elementary particle physics

List of Free Science Books

Here’s an alphabetical list of all available free books. Note that many of the links will bring you to an external page, usually with more info about the book and the download links. Also, the links are updated as frequently as possible, however some of them might be broken. Broken links are constantly being fixed. In case you want to report a broken link, or a link that violates copyrights, use the contact form


  • A Beginner’s Guide to Mathematica
  • A Brief Introduction to Particle Physics
  • A First Course in General Relativity
  • A New Astronomy
  • A No-Nonsense Introduction to General Relativity
  • A Popular History of Astronomy During the Nineteenth Century, Fourth Edition
  • A Review of General Chemistry
  • A Simple Guide to Backyard Astronomy
  • A Text Book for High School Students Studying Physics
  • A Tour of Triangle Geometry
  • About Life: Concepts in Modern Biology
  • Acoustic Emission
  • Adaptive Control
  • Advanced Calculus
  • Advanced Learning
  • Advanced Mathematics for Engineers
  • Advanced Microwave Circuits and Systems
  • Advanced Technologies
  • Advances in Computer Science and IT
  • Advances in Evolutionary Algorithms
  • Advances in Geoscience and Remote Sensing
  • Advances in Haptics
  • Advances in Human Computer Interaction
  • Age of Einstein
  • Aging by Design
  • AMPL:  A Modeling Language for Mathematical Programming
  • An Introduction to Elementary Particles
  • An Introduction to Higher Mathematics
  • An Introduction to Many Worlds in Quantum Computation
  • An Introduction to Mathematical Reasoning
  • An Introduction to Mathematics
  • An Introduction to Proofs and the Mathematical Vernacular
  • An Introduction to Relativistic Quantum Mechanics
  • Analysis 1 (Tao T)
  • Analysis 2 (Tao T)
  • Analytic Functions
  • Astronomical Discovery
  • Astronomy for Amateurs
  • Astronomy Today
  • Astronomy with an Opera-Glass
  • Automation and Robotics


  • Basic Algebra, Topology and Differential Calculus
  • Basic Concepts of Mathematics
  • Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
  • Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics Chapter 1
  • Basic Ideas in Chemistry
  • Basic Math: Quick Reference eBook
  • Basic Mathematics for Astronomy
  • Basic Physics
  • Basic Positional Astronomy
  • Basic Principles of Classical and Statistical Thermodynamics
  • Basic Principles of Physics
  • Basics of Physics
  • Beginner’s Botany
  • Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry (practice book)
  • Biology
  • Board Notes for Particle Physics
  • Book of Proof


  • Calculus
  • Calculus Based Physics
  • Celestial Navigation, Elementary Astronomy, Piloting
  • Circuit QED — Lecture Notes
  • Classical Dynamics
  • Classical Geometry
  • Classical Mechanics
  • Climate Models
  • Collaborative Statistics
  • College Algebra
  • Complex Analysis
  • Computational Geometry
  • Computational Introduction to Number Theory and Algebra
  • Computational Physics with Python
  • Conceptual Physics
  • Consistent Quantum Theory
  • Cook-Book Of Mathematics
  • College Physics
  • Crude Oil Emulsions- Composition Stability and Characterization
  • Curiosities of the Sky


  • Decoherence: Basic Concepts and Their Interpretation
  • Do We Really Understand Quantum Mechanics?
  • Differential Equations
  • Diophantine Analysis
  • Discover Physics
  • Dr. Donald Luttermoser’s Physics Notes
  • Dynamics and Relativity


  • Earthquake Research and Analysis
  • Earthquake-Resistant Structures – Design, Assessment and Rehabilitation
  • Einstein for Everyone
  • Electromagnetic Field Theory
  • Elementary Mathematical Astronomy
  • Elementary Linear Algebra
  • Elementary Particle Physics in a Nutshell
  • Elementary Particles in Physics
  • Elements of Astrophysics
  • Embedded Systems – Theory and Design Methodology
  • Encyclopaedia of Mathematics
  • Encyclopedia of Astrophysics
  • Engineering Mathematics 1
  • Engineering Mathematics with Tables
  • Essential Engineering Mathematics
  • Essential Physics
  • Exoplanet Observing for Amateurs
  • Experimental Particle Physics


  • Fields
  • Foundations of Nonstandard Analysis
  • Frequently Asked Questions about Calendars
  • Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics
  • Fundamentals of Analysis (Chen W.W.L)
  • Further Mathematical Methods
  • Fusion Physics


  • General Chemistry
  • General Relativity
  • General Relativity
  • Geometric Asymptotics
  • Geometry and Group Theory
  • Geometry and Topology
  • Geometry Formulas and Facts
  • Geometry Study Guide
  • Geometry, Topology and Physics
  • Geometry, Topology, Localization and Galois Symmetry
  • Great Astronomers


  • Handbook of Formulae and Physical Constants
  • High School Mathematics Extensions
  • Higher Mathematics for Engineers and Physicists
  • History of Astronomy
  • Homeomorphisms in Analysis
  • How to Use Experimental Data to Compute the Probability of Your Theory


  • Intelligent Systems
  • Intrinsic Geometry of Surfaces
  • Introduction to Astronomy and Cosmology
  • Introduction to Cancer Biology
  • Introduction to Chemistry
  • Introduction to Cosmology
  • Introduction to Elementary Particles
  • Introduction to General Relativity
  • Introduction To Finite Mathematics
  • Introduction to Particle Physics Notes
  • Introduction to PID Controllers
  • Introduction to Quantum Mechanics with Applications to Chemistry
  • Introduction to Quantum Noise, Measurement and Amplification
  • Introduction to Social Network Methods
  • Introduction to String Field Theory
  • Introduction to the Time Evolution of Open Quantum Systems
  • Introduction to Quantum Mechanics
  • Introductory Computational Physics
  • Introductory Physics 1
  • Introductory Physics 2


  • Kinetic Theory


  • Laboratory Manual for Introductory Physics
  • Laws of Physics
  • Learn Physics Today
  • Lecture Notes in Discrete Mathematics
  • Lecture Notes in Quantum Mechanics
  • Lecture Notes in Nuclear and Particle Physics
  • Lecture Notes in Particle Physics
  • Lecture Notes on General Relativity
  • Lectures on Astronomy, Astrophysics, and Cosmology
  • Lectures on Particle Physics
  • Lectures on Riemann Zeta-Function
  • Light and Matter


  • Mag 7 Star Atlas Project
  • Many Particle Physics
  • Math Alive
  • Mathematical Analysis I(Zakon E)
  • Mathematical Biology
  • Mathematical Methods
  • Mathematical Methods 1
  • Mathematical Methods for Physical Sciences
  • Mathematical Methods of Engineering Analysis
  • Mathematics, Basic Math and Algebra
  • Mathematics for Computer Science
  • Mathematics for Computer Science
  • Mathematics for Computer Scientists
  • Mathematics For Engineering Students
  • Mathematics Formulary
  • Motion Mountain
  • Music: A Mathematical Offering
  • Mysteries of the Sun


  • Natural Disasters
  • New Frontiers in Graph Theory
  • Noise Control, Reduction and Cancellation Solutions in Engineering
  • Nondestructive Testing Methods and New Applications
  • Nonlinear Optics
  • Notes on Coarse Geometry
  • Notes on Elementary Particle Physics
  • Notes on Quantum Mechanics


  • Observing the Sky from 30S
  • On Particle Physics
  • Operating Systems: Three Easy Pieces


  • Particle Physics Course Univ. Cape Town
  • Particle Physics Lecture Notes
  • People’s Physics Book
  • Perspectives in Quantum Physics: Epistemological, Ontological and Pedagogical
  • Photons, Schmotons
  • Physics Lectures
  • Physics Tutorials
  • Physics Study Guides
  • Pioneers of Science
  • Practical Astronomy
  • Practical Astronomy for Engineers
  • Preparing for College Physics
  • Primer Of Celestial Navigation
  • Principal Component Analysis – Multidisciplinary Applications
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Volume 1


  • Quantum Dissipative Systems
  • Quantum Field Theory
  • Quantum Fluctuations
  • Quantum Information Theory
  • Quantum Magnetism
  • Quantum Mechanics
  • Quantum Mechanics
  • Quantum Mechanics: A Graduate Course
  • Quantum Mechanics: An Intermediate Level Course
  • Quantum Notes
  • Quantum Physics Notes
  • Quantum Theory of Many-Particle Systems
  • Quantum Transients


  • Recreations in Astronomy
  • Relativistic Quantum Dynamics
  • Relativity: The Special and General Theory
  • Review of Basic Mathematics
  • Riemann Surfaces, Dynamics and Geometry Course Notes


  • Short History of Astronomy
  • Sintering of Ceramics – New Emerging Techniques
  • Solitons
  • Some Basic Principles from Astronomy
  • Special Relativity
  • Spherical Astronomy
  • Star-Gazer’s Hand-Book
  • Statistical Physics
  • Street-Fighting Mathematics
  • String Theory
  • Structures of Life
  • Supernova Remnants: The X-ray Perspective
  • Superspace: One Thousand and One Lessons in Supersymmetry
  • System of Systems


  • The Astrobiology Primer: An Outline of General Knowledge
  • The Astronomy and the Bible
  • The Astronomy of the Bible: An Elementary Commentary on the Astronomical References of Holy Scripture
  • The Basic Paradoxes of Statistical Classical Physics and Quantum Mechanics
  • The Beginning and the End
  • The Beginning and the End of the Universe
  • The Complete Idiot’s Guide to the Sun
  • The Convenient Setting of Global Analysis
  • The Eightfold Way: The Beauty of Klein’s Quartic Curve
  • The General Theory of Relativity
  • The Geology of Terrestrial Planets
  • The Geometry of the Sphere
  • The Handbook of Essential Mathematics
  • The Moon: A Full Description and Map of its Principal Physical Features
  • The Open Agenda
  • The Origin of Mass in Particle Physics
  • The Particle Detector Brief Book
  • The Physics Hypertextbook
  • The Physics of Quantum Mechanics
  • The Planet Mars
  • The Small n Problem in High Energy Physics
  • The Story of Eclipses
  • The Story of the Heavens
  • The Structure of Life
  • The Wonder Book of Knowledge
  • The World According to the Hubble Space Telescope
  • The Zij as-Sanjari of Gregory Chioniades (June 27, 2009)
  • Three Dimensional Geometry


  • Understanding Physics
  • Unfolding the Labyrinth
  • Utility of Quaternions in Physics
  • Uses of Astronomy

Girls&WomenToKnow: The Honorable Shirley Ann Jackson 

Dr Jackson is the 18th president of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, the oldest technological research university in the United States. A theoretical physicist, inventor,as-well as the highest paid college president in the country!! Dr. Jackson has had a distinguished career that includes senior leadership positions in academia, government, industry, and research. Jackson has been a trailblazer throughout her career, including as the first African-American woman to lead a top-ranked research university.

Education: Dr Jackson holds an S.B in Physics  and a Ph.D. in Theoretical Elementary Particle Physics–both from Massachusetts Institute of Technonlogy.

Awards/Recognition/Achievements: Aside from being the highest paid college president in the country!

  • Dr Jackson is the first African-American woman to earn a Doctorate at MIT.
  • The second African American woman in the United States to earn a doctorate in physics
  • the first African-American woman to lead a top-ranked research university.
  • Dr. Jackson has been awarded 52 honorary doctoral degrees.
  • Dr. Jackson was one of four honorees inducted in 2014 into the U.S. News STEM Leadership Hall of Fame. 
  •  In 2014, Dr. Jackson also was inducted into the Tech Valley Business Hall of Fame.
  • In 2010, Dr. Jackson was honored by Black Enterprise Magazine with its Women of Power Legacy Award.
  • Dr. Jackson also received the 2009 Dr. John Hope Franklin Award from Diverse Issues Magazine.
  • “top 50 women in science” by Discover Magazine
  • ESSENCE Magazine book 50 of The Most Inspiring African-Americans.
  • In 2000, Dr. Jackson was awarded the Golden Torch Award for Lifetime Achievement in Academia by the National Society of Black Engineers
  • In 2013, the board of trustees of the New Jersey Inventors Hall of Fame (NJIHoF) bestowed the prestigious NJIHoF Trustees Award upon Dr. Jackson. The award is given to “someone who truly values and stimulates the inventive and innovative processes, who strives to ensure that all Americans, including students, are inspired and prepared to meet many of the challenges of tomorrow, and whose actions over many years have demonstrated that commitment.”
  • Dr. Jackson received the inaugural America Competes Award for Public Service in 2012, given by the U.S. Council on Competitiveness to “a leader who has worked tirelessly to improve the quality of life in America and abroad, through public service and private sector outreach, and to those who show an extraordinary commitment to excellence and the American spirit.”
  • In 2011, the American Association for the Advancement of Science honored Dr. Jackson with its prestigious Philip Hauge Abelson Award. This award is given annually to a public servant who has made sustained exceptional contributions to the advancement of science, or to a scientist whose career has been distinguished both for scientific achievement and for other notable services to the scientific community. 
  • In 2009, she received the Bouchet Leadership Award Medal from the Yale University Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, a national award given to leaders in academia who are outstanding in their fields of study and have played an important role in diversifying higher education.


We have reversed the usual classical notion that the independent “elementary parts” of the world are the fundamental reality, and that the various systems are merely particular contingent forms and arrangements of these parts. Rather, we say that inseparable quantum interconnectedness of the whole universe is the fundamental reality, and that relatively independent behaving parts are merely particular and contingent forms within this whole.
—  David Bohm



CERN です!! (日本語で言うと欧州原子核研究機構です 長っ)


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なんと素粒子を衝突させるためののパイプです! (

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The first place I went to upon arrival in Geneva was CERN!!!! I’m a huge physics nerd (I was originally a physics major) so I was super duper excited!! 

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The first photo is inside the newly build “Globe,” which holds an aesthetically beautiful, futuristic exhibition

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The second is underground with the pipes that holds protons whizzing past at 99% the speed of light!!! Just kidding, we can’t go down into the actual laboratory 

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so this is just a model of some pipes they have.



E8理論(E8宇宙論) - E8 Theory


The Higgs Paradox: A Phenomenal Finding Leads To Many More Questions

by Michael Keller

Finding the Higgs boson, a breakthrough in fundamental science that in 2012-2013 revealed an elementary reality about how the universe works, has highlighted how much more physics needs to be done.

Discovering the Higgs boson plugs a large hole in the standard model, the highly tested theory that shows all matter is made of a number of elementary particles that interact through four fundamental forces–strong, weak, electromagnetic and gravitational forces. Together, these comprise everything we currently understand about matter.

“The standard model provides a consistent explanation of the subatomic world,” said Jonathan Bagger, a high-energy physicist who is the incoming director of Canada’s national laboratory for particle and nuclear physics. “The Higgs boson is at the center of the model. It’s the linchpin. But there’s plenty of the universe that the standard model doesn’t address.”

Keep reading


In this video, Nobel laureate François Englert explains the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism. Even though this is only a few minutes long, Englert is able to briefly show, through an equation, how a gauge field was able to gain mass and in turn, give mass to all elementary particles.