

By the 1700’s, baking equipment included wooden kneading troughs; pastry jaggers; hoops & traps for tarts & pies; peels; patty pans; wafer irons; earthenware dishes.

Baking oven & kneading trough.

Pastry jagger (American, 1800-50).

Peels in a medieval baker shop.

Modern patty pans.

Wafer iron (Italian, 1500′s).

Royal kitchen at St. James’ Palace (1819).  There is an open-grate fire for roasting (back right); a closed oven for baking (front right); and a raised brick hearth for stewing & sauces (front left?)  Each type of cooking was separate.

The Oven

It wasn’t just the baking/roasting division that hindered the adoption of ovens.  A fire is homey and comforting, and people were unsure about centering their home around an enclosed fire instead of an open one.  Stoves were introduced in America during the 1830’s, but people said that they might be fine for heating public places such as bars or courthouses, but not their homes.

But they got used to it eventually.  The “model cookstove” became the new focus of the home, and it was one of the great “consumer status symbols of the industrial age”.

The Victorian stove was a large, unwieldy cast-iron contraption.  It had a hot-water tank for boiling; hotplates to put pots & pans on; a coal-fired oven closed with iron doors; and “complicated arrangements of flues, their temperature controlled by a register and dampers” linking all the parts together.

By the mid-1800’s, the “kitchener” was the essential object in an American or British middle-class kitchen.  And like the home, the kitchen was now centered around the stove, instead of around the fire.

At Britain’s Great Exhibition of 1851, the Improved Leamington Kitchener won first prize of all the kitcheners on display.  It used a single fire to combine roasting and baking.  A wrought-iron roaster with dripping-pan was inside, but by closing the back valves, it could be turned into a baking oven.  And it could provide the household with gallons of boiling water – for a kitchener wasn’t just for cooking, but also for warmth and hot water, and also for heating up irons.

The Leamington range was one of the first pieces of cooking equipment to become a household name in Britain.  It ended up being used to refer to closed ranges in general.  There were many other competing models, such as the Coastal Grand Pacific and the Plantress.

The fancier stoves were as much about fashion as they were about practicality.  But it wasn’t just about “keeping up” with everyone else.  Part of the reason for the stove’s popularity was the Industrial Revolution, which created a coal & iron boom, and flooded the market with cheap cast iron.  Ironmongers loved this type of stove (unlike Rumford’s brick stove) because it was made almost entirely out of iron, and so were its accessories.  And new versions were always coming out, so they were constantly selling new stoves, as people wanted the latest ones.

Back in the mid-1700’s, a new method of cast-iron production had been discovered, which used coal instead of charcoal.  John “Iron-Mad” Wilkinson’s invention of the steam engine pushed production even further.  A generation later, cast iron was everywhere.  And kitcheners also supported the coal industry, because they were almost all coal-fired (rather than wood, peat or turf).

Coal wasn’t a new fuel for kitchens.  The first “coal revolution” happened back in the mid-1500’s because of a wood shortage.  Industry expanded rapidly during the 2nd half of the 1500’s, and timber was essential for the production of glass, iron and lead.  Timber was also required for ship-building (the English were at war with the Spanish at that time).  So there was less wood for kitchens, and many converted to “sea-coal” (called that because it was brought by sea), albeit reluctantly.

In rural areas, the wood fire was still used, and the poorer folk in the city and countryside made do with whatever fuel they could find.

The switch to coal changed the way open hearths were set up.  Previously, the kitchen fire had really been a bonfire, with andirons or brandirons to stop the burning logs from rolling out onto the floor. And that was all.  It was dreadfully dangerous.

A Saxon archbishop in the 600’s AD said that “if a woman place her infant by the hearth, and the man put water in the cauldron, and it boil over and the child be scalded to death, the woman must do penance for her negligence but the man is acquitted of blame.”  The open fire was especially dangerous for toddlers, and also women, because of their clothes.  Medieval coroners’ reports show that women were more at risk for accidental death at home than anywhere else.

Kitchen fires were common, because houses were made of wood.  The Great Fire of London was caused by a kitchen fire at Pudding Lane.  The city was rebuilt with brick, and the new houses had coal-burning grates.

With coal, a container or improved barrier was needed, to stop it going everywhere.  A metal grate was used to solve the problem, called a “chamber grate” or “cole baskett”.  Now the open fires were slightly more enclosed, and a bit safer.

More kitchen equipment was needed.  A cast-iron fireback protected the wall from the fierce heat of the fire.  Fire cranes swung pots over the fire, and off it.

Firebacks (Victorian & 1300′s).

The biggest change was the chimney.  In the 2nd half of the 1500’s, more chimneys were built.  Because of the disgusting coal fumes, wider chimneys were needed to carry away the smoke.  The increased levels of smoke may have contributed to the high incidence of lung disease among the English.  It was certainly terrible for people’s health.

Back to the Victorian kitcheners.  While it was a technological improvement, it wasn’t much of an improvement in terms of practicality.  Many of the early cookstoves were poorly-constructed and gave off terrible coal fumes, unlike Rumford’s ideal stov.  A letter to The Expositor in 1853 called them “poison machines”, and spoke of three people who had recently died from the fumes.

And they were inefficient, too.  American promoters claimed that they saved 50-90% on fuel (compared to an open hearth), but a great deal of heat was wasted.  The problem with stoves being made of iron was that they weren’t insulated (again, unlike Rumford’s stove).  Lots of heat was being radiated out into the kitchen, and the cook had to deal with not only that, but also the soot and ash dust.

The kitchener certainly wasn’t labour-efficient.  In fact, it was often worse than an open hearth in this case.  Getting the fire going was just as difficult, and polishing & cleaning the range took ages. In 1912, the wife of a policeman listed her daily duties for the range (excluding the actual cooking):

  • Remove fender and fire-irons.
  • Rake out all the ashes and cinders; first throw in some damp tea-leaves to keep down the dust.
  • Sift the cinders.
  • Clean the flues.
  • Remove all grease from the stove with newspaper.
  • Polish the steels with bathbrick and paraffin.
  • Blacklead the iron parts and polish.
  • Wash the hearthstone and polish it.

The real improvement would be the gas oven.

Damn the Dark, Damn the Light

by hrrytomlinson for messofgorgeouschaos

Pairing: Harry Styles/Louis Tomlinson

Chapters: 3/3; 20k words

Tags: alternate universe - historical, alternate universe - elizabethan era, alternate universe - shakespeare, alternate universe - royalty

Summary: “Why is this face of beauty ringing so true?” The genuine confusion in Harry’s voice causes Louis’ chest to painfully twinge. “You’re a complete stranger in my eyes, William Shakespeare, but not in my heart. How is that possible?”

Louis wants to live out every romance plot he has ever written in his own life. He wants to be the protagonist of his own narrative, the hero who finds true love and gets his happy ending. Instead, Louis is stuck with only dreaming of such wild fantasies and writing them down. He can create entire romances in his dreams, yet he can never live one.

written as part of the @hlhistoricalexchange2k17

Portrait of a Lady
ca.1595 - 1605
English School


Portrait of a Lady, traditionally identified as Catherine, countess of Nottingham, but more probably one of the countess of Nottingham’s daughters.

Full length portrait shows a lady clad in black silk velvet dress embroidered with silver thread, with a pearl and diamond necklace, a ten pointed star diamond brooch and arcades of pearls in her hair, holding a fan in right hand and with roses in her left.

Christie’s, 2011

Super Long AU Compilation

Here’s a really long list of a ton of the more simple/generic AU’s I’ve seen floating around. I made this list for personal reference and figured having so many all in one place might be helpful to others, too. I tried my best to alphabetize but I can’t promise it’s entirely correct. Hope you enjoy!

#

-1920’s
-1920’s con artist
-1940’s noir
-1960’s
-3DS friends
-6 weeks to live

A

-A Walk to Remember
-Accidentally falls asleep on stranger
-Accidentally hugging stranger thinking they’re someone else
-Accidentally read their journal
-Accidentally swapped items and have to return it
-Accidentally take each other’s bags
-Action hero
-Addicts
-Adventure
-Affair
-Afterlife
-Airport
-Airport bar
-Aladdin
-Alchemists
Alice in Wonderland
-Alpha/beta/omega
-Alternate history
-Amnesia
-Ancient Egypt
-Ancient mediterraneans
-Ancient orientals
-Ancient slavs
-Android and human
-Animal
-Angel
-Antique shop
-Apocalypse
-Archaeologists
-Architect
-Around the world
-Arranged marriage
-Arthurian era
-Artist
-Assassins
-Asylum
-Author and fan

B

-Babysitter
-Back in time
-Bakery
-Band/musician
-Bank robbers
-Bar
-Barista(s)
-Battle of the bands
-Bayside
-Beach
-Beauty and the Beast
-Childhood friends reunited
-Big Brother
-Blind
-Blind date
-Boarding school
-Bonnie and Clyde
-Book club
-Bookshop
-Borrow payphone money
-Both cosplay same character at con
-Both stood up for blind dates
-Break up
-Bride Wars
-Brothel
-Bucket list
-Butler

C

-Camp counselors
-Camping
-Carnival
-Castaways
-Catfish
-Catfish uncoverer
-Celebrity
-Centaur
-Changeling
-Charmed
-Cheerleading
-Childhood companions
-Cinderella
-Circus
-Civil war (American or otherwise)
-Civilian and agent
-Clubbing
-Coffeeshop
-College
-College roommates
-Comic artist and assistant
-Conartists
-Cop/detective
-Costars in a movie
-Cowboy
-Craigslist meetup
-Crashed their car
-Crime spree
-Criminal
-Criminals on the run
-Cruel Intentions
-Cruise ship
-Cursed
-Cyber date
-Cyberpunk
-Cyborg

D

-Death race
-Demon
-Demon and angel
-Detective
-Deserted island
-Destructive relationship
-Disneyworld cosplayers
-Dinosaurs
-Disturbia
-Doctor(s)
-Doctor and patient
-Doctor Who
-Dog walker
-Domestic
-Dragon
-Dream
-Drug smugglers
-Drunk calling the wrong person
-Drunk texting a stranger
-During war

E

-Edwardian era
-Egyptologists
-Elements (earth, water, fire, air)
-Elf
-Elizabethan era
-Enchanted
-English class
-Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind
-Eternal winter
-Explorers (any time period)

F

-Fair
-Fairy
-Fairytale
-Fake family
-Faking It
-Family doctor
-Famous and fan
-Farm
-FBI
-Festival
-Fight Club
-First time
-Flower Shop
-Forbidden romance
-Foreign exchange program
-Forest
-Fortune cookie
-Fortune teller and customer
-Found their dog
-Found their phone number in a library book
-Fraternity
-Freakshow
-Friends with benefits
-Fugitive
-Futuristic
-Futuristic resistance

G

-Game of life and death
-Game of Thrones
-Game show
-Gang
-Garden
-Gardening
-Gay for pay
-Genderbend
-Genderswap
-Genie
-Gets into a cab to find someone already in it
-Gets lost at airport
-Girl/guy next door
-Ghibli movie
-Ghost Adventures
-Ghosts in love
-Go to the same support group
-Gods/demigods
-Government spy
-Greek God and Roman counterpart
-Gypsy

H

-Hair stylist/makeup artist and actor/model
-Halloween
-Halloween party
-Haunted
-Haunted house
-Have to take pictures for photography project
-Heaven vs. Hell
-Help moving
-Heroes
-Hidden talents
-High class thieves
-High School
-High School reunion
-High School teachers
-Hiking
-Hipster
-Hitchhiker
-Hitman
-Hogwarts
-Homeless
-Horseback riding
-Horror
-Host/hostess and customer
-Hostage
-Hotel staff and guest
-Hotel workers
-Huge blizzard and only one hotel room left
-Hunger Games
-Hush Hush

I

-Ice cream shop
-Identity theft
-Imaginary friend becomes real
-Immortal and non-immortal
-Immortals
-In Hell
-Indentured servant
-Internet friends
-Internship
-Island

J

-Jane Austen story
-Journalists
-Jurassic Park
-Jury
-Just keep running into each other everywhere
-Juvie

K

-Kidnapping/ransom
-Kindergarten teacher
-Kiss bet
-Kissogram
-Kitsune

L

-Lab partners
-Labyrinth
-Laundromat
-Law firm
-Librarian
-Library
-Life guard
-Little mermaid/merman
-Looking for Alaska
-Lose virginity bet
-Lost
-Lost at sea
-Love triangle

M

-Mafia
-Magic
-Maid
-Mailman and person who receives a lot of mail
-Makeover
-Marriage
-Marriage contract
-Masseuse
-Masquerade
-Mechanic
-Medieval
-Med school
-Meet in diner at 2am
-Mental hospital
-Mermaid/merman/merfolk
-Met at Comicon
-Met on Tumblr
-Met through online rpg
-Military
-Military school
-Mindreader
-Mirror world
-Mistaken identity
-Missed the same flight
-Model
-Modern royalty
-Modern Tangled
-Monster hunters
-Monsters
-Mortal Instruments
-Movie rental shop
-Movie star
-Movie theater job
-Murder mystery
-Music bar
-Music conservatory
-Music teacher
-Musician and fan
-Mythology

N

-Nanny
-Neolithic/tribal
-New guy/girl
-New Orleans
-New neighbors
-Nightmare on Elm Street
Nuclear apocalypse
-Nurse(s)
-Nurse and patient
Nursing home
-Nymph

O

-Ocean
-Office
-Once Upon a Time
-One’s blind and falls in love with the other’s voice
-On of them is turned into a child
-On opposite sides of a war - POW or spying
-Orchestra player/pianist and concertgoer
-Out walking their dog who starts chasing another person’s dog

P

-Pacific Rim
-Paired together during an ice breaker
-Pandemic apocalypse
-Paralysis
-Paramedics
-Parenting
-Park
-Partners in crime (literally)
-Partners in dance class
-Past lives
-Patients in mental hospital
-Patients in same hospital ward
-Pen pals
-Personal trainer
-Peter Pan
-Pet runs away and other person finds it
-Phantom of the Opera
-Phone sex worker
-Photographer
-Photographer and model
-Pilots
-Pirate
-Pirate and mermaid
-Pixie
-Poetry class
-Pokemon
-Police
-Porn star
-Poses nude for art students
-Pretty Little Liars
-Prisoner and guard
-Prisoners/escaped prisoners
-Private detective and client
-Private investigator
-Prohibition era
-Project partners
-Prom
-Protester and police
-Prostitute/escort
-Public demonstrations
-Punk rock

Q

R

-Ranch
-Reality TV show
-Rebels against the government
-Rebellion
-Rehab
-Reincarnation
-Restaurant
-Reunited
-Rich family and servants
-Riding the same bus
-Riding the same bus multiple times
-Rivals
-Roadtrip
-Roadtrip, serial killer
-Roller derby
-Robot
-Roommates
-Royalty and servant
-Runaway royalty and confused commoner
-Runaways
-Running late for the same flight

S

-Sailor and mercreature
-Sandman
-SAW
-Scavenger hunt
-Scifi
-Scream
-Screenwriter and director
-Sculptor
-Selkie
-Serial killer
-Servant
-Sex pact
-Sex shop
-Sex shop owner
-Sex tape
-Sex worker
-Seven deadly sins
-Shakespeare play
-Share same layover
-Sharing an umbrella
-Siblings
-Siblings best friend
-Sits next to each other at an orchestra
-Sits next to each other in theater
-Sits next to each other on turbulent flight
-Sitting by same wall plug
-Skateboarder(s)
-Skipping school
-Slayer(s)
-Sleepwalker
-Sleepwalker in college dorm
-Small town
-Snowboarder(s)
-Snowball fight, hits passerby
-Snowhite and the Huntsman
-Soldiers on opposing sides
-‘Sorry about stealing your wallet last year, no I wasn’t drunk’
-Soul mates
-Soulless
-Space pirates
-Space travel
-Spartacus -gladiators or freed slaves against the Roman army
-Specialty shop
-Spectrumswap
-Spin the bottle
-Spring break
-Stage magician and audience participant
-Stardust
-Step-siblings
-Stranded
-Steampunk
-Strip club
-Stripper
-Struggling artists
-Student and teacher
-Study abroad
-Stuffed animal becomes a person
-Sucked into a video game
-Suddenly become disabled/handicap
-Suddenly caught in the rain
-Summer job
-Summer school
-Superhero
-Supernatural
-Supernatural hunters
-Superpowers
-Surfing
-Survivor

T

-Tailor and customer
-Taken hostage at bank robbery
-Tattoos and piercings
-Tattoo parlor
-Teacher and student
-Ten Inch Hero
-Terminal illness
-The Breakfast Club
-The Labyrinth
-The one that got away
-The Princess Diaries
-The Vow
-Theme park
-Theme park mascots
-Theme park workers
-Theater
-Therapist and patient
-Therapist and patient in mental institution
-Thieves on the run
-Time traveler
-Titanic
-Tourist
-Train ride
-Translator
-Trapped in an elevator
-Trapped on a deserted island together
-Treasure hunting
-Triplets
-Tutor and student
-TV host
-Twins

U

-Undercover lovers
-Undercover stripper
-Underwear model
-Underworld -vampires vs lycans
-Use someone’s charger
-Use someone’s hotspot

V

-Vacation
-Vampire
-Veronica Mars
-Vikings
-Violinist(s)
-Virtual world

W

-Waiter(s)
-Wake up together in Vegas
-Wedding
-Werecat
-Werewolves
-What Happens in Vegas
-White House
-Wild West
-Witch trials
-Wizard AU where one accidentally apparates into the wrong house
-World War II
-Writer and editor
-Wrong bag

X

-X-factor

Y

-Yoga class
-Younger siblings are best friends

Z

-Zombie apocalypse

2

On March 24th, in 1603, Elizabeth I died at Richmond Palace between two and three in the morning after having been Queen for a total of 44 years, 127 days. She was the last ruler of the Tudor Dynasty and is still considered to be one of England’s most popular monarchs.

Throughout her life, she had infamously never married or had any children, leading to her nickname of “The Virgin Queen”. Elizabeth was succeeded on the throne by her 1st cousin twice removed, James VI of Scotland, who was the great-grandson of her father’ sister Margaret. He would rule in England as James I, becoming the first monarch of the House of Stuart.

The Procession Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I (1533-1603), painted c. 1600-1603. The artist is unknown, but it is assumed that they were Anglo-Dutch, due to the Dutch-like landscape in the background (and, let’s face it, since when have you ever seen buildings like those in the upper left background in England?!). Such portraits of processions are quite rare, especially if there is a story behind it. The story isn’t certain, but it is possible that the portrait depicts the wedding procession of Henry Somerset, Lord Herbert of Chepstow and his bride, Lady Anne Russell in June 1600, an event which Queen Elizabeth I attended.


The dress that Elizabeth is wearing in this painting is the same as the one seen in the Ditchley Portrait (painted 1592, by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger). Like most portraits of her at this time, Elizabeth is shown as a young and fair woman (despite the fact she would have been in her mid-late sixties by the end of the 16th and beginning of 17th centuries). Her youthful appearance here contrasts greatly to her appearance in the Ditchley Portrait, however. And, having stared at the Ditchley Portrait quite a lot recently, there are a few differences between the dress in that portrait and the dress here, but overall it is strikingly similar. As usual, her white dress symbolises Elizabeth’s purity and virginity, harking back to her cult of the Virgin Queen.


Elizabeth is sitting on what seems to be some sort of vehicle (perhaps a litter), pushed by three grooms dressed in red behind her. Some gentlemen (about four – some are dressed in white/silver) carry the beautifully embroidered canopy over Elizabeth’s head. Six Knights of the Garter walk ahead of the Queen, while some of Elizabeth’s ladies walk behind her. 


It is said that this portrait was painted to display the power and influence held and had by Elizabeth’s courtiers (and to an extent, Elizabeth herself). Many of the courtiers shown in this portrait can be named. [This paragraph is extremely long and only deals with who’s who in the painting. If you wish to skip ahead to the next point, you can cut out the rest of this paragraph. ;)] 

To our extreme left, the gentleman in red can be identified as Edmund Sheffield, 3rd Baron Sheffield; the gentleman beside him in silver-white (i.e. that guy standing in a sassy pose with a white beard and rosy cheeks) is the Lord Admiral, Charles Howard, Baron Howard of Effingham (a.k.a. that dude who was in charge of combating the Spanish Armada and worked with Sir Francis Drake at that time); the man in red-orange behind the Lord Admiral is George Clifford, 3rd Earl of Cumberland; George Carey, 2nd Baron Hudson is seen also (I think he’s the man with the silver sword, walking on the Lord Admiral’s left side, but I’m not super certain). The man carrying the sword of state (just in front of Elizabeth) is Gilbert Talbot, 7th Earl of Shrewsbury (a.k.a. that one who was in charge of keeping Mary, Queen of Scots in captivity for a while). The man in the middle foreground (in faded red) is supposedly Edward Somerset, 4th Earl of Worcester; while the gentleman in silver-white to Elizabeth’s left (he appears to look out of the painting at the observer) is said to be Henry Somerset, Lord Herbert of Chepstow (the Earl of Worcester’s son). His left arm directs us towards his newly-wed wife, Lady Anne Russell.


What I find amusing about this portrait is the fact that most of the men seem to be wearing the exact same pair of shoes, and I must say some of the expressions on various figures’ faces are absolutely priceless. XD (I’ll reblog with close-ups of my favourites :P)

I don’t know if you can tell in this picture of the painting or not, but there are two swans swimming on the river before the front reddish building in the upper left background. (Again, I’ll add close-ups if you can’t see - just tell me {TBH I’ll probably add them anyway.}) Also, if you look closely, Elizabeth’s right hand seems to be missing. It could be tucked underneath her stomacher/bodice, but *shrugs* idk. 


NOTE: Most of this information came from ‘Elizabeth I and Her People’

A coloring of John Dee’s Hieroglyphicon Britanicon, from the frontispiece to Rare and General Memorials, pertayning the Perfect Arte of Navigation (written in 1577 - 1578). It was designed to urge Queen Elizabeth to pursue the colonization of North America. There’s a great breakdown of the symbols Dee employed in Jim Egan’s Elizabethan America, from Cosmopolite Press. 

The image depicts a sequence of events concerning John Dee’s proposed British Empire and the colonization of North America (which Dee refers to as “Atlantis” on his maps). A common woman on her knees pleads in Greek to Queen Elizabeth (who is joined by Europa and her bull, Zeus) to “Send forth a sailing expedition,” and the banner to her left continues, “to build a steadfast watch-post.” The river depicted represents The John Dee River (which is now called Narragansett Bay), and it is occupied by five ships representing the Cinque Ports, Elizabeth’s naval force. Below the ships, new colonies prosper with trade, well guarded by watchmen to the left. 

In the skies above, YHWH is written in Hebrew, the concept represented as an emanating glory of rays distinct from the sun, moon and stars. The archangel Michael (again labeled in Hebrew) flies overhead; Egan asserts that Michael was inserted as clue towards the location of the proposed colony, as Michael’s numerical value in the Shemhamphorasch is 42, and Dee’s world map placed Rhode Island at 42 degrees latitude north of the equator, and 42 degrees longitude west of the Prime Meridian. 

Below Michael stands a statue of Lady Occasion (a British, female Caerus figure) with a laureled wreath extended towards Queen Elizabeth. She stands upon a tetrahedron, the fundamental building block of the geometer’s universe; John Dee has an especial affinity for triangles, and used the Greek letter Delta to sign his own name.

There is far more going on in his Hieroglyphic illustration; Dee was a master of riddles and puzzles. The Latin banner which accompanies the original frontispiece states: “Plura latent quam patent,” which Egan translates as “More is hidden than is out in the open.”

Hogwarts Houses as Great Historic Era
  • Gryffindor: Either Anglo-Saxon or Medieval Era. Era of Chivalry, Knighthood, Battles, Oral-epic Poems. Era of Battle: War of Roses, 100 years War, Norman Conquest, Battle of Maldon and Brunanbrugh. Time of legends like Morte d'Arthur, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and Chaucer.
  • Ravenclaw: Elizabethan or Restoration Era. Elizabethan Era for the establishment of Homocentric universe, flourishment of literature, politics and economics; Restoration Era for the Age of Reason, Industries, Scientific inventions. Eras of Shakespeare and Milton (Elizabethan) and Sir Isaac Newton and Great Satirist Alexander Pope (Restoration)
  • Hufflepuff: Regency era and Romantic era. After the French Revolution, the age of spiritual healing, era of New Poetry, 'Back to Nature', Country and Peasant literature, era of Jane Austen, William Wordsworth, Coleridge, John Keats, Ludwig van Beethoven.
  • Slytherin: Victorian and Early Modern Era. Era of consciousness, Industrialization, ambition, capitalism and exploitation, as well as the era of the Rising Middle Class, Feminism, Atheism, and the Height of Colonial Empire. Victorians are also known for the moral and ethical stricture and strict class boundaries. Era of Lord Tennyson, Darwin, Freud, Carl Jung, Thomas Hardy, and Lewis Carroll.

On 4 September 1588 Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester and favorite of Queen Elizabeth I, died at Cornbury in Oxfordshire. Previously on the 28th of August he had written to the Queen (following the defeat of the Spanish Armada) that he was doing well and that he thanked her for the medicines she sent him:
“I most humbly beseech Your Majesty to pardon your poor old servant to be thus bold in sending to know how gracious lady doth, and what ease of her late pains she finds, being the chiefest thing in this world I do pray for, for her to have good health and long life. For my own poor case, I continue still your medicine and find that it amends much better than with any other thing that hath been given me. Thus hoping to find perfect cure at the bath, with the continuance of my wanted prayer for Your Majesty’s most happy preservation, I humbly kiss your foot. From your old lodging at Rycote this Thursday morning, ready to take on my journey by Your Majesty’s most faith and obedient servant,
R. Leicester”

When Elizabeth learned of her friend’s death, she locked herself in her rooms and refused to see anyone for days. It was something very reminiscent of what her grandfather, the founder of the Tudor dynasty, had done when his wife Elizabeth of York had died of puerperal fever. The councilors were forced to intervene and remind the Queen she had a job to do. Elizabeth never fully recovered and kept the letter by her bedside to the end of her days.