Diving into New Magnetic Territory with the MMS Mission

Our Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission, or MMS, is on a journey to study a new region of space.  

On May 4, 2017, after three months of precisely coordinated maneuvers, MMS reached its new orbit to begin studying the magnetic environment on the ever-rotating nighttime side of Earth.

The space around Earth is not as empty as it looks. It’s packed with high energy electrons and ions that zoom along magnetic field lines and surf along waves created by electric and magnetic fields.  

MMS studies how these particles move in order to understand a process known as magnetic reconnection, which occurs when magnetic fields explosively collide and re-align.

After launch, MMS started exploring the magnetic environment on the side of Earth closest to the sun. Now, MMS has been boosted into a new orbit that tops out twice as high as before, at over 98,000 miles above Earth’s surface.

The new orbit will allow the spacecraft to study magnetic reconnection on the night side of Earth, where the process is thought to cause the northern and southern lights and energize particles that fill the radiation belts, a doughnut-shaped region of trapped particles surrounding Earth.  

MMS uses four separate but identical spacecraft, which fly in a tight pyramid formation known as a tetrahedron. This allows MMS to map the magnetic environment in three dimensions.

MMS made many discoveries during its first two years in space, and its new orbit will open the door to even more. The information scientists get from MMS will help us better understand our space environment, which helps in planning future missions to explore even further beyond our planet. Learn more about MMS at nasa.gov/mms.

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Requested by @catsupy

Here at the Scientific Pokedex, we like dealing with scientifically-proven facts. Here is one such fact for you: Cutiefly is flippin’ adorable.

This is one of those rare pokémon that’s straight-up ripped off from our world. Cutiefly is the “Bee Fly” pokémon, and Bee Flies are the Bombyliidae family in our world:

Bee Flies are in fact flies, not bees. They are also fuzzy and adorable. Like bees, they feed on nectar and pollen. Looking like a bee works to their advantage: bee flies will infiltrate bee nests, eating the bee’s hard-earned storage of nectar and honey. They also eat the bee’s eggs, replacing them with their own bee fly eggs for the bee mom to raise unsuspectingly. 

The pokédex states that Cutiefly can “sense auras” of flowers, and because of that can they tell which flowers are about to bloom. Usually when a pokédex entry mentions the word “aura”, things start to slip scientifically. In Cutiefly’s instance, this is not the case at all: real bees (and bee flies) have special eyes that show them a lot more about flowers than we can see.

Human eyes, as you might know, can only detect a small wavelength range of light. All other kinds of light–infrared, radio, microwave, x-ray etc. – are invisible to us. This is not the case for bees (and bee flies): A bee’s eye can see a different wavelength range than us, and therefore they can see more “colors”. Specifically, they can see farther into the ultraviolet:

Flowers are colorful enough as they are to us, but it turns out flowers are even more colorful in the ultraviolet. Specifically, flowers “light up” close to the center: basically a big neon sign saying “the nectar is right here!” for creatures that can see it. Here’s a few examples of what flowers might look like to Cutiefly:

Beyond this, bees can also sense electric fields. Pollen has a slight negative charge to it which creates an electric field, so when a flower has a lot of pollen it will light up even more on a bee’s radar. A flower has a lot of pollen when it is in full bloom and hasn’t been visited by a bee yet. With this, bees can “sense” when a flower is in its prime, just as Cutiefly’s pokédex entry suggests.

Cutiefly is a Bee Fly, with special eyes that can see ultraviolet light. Because of this, Cutiefly can sense when a flower is rich in nectar and pollen.

Sounding Rocket Science in the Arctic

We sent three suborbital sounding rockets right into the auroras above Alaska on the evening of March 1 local time from the Poker Flat Research Range north of Fairbanks, Alaska.  

Sounding rockets are suborbital rockets that fly up in an arc and immediately come back down, with a total flight time around 20 minutes. 

Though these rockets don’t fly fast enough to get into orbit around Earth, they still give us valuable information about the sun, space, and even Earth itself. Sounding rockets’ low-cost access to space is also ideal for testing instruments for future satellite missions.

Sounding rockets fly above most of Earth’s atmosphere, allowing them to see certain types of light – like extreme ultraviolet and X-rays – that don’t make it all the way to the ground because they are absorbed by the atmosphere. These kinds of light give us a unique view of the sun and processes in space.

The sun seen in extreme ultraviolet light by the Solar Dynamics Observatory satellite.

Of these three rockets, two were part of the Neutral Jets in Auroral Arcs mission, collecting data on winds influenced by the electric fields related to auroras. Sounding rockets are the perfect vehicle for this type of study, since they can fly directly through auroras – which exist in a region of Earth’s upper atmosphere too high for scientific balloons, but too low for satellites.

The third rocket that launched on March 1 was part of the ISINGLASS mission (short for Ionospheric Structuring: In Situ and Ground-based Low Altitude Studies). ISINGLASS included two rockets designed to launch into two different types of auroras in order to collect detailed data on their structure, with the hope of better understanding the processes that create auroras. The initial ISINGLASS rocket launched a few weeks earlier, on Feb. 22, also from the Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska.

Auroras are caused when charged particles trapped in Earth’s vast magnetic field are sent raining down into the atmosphere, usually triggered by events on the sun that propagate out into space. 

Team members at the range had to wait until conditions were just right until they could launch – including winds, weather, and science conditions. Since these rockets were studying aurora, that means they had to wait until the sky was lit up with the Northern Lights.

Regions near the North and South Pole are best for studying the aurora, because the shape of Earth’s magnetic field naturally funnels aurora-causing particles near the poles. 

But launching sensitive instruments near the Arctic Circle in the winter has its own unique challenges. For example, rockets have to be insulated with foam or blankets every time they’re taken outside – including while on the launch pad – because of the extremely low temperatures.

For more information on sounding rockets, visit www.nasa.gov/soundingrockets.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com

Requested by @robo-dactyl and @electronicallyinclined

Yesterday we covered Grubbin and Charjabug, so it is only natural that we complete the family today with Vikavolt. Vikavolt is a stag beetle, specifically based on a member of the genus Cyclommatus, known for their long mandibles and metallic bodies.

A stag beetle’s large mandibles are used as weapons. They fight over food, territory, and mates. When they wrestle, they pick each other up with their pincers to flip their opponent vulnerably onto the back, or off the branch altogether.

Vikavolt is…different. Its mandibles are definitely used as a weapon, except they are a projectile weapon. An electric railgun.

A railgun is a projectile launcher that is made of two conducting arms, called rails. Vikavolt’s mandibles are the rails. Electric current flows inwards through one rail and outwards through the other, creating a “U” shape of current. Since moving electricity creates a magnetic field, a strong one grows in between the two rails and this magnetic field is a pushing force for whatever conductive material you want to shoot out. In Vikavolt’s case above, it shoots out a plasma ball. Plasma railguns are typically require a vacuum to be efficient, but the principal is still the same.

Railguns are able to fire projectiles with huge speeds up to 2,500 m/s (8,200 ft/s), which is about 7 times the speed of sound.

Vikavolt’s mandibles act as a railgun. Electric energy flows inwards in one mandible, and outwards in the other. This creates a strong magnetic field in the center, which propels projectiles at high speeds towards its enemies.

Cybertronian Vocab List For Beginners

I was making my friend a “cheat sheet” of Cybertronian vocabulary and…things got way out of hand. Maybe it can benefit someone here too? It’s not an all-inclusive list and some parts are probably inaccurate or just my personal opinion. I tried to keep it open to interpretation, because honestly that’s my favourite thing about the TF fandom. Seeing all different takes on Cybertronian biology and culture is the best!

Welcome to the fandom, here’s your information brochure:

-  aft -  butts

-  audial, audio receptor - ear

-  berth, recharge slab - bed, a place to recharge

-  bond - marry. Involves  "spark merging" and possibly a ceremony, or at least personal vows of devotion.

-  cables - muscles. Sometimes refers to an interface cable.

-  calipers - (look up a diagram) a channel of internal “muscles” inside of intakes and valves.

-  chassis - main body, torso

-  CPU - attention span, memory capacity

- coolant - runs through fuel lines (or something?) to reduce overheating. -  cooling fans activate when flustered, like blushing. Used to expel excess heat from the frame and moderate internal temperature.

-  circuits/circuitry - circulatory or cardiovascular system

-  communication link (“comm link” or “comm”) - wireless communications system in which mechs choose a specific radio frequency and use it like a phone line. Can be privately or inclusively broadcasted.

-  cord - a cable with a jack at the end, used for interfacing.

-  digit - finger

-  dentae -  teeth

-  derma, dermal plating - skin, outer armor

-  electromagnetic field (EM field) - (definitely research this, its cool stuff!) An aura. Simply put, it’s the charged particles (electrons) surrounding an object which conducts electricity. When different EM fields come into contact, they slightly alter each other, causing interference of sorts. Using your imagination, you can presume Cybertronians use fields to communicate. Different levels, intensities, amount of charge etc are likely associated with different moods and emotions. EM fields likely expand and contract depending on social and emotional situations. They are essentially someone’s “bubble.” One can feel disturbances in the air around them if another mech brushes against or stands in their field. In a way they are like whiskers, judging spacial awareness and reading energy currents/air currents. It’s fun to make them into a method of emotional communication akin to body language.

-  engine - will rev when excited. Can also growl when angry, sputter when exasperated, etc.

-  frag - v. or n. (opposite of “defragment”) Crude word for “interface.” Also an interjection.

-  frame - whole body

-  frame type - overall shape and style of the Cybertronian’s model. Examples include jet, race car, truck, helicopter, etc

-  fuel pump -  Pumps fuel throughout the body the same way a heart circulates blood.

-  glossa - tongue

-  helm - head

- host/carrier - a frame type which relies on a symbiotic relationship to other mechs (i.e, Soundwave and Blaster).

-  intake, fuel intake - throat

-  interface - v. Two or more mechanisms connecting either physically or mentally, in a manner that is generally perceived to be sexual. (Depends on personal interpretation!)

There are 3 main categories for interfacing, “sticky,”  "plug n’ play,“ and "tactile”.

Sticky interface uses concepts analogous to human anatomy (spike, valve, fluids)

Plug n’ play focuses on a cord/port connection, along with the transfer of energy, files, emotions, and memories.

Tactile interface focuses on physical (and sometimes electrical) touch

Personal suggestion: combine all three!

Colloquial terms for interface include: jack in, plug in, link up, fileshare.

-  interface housing - an area of the body (your choice!) that houses interface equipment, be it cables/ports or spikes/valves). Generally the equipment is kept safe behind separate panels (one for spike/cord, one for valve/port)

-  olfactory sensors, chemoreceptors/chemosensors - sense of smell. Detects chemical stimuli in the environment.

-  optics/optical sensors - eyes

-  offline - unconscious, asleep. Sometimes means “dead.” (I don’t use it that way).

-  online  - conscious, awake, alive.

-  oral cavity, oral component - mouth

-  oral lubricant - saliva

-  overheating - body becomes uncomfortably warm, possibly to a harmful degree. Causes of overheating include embarrassment, anger, arousal, etc

-  overload - the climax of interfacing (orgasm), achieved by excessive electrical charge within the frame. May involve shorted circuits, being knocked offline, systems crashing, blacking out, temporarily shutting down, rebooting in some form.

-  panel, interface panel, interface hatch/manual hatch - the panel behind which lies the interface equipment. May be automatically or manually operated (or both!)

-  pede - foot, leg

-  port - receptive end for an interface cable.

-  processor - brain

-  recharge  - sleep

-  sealed/factory sealed - Essentially a virgin. One who retains the protective seals over their interface equipment they were constructed with. Most will agree that seals should be medically removed, but some mechs romanticize “breaking their lover’s seals.”

-  sensory input modules - nerves (things that relay information to the processor)

-  slag - basically “shit”.

-  spark - heart/soul/lifeforce. Located in the chest.

-  spark merging - a profusely intimate act in which mechs open their chest compartments, revealing their sparks, and press together until the sparks resonate at the same frequency, pulse in synchronicity, etc. Likely this leads to overloading. Generally spark merging is an act reserved for bonded mechs, as it involves one to expose themselves to absolute vulnerability.

-  spike - phallus component utilized in sexual interface. Upon arousal, spikes will “come online” by heating up, extending from interface housing, stiffen by means of magnetism or hydraulics (probably?), and likely will self-lubricate. Connecting to a valve forms a circuit between mechs and energy can be shared in a feedback loop. Thrusting in-and-out movements stimulate internal tactile and electrical sensors, accumulating electrical charge.  

- struts/spinal struts - back

-  symbiote/symbiont - a mech smaller than a mini which lives on or inside its designated host/carrier mech. (i.e., the cassetticons)

-  valve - interface equipment resembling a vagina. Internal components include calipers, a ceiling node, various tactile sensory nodes, various electrical nodes. Outer components include a rim and at least one external node resembling a clitoris. Valves will “come online” and start to heat and self-lubricate upon arousal.

-  ventilation - breathing

When in doubt, look up car/plane diagrams, read other people’s fanfiction, or make stuff up! 8D Alien robots, yeah!!

anonymous asked:

Oh please let me send you a request :) I thought about something where the Reader is also an avenger (maybe something with electrical powers) and during one Mission in a fight against Hydra, you get attacked and thrown in a nearby lake while saving Bucky. You nearly drown and also cause of your powers you get into some shock. The others almost realize it too late but Buck Comes after you to save you. You have to be revived but you survive and Bucky finally tells you that he loves you ? :)

Pairing: Bucky Barnes x Reader
Fandom: MCU
Warnings: swearing, near-death experience

A/N: thank you so much for this amazing request my dear! I always love writing avenger!reader stuff!


“Bucky, (Y/N), you take the woods behind the building. There should only be a few agents scattered around there, so you should be able to handle it on your own,” you and Bucky both nodded and went ahead before the mission briefing was over.

Bucky walked a few steps in front of you, while you put your hair up in a ponytail to get them out of the way, then you caught up with him.

“Hey, uhm.. can we talk about.. you know.. what happened last night?” you asked, a little unsure about bringing up the topic.

“You want to talk about this now? While we’re about to take down Hydra?”

“Well.. yeah, actually.”

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Kirlian photography refers to a form of contact print photography, theoretically associated with high-voltage. It is named after Semyon Kirlian, who in 1939 accidentally discovered that if an object on a photographic plate is subjected to a strong electric field, an image is created on the plate.

In controversial metaphysical contexts, Kirlian photography, Kirlian energy, and so on, are sometimes referred to as just ‘Kirlian’. Kirlian made controversial claims that his method showed proof of supernatural auras, said to resemble a rough outline of the object like a colorful halo.

Kirlian proposed and promoted the idea that the resulting images of living objects were a physical proof of the life force or aura which allegedly surrounds all living beings. This claim was said to be supported by experiments by the Kirlians that involved cutting part of a leaf off - the Kirlian images of such leaves, it was said, still showed the leaves as whole, as though the cutting had never happened.

Kaminari Headcanons

  • He honestly has a real hoarding problem and his dorm room doesn’t even show half of it - he needs an intervention.
  • He always smells slightly of metal. Something to do with the electricity reacting with the iron in his blood.
  • Actually really insecure about people insulting his intelligence and takes it really personally (also would like to remind you that they go to one of the top hero schools where part of the exam was a written test so he can’t be that stupid and bottom of the class at UA wouldn’t be bad in other schools)
  • Loves watching terrible reality TV shows and no one can change the channel because he uses his quirk to either change it back or break the remote. 
  • Serial oversharer and immediately regrets it afterwards.
  • Somehow he manages to overshare about silly things though and not many people (only really the bakusquad and even then they don’t really know a lot) know about his personal life/issues. Even when he slips up and reveals personal information he doesn’t really feel like anyone at UA understands him, yet.
  • Gets sensory overload and usually wears headphones to block out extra sound that distracts or is overwhelming to him.
  • Stays up late and will not get up before 12pm the next day, usually dragged into school by Kirishima or Iida. 
  • Discharges electricity when he sneezes.
  • Has his own bathroom schedule in the dorms because once he sneezed while he was in the shower and zapped like 7 people. 
  • Wears reading glasses and likes all the dorky things about literature like random facts about authors interacting, the smell of old books and the feel of paper although he usually reads e-books. 
  • Chaotic bi and has about a million crushes at once. 
  • Loves storms and will sit on the roof while it rains to become like a lightning rod, sometimes he hangs out with Tsuyu too and warns her if the electrical fields are too dangerous for her to be out there with him. 
  • His friends mean the world to him especially Kirishima, Jirou and Bakugou and he will fight you if you say anything bad about them (snarky comments about Bakugou are only okay when he does it) he’s scarily protective and strong when it comes to them. 

Summary: Hi could I have a prompt for Derek Hale numbers 31 and 51? Of course that is if you’re writing them.

Characters: Reader, Derek Hale, McCall Pack

Fandom: Teen Wolf

Word Count: 578

Requested: Anon

31: “You love me, but I don’t love you. I’m sorry.”

51: “I fucking love you.”

AN: She jumps of the ledge of the loft, no she doesn’t die but I should put this out there for reasons unknown…. 

Originally posted by artofvizuals

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North Jersey Gothic

-There’s an abandoned gas station on every corner. Your dad says he used to work there. Your dad says that was there since he was your age. The building disappears from view. You can’t remember what street you were on. There’s an abandoned gas station on every corner. Your dad is your age. Your dad works there.

-The deli worker near your house knows your mom but she doesn’t know his name. She calls him Vinny today. Maybe he’s a cousin. Tomorrow they call him Tony. On Fridays, before they close at 4:30 pm, he unzips his head and reveals that he’s actually Danny Devito.

-Winters are slush, and grey like car exhaust. The only memory of summer are the seagulls in the Kmart parking lot. The empty carts on the sidewalk wave to you on your way in. They’re jealous and run into your car as the seagulls burn their feathers and turn to crows.

-There’s a 7/11 across the street. You walk out of your room and step into the store. You don’t remember how you got there. The bell dings and the people inside open their mouths. Flies pour out. You blink and the flies are gone. No one looks. Their eyes are glued to their cup that they’re filling with coffee. It overflows. They don’t mind. You grab a slurpee, the machines groan and ask if you’re buying a lottery ticket too. You pay, walk out, and it’s midnight.

-You stumble into a diner at 11 am. Everyone in there has twelve eyes. The Taylor ham sandwich that they ordered eight days ago grew mold. The waitress looks normal. She says that there’s a booth in the corner that Tony Soprano sat in. She has a tattoo on her arm of her dead aunt. Her eyes don’t leave yours.

-There’s a town an hour away that sells vintage clothes. The highway rolls you up and eats you. When you get to the belly, there’s a boy who has no mouth. There’s a man who sells antiques and every item is $1,000. You’re laying on your living room floor, legs vibrating.

-The Welcome to New Jersey sign is a cryptid among itself. It flies away before anyone else can see. You can never leave. New York City is just a name. The skyline disappears and there’s only one street leading back home. Chris Christie appears on your tv, staticky like a phantom. He says the jersey devil is taking his place. You hear cheering from your window.

-Cherry Blossoms fly through the air in spring. They are also a cryptid. They fly down your throat and tell you that you are too beautiful to live. They turn you inside out and the weather drops down to 35 degrees the next day. The local paper reads, Cherry Blossoms Drop Dead In Local NJ Town.

-There’s a field of electrical towers littered with beer cans that wink at you from the grass. You see empty sunflower seeds on the concrete. You name them. They sit next to you everyday from now on. You see them next winter. They don’t want to talk today.

-There’s a new Walgreens on every corner. You remember when that used to be a DrugFair when you were young. You’re turning into your dad.

-The boardwalk smells like burnt hamburger chars and hard cotton candy that’s been out since last year. Flies dig underneath your skin in the heat. There’s a sign that’s being carried through the air by a plane. It says, You Can Never Leave, Visit The Shrimp Box.


If you put that ball on that machine while it wasn’t spinning, it would just roll straight down the lower sides. 

The raised edges would keep it in the middle line, but it’s only controlled in one direction. By spinning it, you constantly alternate the position of the tall sides, meaning that the ball is held in the middle, never able to fall off.

Particle accelerators control particles in the same way. Magnetic or electric fields can only direct particles in one plane at a time, so to keep a beam of particles rushing down a particle accelerator in one focused stream, the current gradient must constantly oscillate. This means the particles are constantly held in place, never able to shoot off in one direction.

Here’s the same principle in action: these are tiny pollen grains being held in place by an oscillating field. Rods in the four corners of the beam establish a field that oscillates many times a second to keep the pollen trapped. If it didn’t constantly switch, the pollen would all fly off in one direction.

Watch the full film with Dr Suzie Sheehy for more.

Fun Fact: The human body gives off an electromagnetic field.  No, seriously, all communication within the body and within the cell itself uses electricity. The field exists due to short-lived electrical events called action potentials which occur in several types of animal cells which are called “excitable” cells, a category of cell which includes neurons, muscle cells, and endocrine cells.

Bonus Fact: The human body also gives off light in the form of energy called biophotons. This energy is not heat energy; rather, the emission of biophotons is technically a type of bioluminescence such as certain sea creatures possess. Yes, we literally glow in the dark.

[42] So today I didn’t get much done - did some electric fields revision though. I did plan to do more, but I went to donate blood for the first time today (I’d worked myself up about it, but honestly, it’s so so easy and not that painful at all!) and am currently feeling a bit dizzy, so having a nice peaceful evening :)


Politicizing Science Is Nothing New: It Happened To Ben Franklin

“But the “point effect” is more subtle. When there’s an electric field gradient, charges pool at the edge of a conductor. At a point, the charges reach a higher density than under any other conditions. More than perhaps two inches (5 cm) away from the tip of such a rod, the electric field around the top of the building becomes more dissipated. As a result, if there are many tall buildings around with lightning rods on them, lightning will be more likely to strike the ones without a pointed tip. The rod itself is more protection for a building if it does get struck by lightning, but the tip makes it less likely the building will be struck if there’s a better source around.”

You’ll often hear charges that science has become too politicized, but it’s the other way around. Science is our best way of drawing conclusions about the natural world, including how natural and human-caused phenomena work and interact together. When politics, biases, agendas or predispositions get in the way, however, they can derail actual knowledge and cause us to live in an inferior fashion. This isn’t new to modern times, but goes back at least hundreds of years, to Ben Franklin. Franklin, who invented the lightning rod, came up with the design that would save countless buildings from fire once that rod was applied. Yet the inability of many dogmatic people – including King George III of England – to accept the reality of the science led to a huge number of disasters and fires, many of which revisionist historians still try and cover up today.

The science doesn’t lie, and the safety and efficacy of modern, properly-implemented lightning rods is proof of that. But the story of how science was politicized way back in the 1700s is something we can all learn from.

Use of the E-collar while Training my Falconry Dog

I had someone ask me about how I use e-collars in my training. I don’t mention the e-collar much because I know a lot of people are against them and, if not explained correctly, they can be interpreted badly. I always prefer positive reinforcement training when possible, but I make an exception for e-collars with my hunting dog because I think it is a very important asset for both functionality in the field and safety for the dog.

If you don’t want to read this whole thing, then here’s a quick summary: I don’t the e-collar as a tool to teach behaviors, only to enforce already known behaviors that have been taught through positive reinforcement. I primarily use the tone and vibrate features of the e-collar as a form of communication with my dog when she is working the field and out of easy ear-shot. In addition to helping me maintain tighter control over my dog, the e-collar is also a valuable safety precaution to keep her away from dangers we might encounter while hunting.

If you’re curious about learning more, I go into more detail on each of those points below.

The e-collar I use is a Garmin TriTronics Pro 550. It’s a fairly high-end collar with a tone setting, vibrate setting, and 21 different electric stimulation levels. Having so many different levels allows each trainer to match the proper stimulation level for each individual dog. You generally want it to be just strong enough for the dog to notice it and want to avoid it, but not strong enough to actually hurt the dog. You can tell it’s too strong if the dog shows signs of pain, such as yelping or jumping, and you can tell when the dog first starts to notice it by a slight change in facial expression, like a confused look (lips moving forward, a pause in what they’re doing, etc). Generally the best setting will be somewhere in between those two reactions.

Some people use e-collars to train new behaviors through negative reinforcement (removing an unwanted stimulus when the animal performs a desired behavior). It is not the same as punishment (providing an unwanted stimulus after an animal performs an undesirable behavior). A common example of negative reinforcement would be steering a horse by pulling the reigns in a certain direction until the horse moves that way to relieve the pressure. In the dog training videos I watched, they trained a dog to “woah” by providing light electrical stimulation (just strong enough to slightly annoy or confuse the dog, but not enough to hurt) each time the dog started to move after being told to “woah”. This eventually taught the dog to stay still when the cue was given in order to avoid an annoying sensation. They would also supplement with treats when the dog performed correctly on its own.

While I don’t find negative reinforcement training to be cruel, it isn’t my preferred method. I prefer to teach with positive reinforcement, which is rewarding the animal with something it wants each time the desired behavior is performed. I taught Malia to “woah” by placing food in front of her, then putting my hand on her chest and saying “woah,” stopping her from getting to the food. As soon as she would stop trying to move forward, I would click, say “ok” and scoot the bowl forward to let her eat. I would then start moving my hand away for a couple seconds but continue telling her to “woah” before letting her eat. If she tried to move forward before I said “ok,” I would just lightly block her and start again. Once she learned that “woah” meant “stay still until I say “ok,” I started offering the cue outside in other situations. Each time she offered the correct response, she’d get a treat. Each time she didn’t, we’d stop, I’d move her back into positon, and we’d try again. All positive, no negative at all.

I used positive reinforcement techniques to teach her all her field cues. I focused mostly on “come,” “woah,” “down,” “heel,” “get in there,” and “find it.” Up until about 7 or 8 months old, the only tools I used were treats, a clicker, a whistle, and a check cord (a long training leash). If she didn’t respond correctly to a cue while we were doing field work, I would just wait and try again when I knew I had her attention, chase her down and get her attention back, or sometimes end the session and try again later. I would train her in locations that were safe and away from roads in case I lost track of her temporarily.

Here’s where the e-collar came in for me. Hunting season was starting soon, and once Malia was actually out in the field hunting, I would need tighter control because she would be exposed to a lot more hazards. At this point, she knew the meaning of all her field cues and was reliable about 70% of the time, which is great for a young dog! But not good enough to be able to actually take her hunting with me. For example, I often hunt near roads, so I needed to make sure that she wouldn’t chase a rabbit into oncoming traffic. I would also be introducing my hawk into the equation and needed to be able to stop Malia should she try to run in on him while he’s on a rabbit (that could end up traumatizing the hawk or getting both of them hurt). So I began introducing the e-collar into our training regime.

I started with the vibrate and tone function. If I said “come” and she ignored me, I would vibrate. This would confuse her and get her attention, at which point I could repeat the cue, usually with better response. The vibrate obviously didn’t hurt, but she didn’t like the feeling either. It could also pair the vibrate with an “ah-ah” or “no,” so that she learned to recognize the vibrate as a warning. I taught her that the tone (a beep emitted by the collar) meant come by beeping the collar and then saying “come,” and rewarding her.

Once she learned what the tone and the vibrate meant, I began introducing low level electric stimulation in the field if she ignored a cue. Sometimes she would get too excited if a rabbit busted out and she just HAD to chase it. No treat I could offer her is better than chasing a rabbit. So if I wanted to call her off the chase I would beep the collar to tell her to come. If she kept running, I would vibrate it. If that didn’t stop her, I would give a low shock. I would start on the lowest setting (she can’t even feel the first 5 levels) and slowly increased the setting until she noticed it enough to stop chasing. I could do the same thing when telling her to heel. If she started to wander off, I’d vibrate it. If she wandered off again, low level shock (it feels similar to when you shock yourself on a static rug or balloon). I very rarely had to go past the low levels to get her attention back on me. After a few days, she knew that the vibrate was a warning before a shock, and it was often enough to stop any undesirable behavior.

By the time she was 10 months old, hunting season had begun and I felt comfortable taking her into the field with my hawk, confident that I had enough control over her to protect her from danger and teach her how to cooperate with the hawk. I knew that I could stop her from running onto roads in case of an emergency, or from trying to steal food from my birds. And she knew that she had a job to do while out in the field. Hunting was still her favorite thing in the world, but, unlike her young puppy days, it wasn’t just all fun and games anymore. In order to hunt, she needed to stay focused on me and respond to my cues.

This is the method I chose to use. It may or may not have been the best method for her, and it certainly isn’t the only way to do it. This isn’t me telling others how they should train their dogs, I’m just sharing how I did it in case others would like to know. She is my first hunting dog (first dog at all, actually), so I’m learning by trial and error. It seems to be working well for her so far, but she’s still got a lot to learn!

Stained Glass Eyes

Note: I’m a new fic writer! I love writing but I’m also super busy so I’m not sure how frequently I’ll get to write but I’m doing this so hopefully more often than not. Lmao also I started writing this like 2 years ago for a completely different fandom so the first few chapters (bc there will be more than one) the writing could be a little weird, I’m editing them and such but they’ll most probably be different than later chapters bc I’d like to hope that my writing has improved since then :) This is the 1st chapter, so it’s just getting things started, let me know if a part 2 is wanted!

Pairing: Lafayette x reader

Summary: (High School! AU) Lafayette and (Y/N) are seniors, and their paths only crossed under an unfortunate (and unlikely) event.

Warnings: some swearing, semi-badly translated french

Word count: 2310

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